Zischkaia pacarus (Godart, [1824]), (Godart, [1824]), 1824

Nakahara, Shinichi, Zacca, Thamara, Dias, Fernando M. S., Dolibaina, Diego R., Xiao, Lei, Espeland, Marianne, Casagrande, Mirna M., Mielke, Olaf H. H., Lamas, Gerardo, Huertas, Blanca, Kleckner, Kaylin & Willmott, Keith R., 2019, Revision of the poorly known Neotropical butterfly genus Zischkaia Forster, 1964 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), with descriptions of nine new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 551, pp. 1-67: 38-44

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.551

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C3C851C3-0F12-412C-A15B-56F0F263CD00

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3477378

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F587B3-FFBF-FFA4-070F-FD711435FD92

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Zischkaia pacarus (Godart, [1824])
status

 

Zischkaia pacarus (Godart, [1824])  

Figs 1 View Fig , 2 View Fig S–V, 4 View Fig G, 6 View Fig G–H, 8 View Fig A, 10 View Fig A–C, 11 View Fig , 12 View Fig A–D, 14 View Fig

Satyrus pacarus Godart   , [1824]: 465, 495 (type locality: Brazil).

Euptychia fumata Butler, 1867b: 109   , pl. 12, fig. 14 (type locality: “Rio Grande”).

Neonympha pacarus – Westwood 1851: 375   .

Euptychia pacarus – Butler 1867a: 501   ; 1868: 38; 1877: 120. — Kirby 1871: 55. — Gaede 1931: 458. — Weymer 1911: 213. — D’Abrera 1988: 789.

Euptychia fumata – Butler 1867a: 501   , nomen nudum.

Euptychia fumata – Butler 1868: 38   ; 1877: 120. — Kirby 1871: 55; 1879: 134. — Weymer 1911: 213. — Riley & Gabriel 1924: 22. — Gaede 1931: 446. — Miller 1968: 95. — D’Abrera 1988: 789.

Zischkaia fumata – Forster 1964: 116–118   , fig. 123 (the description date of the name was mistakenly given as “1857”). — Brown 1992: 152, fig. 49. — Mielke & Casagrande 1998: 976. — Brown & Freitas 2000: 105.

Zischkaia pacarus – Mielke 1995: 772   . — Lamas 2004: 223, syn.: fumata Butler, 1867   . — Emery et al. 2006: 90. — Beccaloni et al. 2008: 346. — Carneiro et al. 2008: 264. — Peña et al. 2010: 248, 250–251, 253. — Dolibaina et al. 2011: 350. — Silva et al. 2015: 6.

Type material examined

Neotype (here designated)

BRAZIL • ♂; “ // BRASIL, PARANÁ, TUNEIRAS DO OESTE, REBIO [Reserva Biológica] DAS PEROBAS, 23° 50” 49”S 52° 44” 18” W, 8-X-2012 LABLEP [ Laboratório de Estudos de Lepidoptera Neotropical, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal   do Paraná] LEG.// BC-DZ Willmott 246// DZ 36.998//”; DZUP.  

Lectotype (here designated)

BRAZIL • ♂; “(// Rio Grande [do Sul, Brazil] Hewitson coll[ection]. 79-69 Euptychia Fumata, Butl   [er]. 2.// BM TYPE No. Rh 3251 Euptychia fumata   ♂ Butl[er].// Type // BMNH(E) 1267093//”; NHMUK.  

Other material examined (87 ♂♂, 50 ♀♀)

ARGENTINA – Misiones • 2 ♂♂; Apr. 1927; I. Heider leg.; BMNH(E)-10247985, BMNH(E)-10430700; NHMUK   1 ♀; El Dorado; [26°23′ S, 54°40′ W]; ZSM GoogleMaps   1 ♂; Loreto; [27°19′ S, 55°32′ W]; Oct. 1956; W. Forster leg.; ZSM GoogleMaps   .

BOLIVIA – Not located   1 ♂; “Torochila” [perhaps representing “Jorochito”]; Garlepp leg.; 1890; MNHU   .

