Zischkaia saundersii ( Butler, 1867 ), Butler, 1867

Nakahara, Shinichi, Zacca, Thamara, Dias, Fernando M. S., Dolibaina, Diego R., Xiao, Lei, Espeland, Marianne, Casagrande, Mirna M., Mielke, Olaf H. H., Lamas, Gerardo, Huertas, Blanca, Kleckner, Kaylin & Willmott, Keith R., 2019, Revision of the poorly known Neotropical butterfly genus Zischkaia Forster, 1964 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), with descriptions of nine new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 551, pp. 1-67: 46-49

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.551

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C3C851C3-0F12-412C-A15B-56F0F263CD00

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3477374

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F587B3-FFB7-FFBF-070F-F8831490FBEC

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Zischkaia saundersii ( Butler, 1867 )
status

 

Zischkaia saundersii ( Butler, 1867)  

Figs 1 View Fig , 3 View Fig A–D, 5 View Fig A, 7 View Fig A–B, 8 View Fig B, 10 View Fig D–F, 13 View Fig – 14 View Fig

Euptychia saundersii Butler, 1867a: 500   , pl. XL, fig. 17 (type locality: Ega [= Tefé]).

Euptychia saundersii – Butler 1868: 38   ; 1877: 120. — Kirby 1871: 55; 1879: 132. — Weymer 1911: 213. — Riley & Gabriel 1924: 52. — Gaede 1931: 464. — Forster 1964: 117.

Euptychia saundersi   [sic] – D’Abrera 1988: 781.

Zischkaia saundersii – Robbins et al. 1996: 232   . — Lamas & Grados [1997]: 58. — Lamas 2004: 223.

Type material examined

Lectotype (here designated)

BRAZIL • ♀; “ // Ega [Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil], U[pper]. Amazon[a]s [River]. H[enry]. W[alter]. Bates.// Godman-Salvin Coll[ection]. 1904. – 1. Euptychia saundersi   [sic], Butl[er].// Euptychia saundersii Butler Monog   [raph]./ type // SYN-TYPE// saundersii/ ♀ Ega// BMNH(E) 1718073//”; NHMUK.

Paralectotypes

BRAZIL • 1 ♂; “ // B.M. TYPE No. Rh. 3248 Euptychia saundersi   [sic] ♂ Butl[er].// Pernambuco. [Brazil]. Pres[ented]. by Mrs Smith 45 – 70// Euptychia saundersii Butler Monog   [raph].// Type / Euptychia saundersii Butler   ♂ //SYN-TYPE// Pernambuco [, Brazil]/ 45 70// BMNH(E): 1267094// NHMUK 010247986 View Materials //”; NHMUK   1 ♀; “ // Pernambuco [, Brazil]. Pres [ented]. By Mrs Smith 45 – 70.// Pernambuco / 45 70// BMNH(E) 1718070//”; NHMUK   .

Other material examined (13 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀)

BRAZIL – Maranhão • 1 ♂; Feira Nova do Maranhão, 26 km E of Fazenda Forquilha dos Brejos ; [6°59′12.7”S 46°25′47.4”W]; 13–16 Apr. 2011; Mielke & Casagrande leg.; DZ-38159; DZUP GoogleMaps   . – Pará • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Santarém ; [2°26′ S, 54°43′ W]; Oct. 1884; H.H. Smith leg.; BMNH(E)-1718071 to BMNH(E)-1718072; NHMUK GoogleMaps   . – Pernambuco • 1 ♂; PLT saundersii   ; BMNH(E)-1267094; NHMUK   . – Rondônia • 1 ♂; Porto Velho, Caiçara ; 150 m; 10 Sep. 2012; ZUEC   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 8 Oct. 2013; ZUEC. – Not located   2 ♂♂; ‘ Brazil’; ZSM   .

PERU – Huánuco • 1 ♂; Cordillera del Sira ; [9°25′ S, 74°45′ W]; 1380 m; Sep. 1987 – Aug. 1988; Exp. Universidad Viena leg.; MUSM-LEP-105654; MUSM GoogleMaps   . – Madre de Dios • 1 ♀; Parque Manu, Pakitza ; [11°55′48″ S, 71°15′18″ W]; 340 m; 5 Oct. 1991; M.M. Casagrande leg.; MUSM-LEP-105657; MUSM GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 14 Oct. 1991; H. Lamas leg.; DZ-37029; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding but 15 Oct. 1991; Mielke leg.; DZ-36969; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 340–400 m; 13 Oct. 1991; M.M. Casagrande leg.; DZ-36649; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding but 14 Oct. 1991; DZ-5580; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 15 Oct. 1991; DZ-5579; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 9 Oct. 1991; Mielke leg.; DZ-21221; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 15 Oct. 1991; R.K. Robbins; DZ-36619; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 400 m; 18 Oct. 1990; G. Lamas leg.; MUSM-LEP-105656; MUSM GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 14 Oct. 1990; R.K. Robbins leg.; MUSM-LEP-105655; MUSM GoogleMaps   .

