Antecerococcus ruber (Balachowsky),

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams, 2016, (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Coccomorpha) with particular reference to species from the Afrotropical, western Palaearctic and western Oriental Regions, with the revival of Antecerococcus Green and description of a new genus and fifteen new species, and with ten new synonomies, Zootaxa 4091 (1), pp. 1-175: 113-115

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Antecerococcus ruber (Balachowsky)

comb. nov.

Antecerococcus ruber (Balachowsky)  , comb. nov.

( Fig. 43View FIGURE 43)

Cerococcus ruber Balachowsky 1930: 203–206, 215  .

Type details. TUNISIA, Bordj-Bou-Hedma, on Rantherium suaveolens  (misspelling of Rhanterium  ), -. iv. 1929, C. Dumont. Depositories: MNHN: lectotype 1 / 1 adf (here designated —see note below) + paralectotype adf: (MNHN, slide 4868 - 3; lectotype marked by an arrow): 1 / 2 adff, Paralectotype adff: as previous: (all MNHN, 19 slides: slide 4868 - 1: 1 / 2 adff; slide 4868 - 2: 1 / 2 adff; slide 4868 - 4: 1 / 1 adf; slide 4868 - 5: 1 / 2 adff; slide 4868 - 6: 1 / 2 adff; slide 4868 - 7: 1 / 3 adff; slide 4868 - 8: 1 / 3 adff; slide 4868 - 9: 2 adff; slide 4868 - 10: 1 / 2 adff; slide 4868 - 11: 1 / 2 adff; slide 4868 - 12: 1 / 2 adff; slide 4868 - 13: 1 / 2 adff: slide 4868 - 14: 1 / 3 adff; slide 4868 - 15: 1 / 3 adff; slide 4868 - 16: 1 / 4 adff; slide 4868 - 17: 1 / 2 adff: slide 4868 - 18: 1 / 1 adff; slide 4868 - 19: first-instar nymphs). BMNH: 1 wooden slide labelled C. ruber  , on Rantherium (Rhanterium) suaveolens  , Tunisia, -. iv. 1929, Dumont coll., cotype on sleeve and paratype in blue ink on slide label: 1 / 1 paralectotype adf. USNM data as for lectotype but with host plant spelt Rhantherium and dated March 1929: 1 / 3 paralectotype adff; also as previous but no date: 1 / 1 paralectotype adf (gp) + 1 paralectotype slide with 19 first-instar nymphs. Note that Balachowsky (1930) misspelled the host-plant genus.

Note: although Lambdin and Kosztarab (1977, p. 205) state that they studied paratypes, no holotype was designated by Balachowsky (Daniele Matile, pers. comm., April 2015) and, although the original description refers to " Type: in coll. St. ent. de Paris", it reports a range of adult female body lengths, implying that more than one specimen was measured, and describes the first-instar nymph. Thus, we consider all type specimens (adult and nymphs) in the NMHN to be syntypes and therefore have designated a lectotype.

Material studied. Paralectotypes: TUNISIA, Bordj-bou-Hedma, on Rhanterium suaveolens  ( Asteraceae  ), -. iv. 1929, M.C. Dumont (MNHN): 2 / 3 adff (f –g). Also: as previous but no date (USNM): 1 / 3 adff (f –g).

Mounted material. Body roundly pear-shaped, about as wide as long; large, 2.8–3.35 mm long, 2.35–2.62 mm wide.

Dorsum. Eight-shaped pores of 2 sizes, both with a particularly large central open pore: (i) largest pores, each 12 x 7 µm, restricted to 1–4 within apical group of each stigmatic pore band; none present laterally on posterior abdominal segments; and (ii) only slightly smaller intermediate-sized pores. each 10 x 6 µm, evenly distributed throughout rest of dorsum but becoming smaller on posterior abdominal segments, down to 6.5–7.5 x 4 µm. Simple pores small, each 2–3 µm wide, sparse. Cribriform plates absent, replaced by a pair of elongate, slightly sclerotized, areas submedially on abdominal segment IV, from each of which emerge 4 long thin internal tubules, each 400–520 µm long, with a slightly swollen apex; with 2 tubules emerging from each anterior margin and 2 from each posterior margin. Dorsal setae few, each setose showing nothing distinctive. Tubular ducts with each outer ductule 28–30 µm long, inner ductules quite short; outer ductules only slightly broader than those on venter; abundant throughout. Anal lobes with quite wide areas of sclerotization on each inner margin, without obvious folding; setae as follows: apical seta all broken; dorsal fleshy setae somewhat bent; more basal setae each 28–33 µm long, more apical setae each 18–23 µm long; ventral setose setae near apex each 35–40 µm long; medioventral setae long, each 33–40 µm long; anteroventral setae absent; outer margin setae each 12–17 µm long; each lobe with two 8 -shaped pores. Median anal plate narrow, pointed, apex usually bifid; 35–45 µm long and 25–30 µm wide at base. Anal ring with 4 pairs of setae, each about 70 µm long.