BRAZIL – Bahia • 1 ♂; Una, Reserva Biológica de Una ; [15°10′38″ S, 39°6′20″ W]; G.M. Accácio leg.; ZUEC GoogleMaps   . – Espírito Santo • 1 ♂; Fruhstorfer leg.; BMNH(E)-1205412; NHMUK   . – Minas Gerais • 1 ♀; S of Minas Gerais ; BMNH(E)-1718052; NHMUK   2 ♀♀; Carangola, Serra Rio Glória, Sítio Boa Vista ; [20°43′44″ S, 42°3′27″ W]; 600–800 m; Dec. 1950; Ebert leg.; DZ-36529, DZ-36549; DZUP GoogleMaps   4 ♂♂; Porto Real ; [20°11′ S, 45°43′ W]; BMNH(E)-1718043 to BMNH(E)-1718045, BMNH(E)-1718056; NHMUK GoogleMaps   2 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; BMNH(E)-1718050 to BMNH(E)-1718051; NHMUK GoogleMaps   1 ♂; San [São] Jacinto ; [17°51′ S, 41°30′ W]; Nov. 1907; F. Birch leg.; BMNH(E)-1718042; NHMUK GoogleMaps   . – Paraná • 1 ♂; BMNH(E)-1205411]; NHMUK   1 ♀; BMNH(E)-1718062; NHMUK   1 ♂; Balsa Nova, São Luís do Purunã ; 1000 m; 8 Apr. 2006; Beltrami and Selusniaki leg.; DZ-36643; DZUP   1 ♂; Campo Mourão, ( Justus ); Jan. 1952; DZ-36861; DZUP   5 ♂♂; Candói, Santa Clara ; [25°37′ S, 51°59′ W]; 21 Nov. 1986; O.H.H. Mielke and M.M. Casagrande leg.; DZ-36589, DZ-36633, DZ-36831, DZ-36891, DZ-5575; DZUP GoogleMaps   2 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; DZ-36851, DZ- 36991; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂, 1 ♀; Castro ; [24°47′ S, 50°1′ W]; 950 m; E.D. Jones leg.; BMNH(E)-1718058, BMNH(E)-1718055; NHMUK GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but collector unknown; BMNH(E)-1718041; NHMUK GoogleMaps   2 ♂♂; Chopinzinho ; [25°51′ S, 52°30′ W]; 1 Mar. 1970; E. Furtado leg.; DZ-36971, DZ-37031; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; Foz do Iguaçu ; [25°30′ S, 53°48′ W]; Mar. 1952; Justus leg.; DZ-37021; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; Iguazu ; 24 Jan. 1922; BMNH(E)-1718057; NHMUK   1 ♀; Londrina ; [23°19′ S, 51°10′ W]; 25 Oct. 1985; O.H.H. Mielke and M.M. Casagrande leg.; DZ-37041; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♀; Ponta Grossa ; [25°6′ S, 50°10′ W]; Nov. 1956; Justus leg.; DZ-36821; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♀; Vila Velha ; [25°8′ S, 49°58′ W]; 900 m; 16 Mar. 1972; Mielke leg.; DZ-36841; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♀; 7 Mar. 1973; DZ- 36981; DZUP   1 ♀; Lapa, Rio de Várzea ; [25°46′ S, 49°43′ W]; Feb. 1938; Pohl leg.; MZSP GoogleMaps   1 ♀; Tibagi, Parque Estadual do Guartelá , [24°33′59″ S, 50°15′25″ W]; 1000 m; 11–12 Feb. 2016; D. Dolibaina, E. Carneiro and A. Warren leg.; DD-374 GoogleMaps   6 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; Tuneiras do Oeste , Reserva Biológica das Perobas; [23°50′49″ S, 52°44′18″ W]; (‘LELN UFPR’); 6 Oct. 2012; DZ-36498, DZ-36728, DZ- 