Lasioglossum (Dialictus) lilianae,

Gardner, Joel & Gibbs, Jason, 2020, The ‘ red-tailed’ Lasioglossum (Dialictus) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) of the western Nearctic, European Journal of Taxonomy 725, pp. 1-242: 118-125

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.725.1167

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:89FA8DDF-F4B9-417A-A5AF-B2BC9660E024

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4337949

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D94D4513-8282-4448-9849-3DECFF4F1384

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:D94D4513-8282-4448-9849-3DECFF4F1384

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Lasioglossum (Dialictus) lilianae
status

sp. nov.

Lasioglossum (Dialictus) lilianae  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:D94D4513-8282-4448-9849-3DECFF4F1384

Figs 52–54View FigView FigView Fig, 90FView Fig, 102BView Fig

Diagnosis

Females of Lasioglossum lilianae  sp. nov. can be recognized by the face long (length/width ratio ~0.84), scutum very shiny and finely, sparsely punctate, especially laterally (i =1–4 pd), mesepisternum densely and distinctly punctate (i <1 pd), T1 anterior surface shiny, tomentum very dense and abundant over most of the body, T2–4 with dark spiracular spots, ocelli slightly enlarged (separated by about 0.6 OD), and of relatively large size (ITD usually> 1 mm). They are most similar to L. argammon  sp. nov. and L. eophilus  . Females of L. argammon  sp. nov. have the scutum more densely punctate laterally (i ≤ 1 pd), T1 anterior surface coriarious, and are smaller (ITD usually <1 mm). Females of L. eophilus  have the mesepisternum rugose, scutum densely punctate (i ≤ 1 pd), and mesosoma with less extensive tomentum.

Males of L. lilianae  sp. nov. can be recognized by the same characters as for females, in addition to the clypeus usually sparsely punctate (i =1–4 pd), flagellomeres relatively short (F2 about 1.5 times as long as F1 and 1.25 times as long as broad), and S5 apical margin straight. They are most similar to L. hudsoniellum  and L. arenisaltans  sp. nov. Males of L. hudsoniellum  have S5 apical margin straight and scutum more densely punctate (i=1–2 pd). Males of L. arenisaltans  sp. nov. have the flagellomeres relatively longer (F2 about 1.75 times as long as F1 and 1.5 times as long as broad), scutum more densely punctate (i ≤ 3 pd), and mesosoma and metasoma with less extensive tomentum.

Etymology

The specific epithet lilianae  is a dedication to Liliana Ramírez Freire, who collected many specimens from Nuevo Leon, and went above and beyond the call of duty to get them shipped to us. An appropriate translation would be Liliana’s sweat bee.

Material examined

Holotype

MEXICO – Sonora • ♀; 30 km E of Agua Prieta; 31.3206° N, 109.2681° W; 2 Sep. 2003; A. Romero leg.; PCYU.GoogleMaps 

[Verbatim label: Mexico: Sonora / 30km E Agua Prieta / 31°19’14”N 109°16’05”W / 02Sept 2003, A Romero / ex. Flyellow bowl / Quarry; road cross, SBV036702 // 1849A10 // HOLOTYPE / Lasioglossum (Dialictus) lilianae Gardner and Gibbs  ]

