Lasioglossum (Dialictus) spivakae,

Gardner, Joel & Gibbs, Jason, 2020, The ‘ red-tailed’ Lasioglossum (Dialictus) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) of the western Nearctic, European Journal of Taxonomy 725, pp. 1-242: 180-186

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.725.1167

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:89FA8DDF-F4B9-417A-A5AF-B2BC9660E024

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4337963

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/CECDA0EF-D202-45AB-8358-ADC1585CCA15

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:CECDA0EF-D202-45AB-8358-ADC1585CCA15

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Lasioglossum (Dialictus) spivakae
status

sp. nov.

Lasioglossum (Dialictus) spivakae  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:CECDA0EF-D202-45AB-8358-ADC1585CCA15

Figs 78– 80View FigView FigView Fig, 90NView Fig

Diagnosis

Females of Lasioglossum spivakae  sp. nov. can be recognized by their small size (about 4 mm), face, hypoepimeron, and mesepisternum shiny with uniformly large and dense punctures (i <1 pd), scutum densely punctate except for small sparsely punctate areas just mesad of the parapsidal lines (i=1–2 pd), metasomal terga with tomentum sparse or absent except on T4–5, pronotal angle obtuse, T2 without dark spiracular spots, T1–3 usually red-orange with distinct, sharply delineated dark bands on T1 and T3, and T4–5 redddish brown to black. They are most similar to L. hudsoniellum  and L. perditum  sp. nov. Females of L. hudsoniellum  have T1–5 with dense tomentum, scutum uniformly punctate, pronotal angle nearly 90 degrees, and metasoma orange to black but not distinctly banded. Females of L. perditum  sp. nov. have the head and mesosoma sparsely punctate (i=1–6 pd) and metasoma redorange without distinct bands.

Males of L. spivakae  sp. nov. can be recognized by their small size (about 4 mm), T1–3 uniformly shiny and moderately sparsely punctate (i =1–2 pd) with no change in sculpture across the premarginal line, mesepisternum densely punctate (i ≤ 1 pd), flagellomeres relatively short (F2 about 1.4 times as long as F1 and 1.25 times as long as broad), and metasoma all black. They are most similar to L. perditum  sp. nov. and L. imbriumbrae  sp. nov. Males of L. perditum  sp. nov. have T1–3 rims more sparsely and less distinctly punctate than discs, T4–5 with sparser tomentum, and flagellomeres relatively longer (F2 about 1.75 times as long as F1 and 1.4 times as long as broad). Males of L. imbriumbrae  sp. nov. have T1–3 rims impunctate, metasomal terga with sparse tomentum, and metasoma usually partially reddish brown to orange.

Etymology

The specific epithet spivakae  is a dedication to Marla Spivak, in recognition of her accomplishments as head of the University of Minnesota Bee Lab and her support during the lead author’s years of work there. It is applied to this particular species because of the typical colour pattern of the female metasoma, which resembles that of a honey bee. An appropriate translation would be Spivak’s sweat bee.

Material examined

Holotype

UNITED STATES – Utah • ♀; Uintah Co., 15 mi. S of Roosevelt; 40.0834° N, 109.9781° W; 15 May 2012; S. C. Clark leg.; BBSL.

[Verbatim label: USA:UT Uintah Co. 15 mi. S of Roosevelt 12 587123E 4437512N 15 May 2012 S.C. Clark Pantrap, white / UBU-3 T-13 / BBSL821375 // BOLD / gard0142-UT / DLIII165-19 // HOLOTYPE / Lasioglossum (Dialictus) spivakae Gardner and Gibbs  ]