36858, DZ-36918, DZ-36939, DZ-36949, DZ-36778, DZ-36909, DZ-36919, DZ-36959; DZUP GoogleMaps   4 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but 8 Oct. 2012; DZ-36708, DZ-36929, DZ-36989, DZ- 37039, DZ-36588, DZ-36999; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; [23°53′ S, 52°44′ W; 578 m; 6 Oct. 2012; G. Lamas leg.; MUSM GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 8 Oct. 2012; MUSM GoogleMaps   1 ♂; Turvo, Britador ; [25°2′11″ S, 51°32′8″ W]; 1000 m; 19 Feb. 2010; D. Dolibaina and A. Warren leg.; DD-303 GoogleMaps   1 ♂, 1 ♀; Turvo, Salto do Paulinho Rickli ; [25°3′59″ S, 51°31′8″ W]; 1050 m; 15 Mar. 2009; D. Dolibaina leg.; DD-301 to DD-302 GoogleMaps   4 ♂♂, 1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding but 7 Feb. 2016; D. Dolibaina and Warren leg.; DD-369 to DD-373 GoogleMaps   . – Rio Grande do Sul • 1 ♀; 1890; Mabilde leg.; MNHU   1 ♀; Elsenau [Panambi]; Dec. 1904; ZSM   3 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Campo Novo ; 9 Nov. 1985; Araújo, O.H.H. Mielke and M.M. Casagrande leg.; DZ-36781, DZ-36941, DZ-36951, DZ-36741, DZ-36751; DZUP   2 ♀♀; Derrubadas, Parque Florestal Estadual do Turvo ; [27°13′58″ S, 53°51′5″ W]; 10 Nov. 1985; O.H.H. Mielke, Araújo, and M.M. Casagrande leg.; DZ-36761, DZ-36811; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♀; Pelotas ; [31°45′ S, 52°22′ W]; 15 Oct. 1953; C.M. Biezanko leg.; DZ-36931; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; 28 Feb. 1961; AMNH   1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; 11 Mar. 1961; USNM   1 ♂; 25 Nov. 1961; AMNH   1 ♂; 12 Dec. 1961; USNM   1 ♀; 22 Mar. 1964; AMNH   1 ♂; 13 Feb. 1966; V. Becker leg.; DZ-36801; DZUP   1 ♀; 6 Nov. 1961; C.M. Biezanko leg.; ZSM   1 ♂; 7 Nov. 1966; ZSM   1 ♂; 7 Nov. 1966; DZ-36971; DZUP   1 ♂; 3 Mar. 1967; DZ-36791; DZUP   1 ♂; 7 Mar. 1970; DZ-21207; DZUP   . – Santa Catarina   • 1 ♂; Wernicke leg.; ZSM   1 ♂; Rio Capivary [Capivari]; 1883; Fruhstorfer leg.; BMNH(E)-1718059; NHMUK   1 ♀; ridge between Joinville and Itajaí, Tajú ; [26°34′26″ S, 48°44′51″ W]; Apr.; Schmid leg.; DZ-36881; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but Feb.; DZ-37001; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; Águas Mornas, Teresópolis ; [27°44′ S, 48°56′ W]; BMNH(E)-1718048; NHMUK GoogleMaps   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; Michalis leg.; BMNH(E)-1718063; NHMUK GoogleMaps   1 ♂; Blumenau ; [26°55′ S, 49°4′ W]; Fruhstorfer leg.; BMNH(E)-1205413; NHMUK GoogleMaps   1 ♀; Florianópolis, Naufragados ; 11 May 2003; E. Carneiro leg.; DZ-37011; DZUP   5 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Seara, Nova Teutonia ; [27°3′ S, 52°23′ W]; 300–500 m; Feb. 