Paratypes

MEXICO – Chihuahua • 1 ♀; 6 km N of Samalayuca; [31.39° N, 106.48°W]; 29Aug. 1991; J.L. Neff leg.; ex Mentzelia multiflora  ; SEMCGoogleMaps  1 ♀; 8 km N of Samalayuca; [31.41° N, 106.48° W]; 29 Aug. 1991; T. Griswold leg.; ex Mentzelia multiflora  ; SEMCGoogleMaps  1 ♀; 8 km N of Samalayuca; [31.41° N, 106.48° W]; 29 Aug. 1991; T. Griswold leg.; ex Mentzelia multiflora  ; SEMCGoogleMaps  1 ♀; 6 km N of Samalayuca; [31.39° N, 106.48° W]; 29 Aug. 1991; J.L. Neff leg.; ex Mentzelia multiflora  ; SEMCGoogleMaps  . – Coahuila • 1 ♀; Gypsum dunes , 20 km S of Cuatrocienégas; [26.82° N, 102.15° W]; 16 Feb. 2000; R.L. Minckley leg.; RLMGoogleMaps  . – Nuevo Leon • 1 ♀; Camio al Espinazo , Mina ; [26.2° N, 101.1° W]; 703 m a.s.l.; 4 Oct. 2009; L. RamírezFreire leg.; LRFGoogleMaps  13 ♀♀; Exhacienda del Muerto, Mina ; [25.966° N, 100.647° W]; 632 m a.s.l.; 25 Jul. 2009; L. Ramírez-Freire leg.; LRFGoogleMaps  . – Sonora • 1 ♀; 30 km E of Agua Prieta; 31.32° N, 109.2717° W; 4 Sep. 2000; R. Minckley leg.; ex Mentzelia aspera  ; PCYUGoogleMaps  1 ♂; Municipio de Agua Prieta, Rancho Las Anitas , Shrub Site 4 ; 31.31389° N, 109.31417° W; 11 Aug. 2007; RLMGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Rancho Puerta Blanca , along road after main gate; [31.31° N, 109.1° W]; 14 Apr. 2007; ex Mentzelia pumila  ; RLMGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Rancho San Bernardino , Agua Verde ; 31.33068° N, 109.21° W; 28 Jul. 2004; ex Malvaceae  sp.?; RLMGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Rancho San Bernardino, quarry, along Arroyo Grande; 31.3196° N, 109.27028° W; 27 May 2004; RLMGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Rancho San Bernardino , quarry, at road crossing; 31.32042° N, 109.2681° W; 2 Sep. 2003; RLMGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Rancho San Bernardino , quarry, general area ; 31.3195° N, 109.27028° W; 17 Aug. 2001; ex Mentzelia aspera  ; RLMGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; same location as for preceding; 14 Apr. 2002; ex Mentzelia pumila  ; RLMGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same location as for preceding; 27 May 2004; RLMGoogleMaps  4 ♀♀; same location as for preceding; 13 Aug. 2007; ex Mentzelia pumila  ; RLMGoogleMaps  5 ♀♀; Rancho San Bernardino , quarry, Tai Site 1 ; 31.3194° N, 109.27142° W; 2 Sep. 2003; RLMGoogleMaps  .