Venter. Eight-shaped pores of intermediate size, approximately same size as those on dorsum, each 10 x 6 µm, in a narrow marginal band on head and thorax and in sparse segmental bands 1 pore wide across anterior abdominal segments. Simple pores sparse. Small bilocular pores roundish, each about 5 x 4 µm, frequent medially on head and thorax. Spiracular disc-pores each 4–5 µm wide with mainly 5 loculi; with distinct groups near each peritreme; anterior stigmatic band with a total of 70–90 pores; posteriorly represented only by posterior branch with a total of 70–80 pores but anterior branch represented by a few (2–17) pores extending anterolaterally; each band with 0–4 large 8 -shaped pores associated with apex of each band; also with 9–18 pores in a group between each spiracle and associated leg stub; plus 7–12 pores associated with each antenna, extending both medially and laterally; also in a transverse band across metathorax (see below) and in groups medially: 0–3 near anterior margins of clypeolabral shield, a group of 8–13 medially posterior to labium, and 0–9 medially on mesothorax. Small convex closed pores absent. Multilocular disc-pores, each 6.5–7.5 µm wide with mainly 10 loculi, in transverse bands up to 3 pores wide across abdomen as follows: IX 0; VIII a total of 28–35 around ventral margin of anal ring; VII 4–7 in submarginal group + 4–13 more medially on each side of vulva; VI 5–14 submarginally + 36–58 medially; V 7–11 submarginally + 57–97 medially; IV 7–18 submarginally + 86–140 medially; III 11–20 submarginally + 86–124 medially, and II 3–17 marginally and 55–59 medially; metathorax with mainly 5 -locular disc-pores, with 8–12 laterad to each leg stub and 21–23 medially. Tubular ducts very slightly narrower than those on dorsum, present throughout. Ventral setae showing nothing distinctive; preanal setae each 80–88 µm long; smaller companion seta 25–27 µm long. Leg stubs small. Antennae unsegmented, each 45–50 µm long, 40–45 µm wide, with 6–8 fleshy setae; each antenna without either a conical point on apex or a setal cavity. Clypeolabral shield large, 185 long. Spiracular peritremes each 45–50 µm wide.

Comment. Adult females of A. ruber  are unique in possessing the strange structure described above which occurs in the position of the cribriform plates in other Antecerococcus  species. Initially, it was assumed that the tubules were the remains of parasitoid oviposition sites. However, it became clear that, as they were morphologically identical and in exactly the same position on all specimens, and because typical cribriform plates were missing, they must be structures belonging to this species. The function of these tubules is unknown but is presumably similar to that of typical cribriform plates, which also is unknown.

The above description differs significantly from that in Lambdin and Kosztarab (1977). The latter authors make no mention of the elongate tubules. In addition, they make no mention of 5 -locular pores: (i) between the spiracles and the pro- and mesothoracic leg stubs or (ii) medially on mesothorax (although only present on one specimen), but they did record two groups of pores near the clypeolabral shield but we rarely found the anterior group. They also described the largest dorsal 8 -shaped pores as being “near the spiracular furrows” but, in our specimens, they are actually within the apical group.

The adult female of A. ruber  has the following combination of character-states: (i) dorsum with two sizes of 8 - shaped pores, each slightly different in size and shape; (ii) each 8 -shaped pore with a large open pore between the lateral closed pores; (iii) largest pores present within apices of each stigmatic band; (iv) margins of posterior abdominal segments without large 8 -shaped pores; (v) each group of cribriform plates replaced by four long internal tubules arising from a sclerotized area of derm on each side of abdominal segment IV; (vi) leg stubs present; (vii) posterior stigmatic pore band not bifurcated, but with a partial anterior branch; (viii) multilocular disc-pores in broad transverse bands across all abdominal segments, and unusually abundant on segment VIII; (ix) loculate pores with mainly 5 -loculi in a band across metathorax; (x) quinquelocular disc-pores also present between each spiracle and associated leg stub; (xi) quinquelocular disc-pores also present associated with clypeolabral shield, and (xii) antennae without either a cone-like apex or a setal cavity.

The adult female of A. ruber  falls within Group A in the key to species of Antecerococcus  but is rather different from all other species in this genus.