1973; F. Plaumann leg.; FLMNH-MGCL-1036000 to FLMNH-MGCL-1036005; FLMNH GoogleMaps   1 ♂; 1 Feb. 1972; F. Plaumann and O.H.H. Mielke leg.; DZ-36658; DZUP   1 ♂; Taió, Rio Taió ; [27°6′ S, 49°59′ W]; 2 Oct. 1935; Pohl leg.; MZSP GoogleMaps   1 ♀; Timbó ; [26°49′ S, 49°17′ W]; Apr. 1936; Pohl leg.; MZSP GoogleMaps   . – São Paulo • 1 ♀; Araras ; [22°19′ S, 47°58′ W]; 600 m; 17 Apr. 1966; Ebert leg.; DZ-36519; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂, 1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding but 6 Jan. 1966; DZ-36499, DZ-5577; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; Casa Branca ; [21°47′ S, 47°5′ W]; G[arbe] leg.; MNHU GoogleMaps   1 ♂ [conf]; 1893–1895; Garbe leg.; MNHU   1 ♂; Cotia, Morro Grande ; 22 Nov. 2000; K.S. Brown and A.V.L. Freitas leg.; ZUEC   1 ♂; Guararapes, Figueira ; 5 Apr. 1940; R.F. d’Almeida leg.; DZ-36509; DZUP   1 ♀; Paranapiacaba, Alto da Serra ; Feb. 1922; Spitz leg.; MZUSP-56158; MZSP   1 ♂; Rio Claro , [22°24′ S, 47°33′ W]; 600 m; 13 Apr. 1967; Ebert leg.; DZ-36911; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding but 26 May 1963; DZ-5576; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂, 1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding but 31 Dec. 1966; DZ-5578, DZ-36559; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; Rio das Cobras ; [23°7′13″ S, 46°5′44″ W]; Feb. 1942; Widerski leg.; DZ-36539; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♀; Salesópolis, Estação Biológica da Boraceía ; [23°40′ S, 45°53′ W]; 850 m; 20 Mar. 1968; Lopes leg.; MZSP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 27 Feb. 1968; Oliveira Santos leg.; MZSP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; São Paulo; [23°32′ S, 46°37′ W]; 790 m; BMNH(E)-1718047; NHMUK GoogleMaps   3 ♂♂, 1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; Garbe leg.; MZUSP-56159 to MZUSP-56162; MZSP GoogleMaps   1 ♂, 1 ♀; Teodoro Sampaio, Parque Estadual Morro do Diabo ; [22°30′ S, 52°20′ W]; 250–500 m; 15–18 Mar. 1990; O.H.H. Mielke and M.M. Casagrande leg.; DZ-36569, DZ-36579; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 15–18 Mar. 1991; DZ-36901; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂, 1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding but 20–23 Feb. 1990; DZ-36921, DZ-36613; DZUP GoogleMaps   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding but 22–23 May 1990; DZ-36771; DZUP. – No specific locality GoogleMaps   1 ♂; H. Rogers leg.; PLT fumata   ; BMNH(E)-1718068; NHMUK – Not located   1 ♂; ‘ Brazil’ ; BMNH(E)-1718046; NHMUK   1 ♂; ‘ Brazil’ ; PLT fumata   ; BMNH(E)-1718067; NHMUK   1 ♀; ‘ Brazil’ ; PLT fumata   ; BMNH(E)-1718066; NHMUK   .