UNITED STATES – Arizona • 9 ♀♀; Cochise Co., 3.2 km E of Apache; [31.69° N, 109.1° W]; 26 Jun. 1987; B.N. Danforth leg.; ex Mentzelia  ; SEMCGoogleMaps  1 ♂; Cochise Co., Railroad Ave. , 2 mi. SW of Willcox; 32.2172° N, 109.8544° W; 1275 m a.s.l.; 31 Jul. 2005; D. Yanega leg.; ex? Lepidium  ; UCRCGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Cochise Co., San Bernardino NWR; [31.34° N, 109.26° W]; 9 Jun. 2002; R.L. Minckley leg.; RLMGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Cochise Co., San Bernardino NWR , field, nr Bathroom , Bee Diversity ; 31.3411° N, 109.27048° W; 19 Jun. 2002; RLMGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; Cochise Co., San Bernardino NWR , Mesa de la Avanzada , Bee diversity ; 31.34147° N, 109.27278° W; 19 Jun. 2002; RLMGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Cochise Co., San Bernardino NWR , Shrub , nr Bathroom , Bee Diversity ; 31.34052° N, 109.27165° W; 19 Jun. 2002; RLMGoogleMaps  . – California • 1 ♀; Tulare Co., Jackson Meadow ; [37.495° N, 118.97° W]; 27 Jun. 2000; J.S. Ascher leg.; AMNHGoogleMaps  . – Colorado • 2 ♀♀; Bent Co., Caddoa ; [38.048° N, 102.97° W]; 2 Aug. 1957; C.D. Michener leg.; ex Mentzelia  ; SEMCGoogleMaps  1 ♂; Las Animas Co., Model ; 37.4702° N, 103.9712° W; 9 Jul. 2009; J. Newton leg.; PCYUGoogleMaps  . – New Mexico • 1 ♂; Lincoln Co., 22 mi. NNE of Carrizozo; 33.8461° N, 105.7825° W; 1730 m a.s.l.; 16 Sep. 1999; R. Brooks and C. Michener leg.; ex Grindelia squarrosa  ; SEMCGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀, 1 ♂; Socorro Co., Sevilleta NWR; [34.3° N, 106.8° W]; 17 Jun.–1 Jul. 2003; K. Wetherill leg.; PCYUGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same location as for preceding; 12–26 Jul. 2005; K. Wetherill leg.; PCYUGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same location as for preceding; 10–24 Sep. 2002; K. Wetherill leg.; PCYUGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same location as for preceding; 26 Jul. 2001; K. Wetherill leg.; PCYUGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same location as for preceding; 5–19 Oct. 2004; K. Wetherill leg.; PCYUGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same location as for preceding; 18 Jun.–2 Jul. 2002; K. Wetherill leg.; PCYUGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same location as for preceding; 15–29 Jul. 2003; K. Wetherill leg.; PCYUGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Torrance Co., Town of Gran Quivira ; [34.27° N, 106.1° W]; 9 Aug. 1965; Hugh B. Leech leg.; CASGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; Santa Fe ; [35.69° N, 105.94° W]; 19 Jul. 1952; R.H. and L.D. Beamer, LaBerge and C. Liang leg.; SEMCGoogleMaps  . – Texas • 1 ♀; Mitchell Co., Lake Colorado St. Park ; [32.33° N, 100.93° W]; 26 Jul. 1976; ex Mentzelia nuda  ; LACMGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; Mitchell Co., Tex. Rd. 670; [32.3° N, 101.0075° W]; 27 Jul. 1976; ex Mentzelia nuda  ; LACMGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Ward Co., 5.5 mi. E of Monahans; 31.605° N, 102.845° W; 15 Jun. 2005; J. Neff and A. Hook leg.; ex Mentzelia strictissima  ; PCYUGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same location as for preceding; 15 Jun. 2005; J. Neff and A. Hook leg.; ex Mentzelia strictissima  ; PCYUGoogleMaps  . – Utah • 1 ♀; Emery Co., South Temple Wash , San Rafael Reef ; [38.65° N, 110.67° W]; 1615 m a.s.l.; 4 Jun. 1984; F.D. and A. Parker leg.; BBSLGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same location as for preceding; 4 Jun. 1984; F.D. and A. Parker leg.; CUICGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Emery Co., Wild Horse Creek N of Goblin Valley; [38.57° N, 110.82° W]; 1494 m a.s.l.; 25–28 Jul. 1983; Parker and Griswold leg.; BBSLGoogleMaps  .

Description

Female

COLOURATION. Head and mesosoma blue-green; clypeus apical colour reddish brown to orange; labrum orange; mandible orange with black basal spot and red tip; flagellum reddish brown dorsally, orange ventrally; pronotal lobe orange; metasoma orange with discs of T3–4 red to dark brown and dark spiracular spots on T2–4; legs orange with coxae, trochanters, and femora reddish brown; tegula pale amber; wing membrane hyaline, veins pale amber to brown.

PUBESCENCE. Body hair colour white. Tomentum dense on paraocular area, frons, vertex, gena, pronotal collar and lobe, space between pronotal lobe and tegula, scutum lateral and posterior margins, metanotum medially, hypoepimeron, metepisternum, T1 laterally, T2–3 basolaterally, and T4 throughout; sparse on preëpisternum and mesepisternum. Scutum hair thin to moderately plumose. Wing hairs light, long or short, and dense. Acarinarial fan complete, sparse. T2 fringes sparse, T3 fringes sparse.

SURFACE SCULPTURE. Clypeus punctures large, irregularly sparse (i <3 pd), interspersed with scattered minute punctures, sculpture shiny; supraclypeal area punctures dense (i ≤ 1 pd), somewhat sparser medially (i= 1–2 pd), sculpture shiny; paraocular area punctures dense (i <1 pd), sculpture imbricate around antenna socket, otherwise shiny; frons punctures dense (i <1 pd), sculpture shiny; vertex punctures fine, moderately dense laterally (i =1–2 pd), sparse medially (i=1–4 pd), sculpture shiny; gena punctures fine, moderately dense (i=1–2 pd), sculpture shiny; postgena sculpture shiny, weakly imbricate laterad of hypostomal carina; tegula punctures absent; scutum punctures moderately dense (i =1–2 pd), becoming sparse submedially and anteriorly (i=1–4 pd), sometimes minute, sculpture shiny, sometimes becoming weakly tessellate anteromedially; scutellum punctures dense marginally and on median line (i <1 pd), sometimes finer and sparser anteriorly (i=1–2 pd), sparse submedially (i =1–3 pd), diversopunctate, sculpture shiny; metanotum sculpture shiny and finely, densely punctate (i <1 pd), becoming weakly rugulose laterally; metapostnotum rugae strong or weak, anastomosing, not reaching margin, sculpture tessellate; preëpisternum sculpture areolate-rugulose; hypoepimeron punctures dense (i ≤ 1 pd) to crowded (i=0 pd), sculpture shiny; mesepisternum punctures dense (i <1 pd) to crowded (i =0 pd), sculpture shiny; metepisternum sculpture ruguloso-lineate dorsally, imbricate ventrally; propodeum lateral face sculpture tessellate; propodeum posterior face sculpture tessellate; T1 anterior face sculpture shiny; T1 dorsal surface punctures moderately sparse (i=1–3 pd), absent or very sparse in large apicolateral oval patches, sculpture shiny; T2 disc punctures moderately sparse (i=1–3 pd), disc sculpture shiny, rim punctures sparse (i=1–4 pd), rim sculpture shiny.

