Citrogramma clarum (Herve-Bazin, 1923)

Mengual, Ximo, 2012, The flower fly genus Citrogramma Vockeroth (Diptera: Syrphidae): illustrated revision with descriptions of new species, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 164 (1), pp. 99-172 : 136-137

publication ID 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00750.x

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scientific name

Citrogramma clarum



Olbiosyrphus clarus Hervé-Bazin, 1923a: 25 . Lectotype: ♂, MNHN, here designated. Type locality: Vietnam: Chapa, here restricted by lectotype designation. Hervé-Bazin, 1923a: 25, 1923b: 290, 1926: 67, figs 1, 2, and 3. Frey 1946: 163.

Syrphus clarus of Curran, 1928: 198, 1931a: 313, 1931b: 350.

Xanthogramma fasciatum Shiraki, 1930: 410 syn. nov. Shiraki, 1930: 402, 410, fig. 94; Hull, 1949: 290.

Citrogramma clarum of Vockeroth, 1969: 95; Knutson et al., 1975: 311; Wyatt, 1991: 155, 158; Ghorpadé, 1994: 9.

Xanthogramma fasciata of Knutson et al., 1975: 320.

Geographical distribution: Vietnam, Thailand, Borneo ( Curran, 1931b; Vockeroth, 1969; Knutson et al., 1975), Philippines ( Frey, 1946; Knutson et al., 1975), Taiwan, Java, Malay Peninsula (Pahang). Previous authors cited this species from the Philippines and Borneo, but I have not studied any specimen from these localities. Curran (1931b) studied three males from Mt Kinabalu that he identified as Syrphus clarus . One of these males is deposited at BMNH and it is identified here as C. amarilla Mengual sp. nov.

Differential diagnosis: Species very similar to C. sp. B of Wyatt (1991), but with a different wing microtrichia pattern ( Figs 133, 134 View Figures 131–139 ). It has the wing microtrichose except cell R bare on basoanterior half until the furca of cell R 2+3 and cell BM with small bare area very close to anterior margin. Male of C. clarum has a broad angle between eyes, approximately 115° or more, and two yellow maculae on tergum 5. Citrogramma clarum females have usually a yellow fascia on abdominal tergum 2 ( Fig. 77 View Figures 76–87 ), and they differ from the ones of C. amarilla and C. matsumurai by having small bare wing areas, and from females of C. luteifrons and C. chola (immature, light coloured specimens) by no black hairs on notopleuron or supra-alar area and also with some bare areas in the wing. Females of C. frederici differ by having frons yellow with a medial orange macula and pro- and mesotarsus dark.

Wyatt (1991) stated in his key that C. clarum has scutum with a central submetallic area divided into three distinct vittae. The scutum of C. clarum is black, with a lateral broad yellow vitta. The central black scutum has submetallic bluish iridescence with a sublateral matte black vitta, but the central submetallic area is uniform and not divided into vittae.

Remarks: In his original description, Hervé-Bazin (1923a) gave a short diagnosis of his new species, Olbiosyrphus clarus , based on material from Laos, Tonkin ( Vietnam) and Java. In 1926, Hervé-Bazin redescribed this species, providing more details about adult morphology and included three figures (habitus, head, and pleuron), and the type material. His illustrations showed perfectly the abdominal pattern and coloration of legs, pleuron pattern, and, the most diagnostic character, the angle between eyes ( Fig. 74 View Figures 63–75 ). He designated a male type from Chapa, Tonkin (now Vietnam) collected on, and designated a male cotype from the same location (Chapa, 11.vii.1918) and three more male cotypes from Laos (Louang-Prabang, 12.ii.1915; Nan-Long, 28.iv.1918; Dang-Hé, 29.iv.1918). He also mentioned in his collection another male from Java in poor condition.

Hervé-Bazin (1926) did not designate a holotype. Amongst the type material at the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France), there is a male labelled: ‘ Chapa / 8–6–16 ’ [handwritten] ‘ Olbiosyrphus / clarus / Hervé-Bazin/ Type ♂ ’ [blue, handwritten] ‘ LECTOTYPE / Citrogramma / clarum /det. X. Mengual 20 10 ’ [second and third lines handwritten]. This specimen is here designated lectotype to fix and ensure the universal and consistent interpretation of the name. The name of the collector is not written on any label, but in his paper, Hervé-Bazin (1923a) pointed out that all specimens were collected by M.R. Vitalis de Salvaza.

At the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle ( Paris , France), are the type specimen from Chapa (= Sa Pa ) collected on 8.vii.1916, plus three more males from Nan-Long , Dang-Hé and Java. The other two males from Chapa (11.vii.1918) and Louang- Prabang were not found. From this type series, only the currently designated lectotype male from Chapa (8.vii.1916) is truly C. clarum , matching the original description and illustrations of Hervé-Bazin. The other three males key out to C. amarilla Mengual sp. nov .

Xanthogramma fasciatum was described by Shiraki originally from Taiwan based on a single female and male ( Shiraki, 1930). After the study of the type material, there is no doubt that these specimens belong to the genus Citrogramma based on head morphology, scutellar fringe, and pilose metasternum. The type material of X. fasciatum Shiraki and C. clarum (Hervé-Bazin) do not have morphological differences. Thus, I synonymize here X. fasciatum with C. clarum following the Principle of Priority (Article 23 of ICZN, 1999).

Type locality: Vietnam: Lao Cai Province (in Vietnamese, Lào Cai), Sa Pa District ( Sapa , English spelling), Sa Pa (also spelt Chapa ), 22°20′N, 103°50′E GoogleMaps .

Material examined: Type material. Lectotype, as above.

Nontype material. TAIWAN: Rakuraku, 11.ix.1924. T . Shiraki, J. Sonan. ‘ Xanthogramma fasciatum n. sp. Det. T . Shiraki’, ‘ Type’ [1♀, NIAS]; Kosempo, i.1918, Col. T . Shiraki. ‘ Xanthogramma fasciatum n. sp. Det. T . Shiraki’, ‘ Type’ [1♂, NIAS]; THAILAND [as Siam]: Ban Pa Pae , 770 m, 23.xii.1932, Hugh M. Smith [2♂ 4♀, USNM]; INDONESIA: Java, Gunung Bentang, iii.1938, E. le Moult [1♀, BMNH]; MALAYSIA: Pahang, Cameron Highlands, Rhododendron Hill , 5200 ft,, H.M. Pendlebury [1♀, BMNH] .


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Citrogramma clarum

Mengual, Ximo 2012

Xanthogramma fasciata

Knutson LV & Thompson FC & Vockeroth JR 1975: 320

Citrogramma clarum

Ghorpade K 1994: 9
Wyatt NP 1991: 155
Knutson LV & Thompson FC & Vockeroth JR 1975: 311
Vockeroth JR 1969: 95

Xanthogramma fasciatum

Hull FM 1949: 290
Shiraki T 1930: 410
Shiraki T 1930: 402

Syrphus clarus

Curran CH 1931: 313
Curran CH 1931: 350
Curran CH 1928: 198

Olbiosyrphus clarus Hervé-Bazin, 1923a: 25

Frey R 1946: 163
Herve-Bazin J 1926: 67
Herve-Bazin J 1923: 25
Herve-Bazin J 1923: 25
Herve-Bazin J 1923: 290