Identification and taxonomy

Zischkaia saundersii   is distinguished from other species in the “ saundersii   clade” by the metallic silvery blue shading between the submedian line and the marginal line on the VHW. However, although not as prominent as in Z. saundersii   , similar VHW shading, sometimes somewhat purplish, may be seen in the three new species described below. For this reason, in addition to color, which can fade over time, the following genitalic characters enable confident identification of this species with respect to the three other species in the “ saundersii   clade” (see diagnosis of “ pacarus   clade” for genitalic characters to distinguish Z. saundersii   from species in that clade): 1) the ‘bulb’-like projection of the tegumen is rather small, pointing posteriorly (larger in Z. mielkeorum   sp. nov. and Z. warreni   sp. nov.); 2) the apical process of the valva is somewhat narrow and pointing upwards in lateral view (more or less straight in Z. mielkeorum   sp. nov. and Z. warreni   sp. nov.); the signa are long, extending almost the entire length of the corpus bursae (shorter in Z. mielkeorum   sp. nov. and Z. warreni   sp. nov.).

Euptychia saundersii   was described by Butler (1867a) based on an unspecified number of specimens from Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil, in the collection of Bates, and an unstated locality in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Three likely syntypes were located at the NHMUK, based on the information provided in the original description. The illustration provided in the orginal description ( Butler 1867a: pl. XL, fig. 17) clearly shows a specimen with a silvery blue shading between the VHW submedian line and marginal line. Furthermore, the description by Butler (1867a: 500) of Z. saundersii   was also based on a specimen with these VHW markings: “Upper wings brown, with two fine and indistinct marginal lines: body grayish-brown, antennae rusty-brown. Lower wings paler, with a violet tinge, the apical area of the HW with a greenish or violet tinge, with two dark brown central lines, diverging near the FW costa, the distalmost [of these two lines] somewhat angled [curved] in the middle of the HW [should be the FW], with the margin narrowly darker, the marginal and submarginal lines narrow and dark brown; HW with five oval ocelli and rarely with one tiny apical [ocellus], the first and fifth the smallest, black, ringed with brown, surrounded by dark brown and with tiny silver pupils; body dark grey-brown”. The description and illustration closely match a female syntype from Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil ( BMNH (E) 1718073), and because of the possibility that the type series contains several taxa, as discussed further below, we designate this specimen as the lectotype of Euptychia saundersii Butler, 1867   (lectotype designation). The syntype male from Pernambuco figured in Warren et al. (2018), which has the characteristic handwritten label “ Euptychia saundersii Butler Monog   [raph].”, does not possess the VHW grayish shading of the lectotype. We examined the distal side of the valva of this syntype, which appears to be more or less straight, as in Z. mielkeorum   sp. nov. and Z. warreni   sp. nov. (see Fig. 5 View Fig ). Thus, the male syntype from Pernambuco is most likely not conspecific with the lectotype of Z. saundersii   , and the taxonomic status of this specimen requires further investigation. If the male specimen from Pernambuco is correctly labeled, then the origin of the female syntype from Pernambuco is also questionable, given that this specimen does have silvery blue shading between the VHW submedian line and marginal line, as in the Amazonian lectotype. Clearly, reliably labeled material from Pernambuco is needed to clarify the presence of this species, or other Zischkaia   taxa, in that region.

Variation

The size of the ocellus in VHW Rs-M 1 is variable, ranging from being almost absent to clearly visible.

Distribution ( Fig. 14 View Fig )

This species is reliably known from the Amazon basin, in the states of Rondônia, Pará and Maranhão, Brazil, and the departments of Huánuco and Madre de Dios, Peru. The apparently conflicting phenotypes of the two known specimens labeled as from Pernambuco, Brazil (discussed further above) makes the presence of this species in that region uncertain and requiring confirmation.

Remarks

A male specimen from Maranhão, Brazil (DZ 38.159) phenotypically resembles Z. saundersii   from the Amazon basin except for the VHW metallic silvery blue shading between the submedian line and marginal line being somewhat paler. The genitalia of this male from Maranhão are identical to Z. saundersii   from the Amazon basin, in particular in the apical process of the valva being somewhat narrow and pointing upwards in lateral view. This character separates Z. saundersii   from two other closely related species ( Z. mielkeorum   sp. nov. and Z. warreni   sp. nov.), so we regard this specimen from Maranhão as Z. saundersii   in the absence of further information.

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

ZUEC

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas

ZSM

Bavarian State Collection of Zoology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Nymphalidae

Genus

Zischkaia

Loc

Zischkaia saundersii ( Butler, 1867 )

Nakahara, Shinichi, Zacca, Thamara, Dias, Fernando M. S., Dolibaina, Diego R., Xiao, Lei, Espeland, Marianne, Casagrande, Mirna M., Mielke, Olaf H. H., Lamas, Gerardo, Huertas, Blanca, Kleckner, Kaylin & Willmott, Keith R. 2019
2019
Loc

Zischkaia saundersii –

Lamas G. 2004: 223
Lamas G. & Grados J. 1997: 58
Robbins R. K. & Lamas G. & Mielke O. H. H. & Harvey D. J. & Casagrande M. M. 1996: 232
1996
Loc

Euptychia saundersi

D'Abrera B. 1988: 781
1988
Loc

Euptychia saundersii –

Forster W. 1964: 117
Gaede M. 1931: 464
Riley N. D. & Gabriel A. G. 1924: 52
Weymer G. 1911: 213
Kirby W. F. 1879: 132
Butler A. G. 1877: 120
Kirby W. F. 1871: 55
Butler A. G. 1868: 38
1868
Loc

Euptychia saundersii Butler, 1867a: 500

Butler A. G. 1867: 500
1867