GoogleMaps 

Paratypes

UNITED STATES – Arizona • 2 ♀♀; Mojave Co., 11 mi. N of Mt. Trumbull; [36.56° N, 113.14° W]; 9 Jun. 1994; G. Bryant leg.; ex Argemone  ; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; 24 mi. W of Cameron; [35.87° N, 111.84° W]; 3 Jul. 1952; R.H. and L.D. Beamer, C. Weiner, A. Wolf, C. Liang and W. LaBerge leg.; SEMC.GoogleMaps  – Colorado • 1♀; Fremont Co., 6 mi. NE of Florence; [38.45° N, 105.04° W]; 11 Aug. 1964; J. G., B. L. and K.C. Rozen leg.; AMNH •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Mesa Co., 5.5 air mi. ESE of De Beque; 39.3605° N, 108.3134° W; 1725 m a.s.l.; 10 May 2012; J. Florez leg.; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; same location as for preceding; 27 Apr. 2012; J. Florez leg.; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; same location as for preceding; 4 May 2012; J. Florez leg.; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Mesa Co., 5.58 air mi. ESE of De Beque; 39.3597° N, 108.3127° W; 1727 m a.s.l.; 4 May 2012; J. Florez leg.; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Mesa Co., 0.3 air mi. S of Pyramid Rock; 39.3043° N, 108.2703° W; 1534 m a.s.l.; 8 May 2012; J. Florez leg.; BBSL •GoogleMaps  35 ♀♀; Mesa Co.; 39.1019° N, 108.7376° W; 3–4 Aug. 2011; WRME •GoogleMaps  8 ♀♀; Mesa Co.; 39.0295° N, 108.6276° W; 3–4 Aug. 2011; WRME •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Mesa Co.; 39.1019° N, 108.7376° W; 15–16 Jun. 2011; WRME •GoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; Mesa Co.; 39.0295° N, 108.6276° W; 15–16 Jun. 2011; WRME •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Mesa Co.; 39.1019° N, 108.7376° W; 25–26 May 2011; WRME •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Mesa Co.; 39.0295° N, 108.6276° W; 25–26 May 2011; WRME •GoogleMaps  4 ♀♀; Mesa Co.; 39.1019° N, 108.7376° W; 24–25 Aug. 2011; WRME •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Mesa Co.; 39.0295° N, 108.6276° W; 24–25 Aug. 2011; WRME.GoogleMaps  Nevada  • 4 ♀♀; Clark Co., 0.9 mi. E Indian Ridge; 36.4765° N, 115.6351° W; 1396 m a.s.l.; 16 Jun. 2004; E. Ahlstrom leg.; ex Sphenosciadium capitellatum  ; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Clark Co., 1.4 mi. E of Mule Spr.; 36.0313° N, 115.5553° W; 2 Jun. 2005; S. Higbee leg.; ex Fallugia paradoxa  ; PCYU •GoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; Clark Co., 2.7 mi. SE of Horse Sprs.; 36.2704° N, 115.8531° W; 1535 m a.s.l.; 27 Aug. 2004; E. Rentz leg.; ex Stephanomeria pauciflora  ; BBSL •GoogleMaps  5 ♀♀; same location as for preceding; 21 Jul. 2004; S. Higbee leg.; ex Stanleya pinnata  ; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Clark Co., 16.91 mi. SE of Devils Hole Hills; 36.2433° N, 115.8991° W; 20 Jun. 2005; R. Andrus leg.; ex Stanleya  sp.; PCYU •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Clark Co., Peek-A-Boo Canyon ; 36.5326° N, 115.1117° W; 1760 m a.s.l.; 16 Aug. 2004; S. Higbee leg.; ex Eriogonum cernuum  ; BBSL •GoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; Clark Co., Trout Canyon ; 36.1519° N, 115.7211° W; 1474 m a.s.l.; 28 Jul. 2004; S. Higbee leg.; ex Eriogonum deflexum  ; BBSL •GoogleMaps  3 ♀♀; same location as for preceding; 28 Jul. 2004; D. Skandilis leg.; ex Eriogonum deflexum  ; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; same location as for preceding; 28 Jul. 2004; E. Ahlstrom leg.; ex Eriogonum deflexum  ; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; same location as for preceding; 28 Jul. 2004; E. Ahlstrom leg.; ex Eriogonum deflexum  ; PCYU •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Clark Co., Willow Creek Campground, Charleston Mountains ; [36.43° N, 115.77° W]; 14 Jul. 1977; R.O. Schuster leg.; UCDC.GoogleMaps  – Texas • 2 ♀♀, 10 ♂♂; Jeff Davis Co., 0.5 mi. S of Kent; [31.06° N, 104.22° W]; 29 May 1999; L. Packer leg.; PCYU.GoogleMaps  – Utah • 1 ♀; Emery Co., 9 km N of Goblin Valley St. Pk.; [38.65° N, 110.7° W]; 1360 m a.s.l.; 14 Aug. 1992; D. Yanega leg.; SEMC •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Emery Co., 1 air km SE of Gilson Butte; 38.587° N, 110.5922° W; 1558 m a.s.l.; 16 Jun. 2000; F.D. Parker leg.; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Garfield Co., 1.7 mi. WSW of Pioneer Mesa; 37.7876° N, 111.1682° W; 6 May 2002; S. Higbee leg.; ex Mahonia fremontii  ; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Kane Co., 1 mi. W of Wagon Box Mesa, nr 2A99; [37.82° N, 111.09° W]; 26 May 2000; R. Andrus leg.; ex Purshia mexicana  ; PCYU •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Kane Co., Croton Canyon  ; [37.2° N, 111.3° W]; 6 Jun. 2000; J. Grixti leg.; ex Tamarix  sp.; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; same location as for preceding; 4 Jun. 2000; O. Messinger leg.; ex Tamarix  sp.; PCYU •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Uintah Co., 15 mi. SW of Fort Duchesne; 40.0918° N, 109.914° W; 11 May 2012; S. C. Clark leg.; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Uintah Co., Johnson Draw; 39.7619° N, 109.697° W; 1819 m a.s.l.; 15 May 2011; M. Lewis leg.; ex Hesperidanthus suffrutescens  ; BBSL •GoogleMaps  1 ♀; Wayne Co., 2 mi. W of Caineville; [38.33° N, 111.06° W]; 28 Jun. 1999; L. Packer leg.; PCYU.GoogleMaps 