STRUCTURE. Face length/width ratio 0.84 (± 0.03 SD). Clypeus projecting ~67% below suborbital tangent; clypeal area length/width ratio 0.44 (± 0.03 SD); apicolateral denticles rounded knobs; supraclypeal area length/width ratio 0.78 (± 0.04 SD). Ocelli separated by about 0.6 OD. Forewing with 3 submarginal cells; pronotal angle obtuse; tegula shape normal. Intertegular distance 1.09 (± 0.07 SD) mm. Scutum length/width ratio 0.83 (± 0.03 SD); scutum/scutellum length ratio 2.95 (± 0.16 SD); scutellum/ metanotum length ratio 1.56 (± 0.12 SD); metanotum/metapostnotum length ratio 0.71 (± 0.06 SD). Propodeum lateral carinae not reaching dorsal margin; oblique carina absent. T2 depressed apical rim length less than 50% of segment. (n=10)

Male

COLOURATION. Head and mesosoma blue-green to golden-green; clypeus apical colour reddish brown to orange; labrum reddish brown to orange; mandible orange with black basal spot and red tip; flagellum reddish brown dorsally, orange ventrally; pronotal lobe reddish brown to orange; metasoma orange with dark spiracular spots on T2–4, to black with rims of terga and sterna and downcurved lateral areas of terga broadly translucent yellow; legs black to reddish brown with femur-tibia joints, tarsi, and sometimes tibiae orange; tegula orange; wing membrane hyaline, veins with subcosta dark brown, otherwise brown to pale amber.

PUBESCENCE. Body hair colour white. Tomentum dense on face below eye emargination except clypeus, gena, pronotal angle and lobe, space between pronotal lobe and tegula, metanotum, episterna, T1 laterally, T2–3 basolaterally, and T4–5 throughout; sparse on clypeus, and mesonotum. Scutum hair densely plumose. Sterna hair short (0.75–1.5 OD), densely plumose, dense and erect. Wing hairs light, short and dense.

SURFACE SCULPTURE. Clypeus punctures sparse (i= 1–4 pd), sculpture shiny; supraclypeal area punctures dense to moderately dense (i ≤ 2 pd), sculpture shiny; paraocular area punctures dense (i <1 pd), sculpture shiny; frons punctures dense (i <1 pd), sculpture shiny; vertex punctures moderately dense (i=1–2 pd), sometimes fine and sparse medially (i=1–4 pd), sculpture shiny; gena punctures moderately dense (i= 1–2 pd), sculpture shiny; postgena sculpture shiny to weakly imbricate; tegula punctures absent; scutum punctures sparse (i=1–4 pd), sometimes becoming moderately dense marginally and on median line (i =1–2 pd), sculpture shiny; scutellum punctures sparse (i=1–3 pd), sometimes becoming dense marginally and on median line (i ≤ 1 pd), sculpture shiny; metanotum sculpture shiny and moderately densely punctate (i=1–2 pd); metapostnotum rugae strong or weak, anastomosing or subparallel, not reaching margin, sculpture shiny to weakly imbricate; preëpisternum sculpture areolaterugulose; hypoepimeron punctures crowded (i= 0 pd), sculpture shiny; mesepisternum punctures dense (i ≤ 1 pd), sculpture shiny; metepisternum sculpture lineate dorsally, areolate ventrally; propodeum lateral face punctures moderately dense (i=1–2 pd), often obscure, sculpture shiny to imbricate and weakly rugulose; propodeum posterior face sculpture shiny; T1 anterior face sculpture shiny; T1 dorsal surface punctures dense to moderately sparse (i ≤ 3 pd), sculpture shiny; T2 disc punctures dense to moderately dense (i ≤ 2 pd), disc sculpture shiny, rim punctures sparse (i=1–3 pd), sometimes absent apically, rim sculpture shiny.