PARAGUAY – Caaguazú • 1 ♂; Caaguazú ; [25°26′ S, 56°2′ W]; Apr. 1960; ZSM GoogleMaps   .

VENEZUELA – Not located   1 ♂; ‘Venezuela’, BMNH(E)-1718065; NHMUK   .

COUNTRY UNKNOWN – Not located • 1 ♂; no data; BMNH(E)-1718049; NHMUK.

Identification and taxonomy

The male of Zischkaia pacarus   is distinguishable from males of other species of Zischkaia   by the apical process of the valva being somewhat rectangular with a convex distal margin ( Fig. 4G View Fig ), whereas the apical process of the valva is somewhat triangular in other species of Zischkaia   . The female of Z. pacarus   can also be distinguished by the genitalia ( Fig. 6 View Fig G–H), namely by the sclerotized tube being one-fourth the length of the ductus bursae, whereas this sclerotized tube is reduced and restricted to the area around the ostium bursae in Z. chullachaki   sp. nov., more developed and reaching almost half the length of the ductus bursae in Z. baku   sp. nov. and Z. arenisca   sp. nov.

Godart ([1824]: 495) described Satyrus pacarus   based on a single specimen from Brazil, without any mention of the sex of this specimen. He provided a short description of the species (Godart ([1824]: 465), stating “[margin of the] wings entire, dark brown, upper side without spots; forewing under side with two darker wavy lines, hind wing under side with three [darker wavy lines], and five eyes [i.e., ocelli] having the pupil formed by silver dots.” The full description on page 495 is lengthier and more precise: “It has approximately two inches [about 5 cm] of wingspan. Its wings [margins] are entire, and dark brown in both sides. Its [wings] upper sides are without spots. Its [wings] under sides with, towards the extremity, two lines darker than the ground color. The second wings [i.e., hindwings] have a third similar line, placed transversely towards the middle, and separated from the others by a row of five round, very dark, eyes [i.e., ocelli], with a pupil formed by silver dots, and a brownish iris surrounded by a very dark circle. The first wings [forewings] have no eyes [i.e., ocelli].” (translation based on the original description of both French and Latin version). Certain phenotypic characters described by Godart, namely, no mention of the VFW ocellus (or ocelli), no ocellus (or ocelli) on the dorsal surface, the mention of two lines on the VFW and three lines on the VHW (i.e., lack of VFW submedian line), and the fact this species was allied with several other euptychiine species (e.g., Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793))   , suggest that Godart was describing a species of Zischkaia   . There is no mention of dorsal surface androconia in Godart’s description, one of the putative synapomorphic characters for the “ pacarus   clade” of Zischkaia   , and we offer two possible explanations: 1) although the specimen he examined was a male, Godart failed to perceive or did not regard as important the presence of this character; 2) the specimen examined by Godart was a female, and therefore without androconia. Given that the dorsal androconia are not well marked in Z. pacarus   , and considering that females are rarer than males, the former is perhaps the more likely. For example, Godart also did not describe the androconial patch of Calisto hysius hysius   (Godart, [1824]) (described on page 471) and Forsterinaria necys   (Godart, [1824]) (described on page 511), although males of these two species also possess dorsal wing androconial patches. There remains a possibility that Godart was describing Z. warreni   sp. nov., which also lacks a VFW submedian line and occurs in sympatry with Z. pacarus   . However, Z. warreni   sp. nov. has a much narrower geographic range and is much scarcer than Z. pacarus   in museum collections (43 specimens examined of the former species and 138 of the latter). Most likely, the holotype (fixed by monotypy, following Article 73.1.2. of the ICZN (1999)) of pacarus   should have been collected in Minas Gerais or Rio de Janeiro, where Z. warreni   sp. nov. is apparently rare (see below). Furthermore, at least some of the species described by Godart are not known or are very rare within the range of Z. warreni   sp. nov. (e.g., Godartiana byses   (Godart, [1824]), see Zacca et al. (2017), Adelpha epione   (Godart, [1824]), see Willmott (2003)), suggesting that the type of Z. pacarus   might have came from further east in southern Brazil. We therefore contend that Godart’s description most likely referred to Z. pacarus   as treated here. The holotype of S. pacarus   has not been located in any museums where specimens from Godart’s collection are usually found (e.g., MNHN; Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh ( Grimshaw 1897; Horn et al. 1990; Bland 2019)). Therefore, a male specimen deposited at the DZUP ( Fig. 2 View Fig ), which we also barcoded and included in the phylogeny ( BC-DZ 246), is designated as the neotype of Satyrus pacarus Godart   , [1824] in order to settle the nomenclature (neotype designation).

Butler (1867a) introduced the name Euptychia fumata   , but in a way that failed to fulfill Article 12.1 of the ICZN (1999), as the name was not accompanied by a description, definition, or indication of the taxon it denotes. Therefore, the name was correctly recognized as a nomen nudum by Lamas (2004). Subsequently, Butler (1867b) properly described Euptychia fumata Butler, 1867   based on an unknown number of specimens from “Rio Grande” (likely the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil) from Hewitson’s collection. Given the presence of other similar Zischkaia   species in southern Brazil, a male syntype, deposited in the NHMUK, which compares closely to the description and illustration provided by Butler (1867b), is here designated lectotype, in order to settle the nomenclature (lectotype designation). Euptychia fumata Butler, 1867   was treated as a junior subjective synonym of Z. pacarus   by Lamas (2004). Although Lamas (2004) did not provide any justification for this synonymy, the lectotype of E. fumata   , here designated, compares closely with Godart’s description of S. pacarus   and the neotype male designated above; therefore, we retain Euptychia fumata Butler, 1867   as a junior subjective synonym of Z. pacarus   .