Description

Female

COLOURATION. Head and mesosoma blue to olive green; clypeus apical colour reddish brown to orange; labrum reddish brown to orange; mandible orange with black basal spot and red tip; flagellum reddish brown dorsally, light brown ventrally; pronotal lobe reddish brown; metasoma orange with base of T1, median band on T3, and T4–5 entirely brown, dark spiracular spots on T3–4; legs reddish brown with femur-tibia joints and tarsi mostly orange; tegula pale amber to brown; wing membrane hyaline, veins with subcosta brown, otherwise pale amber to light brown.

PUBESCENCE. Body hair colour white. Tomentum dense on gena, pronotal collar and lobe, space between pronotal lobe and tegula, and T4–5; sparse on T3 apicolaterally. Scutum hair thin to slightly densely plumose. Wing hairs dark or light, short and dense. Acarinarial fan complete or incomplete, very sparse. T2 fringes sparse, T3 fringes sparse.

SURFACE SCULPTURE. Clypeus punctures dense on basal margin (i ≤ 1 pd), large and irregularly sparse apically (i <3 pd), sculpture shiny; supraclypeal area punctures sparse (i=1–3 pd), sculpture shiny; paraocular area punctures dense (i ≤ 1 pd), sculpture shiny; frons punctures dense (i <1 pd), sculpture shiny; vertex punctures dense laterally (i <1 pd), sparse medially (i= 1–2 pd), sculpture shiny; gena punctures dense (i ≤ 1 pd), sculpture shiny; postgena sculpture shiny, becoming weakly ruguloso-lineate to imbricate adjacent to hypostomal carina; tegula punctures absent; scutum punctures dense (i <1 pd), becoming sparse submedially and anteromedially (i =1–2 pd), sculpture tessellate, becoming shiny laterally and posteriorly; scutellum punctures dense marginally and on median line (i <1 pd), sparse submedially (i=1–3 pd), sculpture imbricate marginally, shiny medially; metanotum sculpture imbricate; metapostnotum rugae strong, highly anastomosing, nearly reaching margin, sculpture imbricate; preëpisternum sculpture reticulate-punctate; hypoepimeron punctures crowded (i=0 pd), sculpture shiny, sometimes ruguloso-punctate; mesepisternum punctures crowded (i =0 pd), sculpture shiny, sometimes weakly reticulate; metepisternum sculpture lineate dorsally, rugulose medially, shiny with crowded punctures ventrally (i= 0 pd); propodeum lateral face sculpture ruguloso-punctate anteriorly, becoming tessellate posteriorly; propodeum posterior face sculpture tessellate; T1 anterior face sculpture shiny; T1 dorsal surface punctures sparse (i=1–3 pd), impunctate in large apicolateral oval patches, sculpture shiny; T2 disc punctures dense (i ≤ 1 pd), sparse or impunctate in small apicolateral oval patches, disc sculpture shiny, rim punctures fine, sparse (i= 1–3 pd), rim sculpture shiny.