STRUCTURE. Face length/width ratio 0.89 (± 0.03 SD). F1:pedicel length ratio 1.01 (± 0.09 SD); F2:F1 length ratio 1.52 (± 0.13 SD); F2 length/width ratio 1.25 (± 0.07 SD); F9 length/width ratio 1.16 (± 0.13 SD). Forewing with 3 submarginal cells; pronotal angle obtuse; tegula shape normal. Intertegular distance 1.02 (± 0.14 SD) mm. Scutum length/width ratio 0.82 (± 0.06 SD); scutum/scutellum length ratio 2.71 (± 0.11 SD); scutellum/metanotum length ratio 1.66 (± 0.12 SD); metanotum/metapostnotum length ratio 0.71 (± 0.05 SD). Propodeum lateral carinae not reaching dorsal margin; oblique carina absent. (n =8)

GENITALIA. As in Fig. 90FView Fig. Gonocoxite broad, rounded. Gonostylus long, distinctly narrowed basally, with a few long hairs. Retrorse lobe very broad, ovoid, covered in sparse short hairs.

Range

Chihuahuan Desert of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon, north to Colorado and Utah ( Fig. 54View Fig).

Floral records

ASTERACEAE Giseke  : Grindelia  : G. squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal  LOASACEAE Juss.  Mentzelia  L. M. aspera  L. • M. multiflora (Nutt.) A.Gray  M. nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A.Gray  M. pumila Torr. & A. Gray  M. strictissima (Wooton & Standl.) J. Darl. 

DNA barcodes

Five sequences available (BOLD process IDs: BOWGF2054-10, DIAL1429-09, DIAL1435-09, DLII762-07, DLII1468-08; BINs: BOLD:AAF3975, BOLD:ABY5037). There is a moderate amount of divergence within these sequences (maximum p-distance 2.29%). No unique fixed substitutions distinguish L. lilianae  sp. nov. from all other western red-tailed L. ( Dialictus  ).

Remarks

Lasioglossum lilianae  sp. nov. is most commonly found in the Chihuahuan Desert, but has a fairly wide distribution beyond it. An extreme outlier specimen from Jackson Meadow, Tulare County, California, however, may be a labeling error. All other known specimens are from much lower elevation deserts or arid grasslands.

Out of 32 specimens from 13 distinct collection events for which the host plant was recorded, all were collected from Mentzelia  species except for three (two of which are males). Out of 13 specimens with full pollen loads, 12 appeared to be pure Mentzelia  based on visual examination, and assuming that the host plant recorded on the label is an accurate indicator of the identity of the pollen. The thirteenth specimen appeared to have a pure load of large-grained Cactaceae  or Malvaceae  ; the host plant of this specimen (collected from South Temple Wash, Utah, and deposited in CUIC) was not recorded. This species may be oligolectic on Mentzelia  ; if so, it would be the first known instance of pollen specialization in L. ( Dialictus  ).

Lasioglossum lilianae  sp. nov. may also be active at dawn or dusk, as indicated by the slightly enlarged ocelli. Several species of Mentzelia  , including some which L. lilianae  sp. nov. has been recorded visiting, have blooms which open in late afternoon or evening and stay open into the night ( Smyth 1897; Glad 1975; Brown & Kaul 1981; Keeler 1981; Holmgren & Holmgren 2002). An alternative explanation is that L. lilianae  sp. nov. is not oligolectic, but is most active in late afternoon, and incidentally collects Mentzelia  pollen because it is the most abundant food source at that time.

UCRC

USA, California, Riverside, University of California

AMNH

USA, New York, New York, American Museum of Natural History

CAS

USA, California, San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences

LACM

USA, California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History

BBSL

BBSL

CUIC

USA, New York, Ithaca, Cornell University

SEMC

University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute

UCRC

University of California, Riverside