Variation

The conspicuous dorsal androconia is variable, from being slightly to moderately marked; the VHW ocellus in Rs-M 1 is variable in terms of presence and development; the visibility of the bright silvery purple ground color between the VHW submedian line and submarginal line when seen under direct light is also apparently variable, from absent to present.

Distribution ( Fig. 14 View Fig )

This species is known from southwestern and southern Brazil to northeastern Argentina, in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina   , Rio Grande do Sul ( Brazil), in the department of Caaguazú ( Paraguay) and the province of Misiones ( Argentina). Old records from Amazon Superior, Brazil, Bolívia and Venezuela probably refer to mislabeled specimens.

Remarks

In Araucaria   forests in Paraná, adults of Z. pacarus   are found during the summer either on small and isolated or large and continuous patches of the bamboo Merostachys Spreng.   ( Poaceae   : Bambusoideae   ) ( Fig. 16A, C View Fig ). Males fly fast, up to 5 m above the ground, with several individuals engaged in patrolling flight. Females fly slowly and lower than males. Butterflies are never found away from the bamboo, and they are more active between the middle of the morning and the beginning of the afternoon. The preferred habitat of Z. pacarus   in Araucaria   forests suggests that the species likely uses Merostachys   as the caterpillar host plant. In addition, according to A.V.L Freitas (pers. comm. in Beccaloni et al. 2008), larvae feed on Bambusa   ( Poaceae   : Bambusoideae   ).

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

ZSM

Bavarian State Collection of Zoology

ZUEC

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

FLMNH

Florida Museum of Natural History

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Nymphalidae

Genus

Zischkaia

Loc

Zischkaia pacarus (Godart, [1824])

Nakahara, Shinichi, Zacca, Thamara, Dias, Fernando M. S., Dolibaina, Diego R., Xiao, Lei, Espeland, Marianne, Casagrande, Mirna M., Mielke, Olaf H. H., Lamas, Gerardo, Huertas, Blanca, Kleckner, Kaylin & Willmott, Keith R. 2019
2019
Loc

Zischkaia pacarus – Mielke 1995: 772

Silva A. R. M. & Pontes D. V. & Guimaraes M. P. & Oliveira M. V. & Assis L. T. F. & Uehara-Prado M. 2015: 6
Dolibaina D. R. & Mielke O. H. H. & Casagrande M. M. 2011: 350
Pena C. & Nylin S. & Freitas A. V. L. & Wahlberg N. 2010: 248
Beccaloni G. W. & Viloria A. L. & Hall S. K. & Robinson G. S. 2008: 346
Carneiro E. & Mielke O. H. H. & Casagrande M. M. 2008: 264
Emery E. O. & Brown Jr. K. S. & Pinheiro C. E. G. 2006: 90
Lamas G. 2004: 223
Mielke C. G. C. 1995: 772
1995
Loc

Zischkaia fumata –

Brown K. S. & Freitas A. V. L. 2000: 105
Mielke O. H. H. & Casagrande M. M. 1998: 976
Brown K. S. 1992: 152
1992
Loc

Euptychia fumata – Butler 1868: 38

D'Abrera B. 1988: 789
Miller L. D. 1968: 95
Gaede M. 1931: 446
Riley N. D. & Gabriel A. G. 1924: 22
Weymer G. 1911: 213
Kirby W. F. 1879: 134
Butler A. G. 1877: 120
Kirby W. F. 1871: 55
Butler A. G. 1868: 38
1868
Loc

Euptychia fumata Butler, 1867b: 109

Butler A. G. 1867: 109
1867
Loc

Euptychia pacarus –

D'Abrera B. 1988: 789
Gaede M. 1931: 458
Weymer G. 1911: 213
Butler A. G. 1877: 120
Kirby W. F. 1871: 55
Butler A. G. 1868: 38
Butler A. G. 1867: 501
1867
Loc

Euptychia fumata – Butler 1867a: 501

Butler A. G. 1867: 501
1867