STRUCTURE. Face length/width ratio 0.87 (± 0.03 SD). Clypeus projecting ~67% below suborbital tangent; clypeal area length/width ratio 0.39 (± 0.02 SD); apicolateral denticles low rounded knobs; supraclypeal area length/width ratio 0.65 (± 0.04 SD). Forewing with 3 submarginal cells; pronotal angle obtuse; tegula shape normal. Intertegular distance 0.73 (± 0.06 SD) mm. Scutum length/width ratio 0.82 (± 0.04 SD); scutum/scutellum length ratio 2.89 (± 0.27 SD); scutellum/metanotum length ratio 1.69 (± 0.16 SD); metanotum/metapostnotum length ratio 0.63 (± 0.05 SD). Propodeum lateral carinae not reaching dorsal margin; oblique carina absent. T2 depressed apical rim length less than 50% of segment. (n=10)

Male

COLOURATION. Head and mesosoma blue; clypeus apical colour reddish brown; labrum reddish brown; mandible orange with black base and red tip; flagellum reddish brown dorsally, light brown ventrally; pronotal lobe reddish brown; metasoma black with rims of T3–5 and downcurved lateral areas of terga narrowly reddish brown, becoming transparent; legs dark reddish brown with tarsi light yellow-brown; tegula brown; wing membrane hyaline, veins with subcosta dark brown, otherwise light brown to pale amber.

PUBESCENCE. Body hair colour white. Tomentum dense on face below ocelli, gena, pronotal collar and lobe, space between pronotal lobe and tegula, T2–3 basolaterally, and T4–5 throughout; sparse on thorax throughout, T1 laterally, T6, and rims of T1–3 laterally. Scutum hair moderately plumose. Sterna hair short (0.5–1.5 OD), densely plumose, dense and erect. Wing hairs light, short and sparse.

SURFACE SCULPTURE. Clypeus punctures dense (i <1 pd), sculpture shiny; supraclypeal area punctures dense (i <1 pd), sculpture shiny; paraocular area punctures dense (i <1 pd), sculpture shiny; frons punctures dense (i <1 pd), sculpture shiny; vertex punctures dense laterally (i <1 pd), moderately sparse medially (i =1–2 pd), sculpture shiny; gena punctures dense (i <1 pd), sculpture shiny; postgena sculpture shiny, becoming rugulose laterad of hypostomal carina and posteriorly; tegula punctures absent; scutum punctures dense (i ≤ 1 pd), becoming sparse submedially (i =1–3 pd), sculpture shiny; scutellum punctures dense marginally and on median line (i ≤ 1 pd), sparse submedially (i= 1–3 pd), sculpture shiny; metanotum sculpture shiny and finely, moderately sparsely punctate (i =1–2 pd); metapostnotum rugae strong, anastomosing, reaching or nearly reaching margin, sculpture shiny, sometimes weakly imbricate posteriorly; preëpisternum sculpture shiny with crowded punctures (i=0 pd); hypoepimeron punctures crowded (i=0 pd), sculpture shiny; mesepisternum punctures dense (i ≤ 1 pd), sculpture shiny; metepisternum sculpture lineate dorsally, reticulate-punctate ventrally; propodeum lateral face punctures crowded (i=0 pd), becoming slightly sparser posteroventrally (i <1 pd), sculpture imbricate, becoming ruguloso-punctate on dorsolateral slope; propodeum posterior face sculpture imbricate and densely punctate laterally (i <1 pd), becoming shiny and sparsely punctate medially (i=1–3 pd); T1 anterior face sculpture shiny; T1 dorsal surface punctures moderately sparse (i=1–2 pd), sparse in large apicolateral oval patches (i =2–4 pd), sculpture shiny; T2 disc punctures moderately sparse (i =1–2 pd), disc sculpture shiny, rim punctures moderately sparse (i =1–2 pd), rim sculpture shiny.

STRUCTURE. Face length/width ratio 0.88 (± 0.02 SD). F1:pedicel length ratio 1.3 (± 1.09 SD); F2:F1 length ratio 1.41 (± 0.41 SD); F2 length/width ratio 1.23 (± 0.07 SD); F9 length/width ratio 1.09 (± 0.08 SD). Forewing with 3 submarginal cells; pronotal angle obtuse; tegula shape normal. Intertegular distance 0.77 (± 0.03 SD) mm. Scutum length/width ratio 0.8 (± 0.02 SD); scutum/scutellum length ratio 3.15 (± 0.4 SD); scutellum/metanotum length ratio 1.45 (± 0.3 SD); metanotum/metapostnotum length ratio 0.73 (± 0.07 SD). Propodeum lateral carinae not reaching dorsal margin; oblique carina absent. (n=10)

GENITALIA. As in Fig. 90NView Fig. Gonocoxite broad apically, narrowed at base. Gonostylus very long, attached subapically, with a few short hairs. Retrorse lobe relatively narrow, spatulate, covered with sparse short hairs apically.

Range

Western Colorado south to western Texas, west to Nevada  ( Fig. 80View Fig).

Floral records

APIACEAE Lindl.  Sphenosciadium A.Gray  : S. capitellatum A.Gray  ASTERACEAE Giseke  : Stephanomeria  : S. pauciflora (Torr.) A. Nelson  BERBERIDACEAE Juss.  Mahonia Nutt.  M. fremontii (Torr.) Fedde  BRASSICACEAE Burnett  : Hesperidanthus (B.L. Rob.) Rydb.  H. suffrutescens (Rollins) Al-Shehbaz  Stanleya Nutt.  S. pinnata (Pursh) Britton  PAPAVERACEAE Juss.  Argemone L.  POLYGONACEAE Juss.  Eriogonum Michx.  E. cernuum Nutt.  E. deflexum Torr.  ROSACEAE Juss.  Fallugia Endl.  F. paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr.  Purshia DC. ex Poir.  P. mexicana (D. Don) Henr.  TAMARICACEAE Link  : Tamarix L. 

DNA barcodes

Five sequences available (BOLD process IDs: DLIII100-18, DLIII165-19, DLIII166-19, DLIII167-19, LASNA021-08; BIN: BOLD:AAI1288). There is a small amount of divergence within these sequences

(maximum p-distance 0.66%). Lasioglossum spivakae  sp. nov. differs from all other western red-tailed L. ( Dialictus  ) by 3 fixed substitutions: 87(T), 142(A), and 144(T) (Supplementary file 4).

Remarks

There is some variation in the length of the face in L. spivakae  sp. nov. A single specimen from Mojave County, Arizona, has an especially narrow and elongate head (face length/width ratio 0.95) with the postgena distinctly concave, but most specimens have a face length/width ratio closer to 0.85 and a normal postgena.

SEMC

USA, Kansas, Lawrence, University of Kansas, Snow Entomological Museum

AMNH

USA, New York, New York, American Museum of Natural History

PCYU

PCYU

UCDC

USA, California, Davis, University of California, R.M. Bohart Museum of Entomology

SEMC

University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute

UCDC

R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology