Canarium subtilis Daly, Raharim. & Federman

Daly, Douglas C., Raharimampionona, Jeannie & Federman, Sarah, 2015, A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia 37 (2), pp. 277-345: 342

publication ID 10.5252/a2015n2a2


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Canarium subtilis Daly, Raharim. & Federman

sp. nov.

Canarium subtilis Daly, Raharim. & Federman   , sp. nov.

( Figs 1; 30 View FIG )

Small to medium-sized tree, leaves c. 2-jugate, stipules c. 3 mm long, leaflets glabrous, the apex gradually and broadly acuminate and the base symmetric, secondary veins in 6-10 pairs, the spacing decreasing toward apex and base; distinguished from C. pallidum Daly, Raharim. & Federman   , sp. nov. by the petiole 1.8-2 (vs 2.5-3.5) mm long, stipules subulate (vs ovate in C. pallidum   , sp. nov.), leaflets drying dark brown above (vs whitish-green), terminal leaflet smaller than the laterals, on leaflet adaxial surface the secondary and higher-order veins impressed (vs narrowly prominent), and inflorescence axes with sparse ascending golden hairs to 0.35 mm long and not lenticellate (vs subglabrous and with elongate lenticels).

TYPUS. — Madagascar. Toamasina, Maroantsetra, Ambinanitelo, Marovovonana , Ambodivato , 420 m, 15°18’13”S, 49°33’13”E, 21.XI.2002, P. Antilahimena, G.E. Schatz & Niovoson 1450 (holo-, NY!; iso-, MO, P[P05280197]!, TAN) GoogleMaps   .

PARATYPI. — Toamasina, Analanjirofo, Maroantsetra, Antsirabesahatany , Anjiahely , Vohitaly Forest , 600 m, 15°26’22”S, 49°32’03”E, 29.XII.2002, P. Antilahimena 1650 ( NY) GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY. — Canarium subtilis   , sp. nov. appears to be restricted to a small area near Maroantsetra. It is a modestsized tree known to date from disturbed moist forest at 420-600 m elevation. Fruiting Nov.-Dec.

ETYMOLOGY. — The specific epithet refers to the understated morphology of this taxon.


Trees, reproductive size 14-20 m × 14-40 cm diam. Leaves 16- 28 cm long, 2-jugate; petiole 1.8-2 cm long, petiole and rachis glabrous or with scattered thick appressed hairs to 0.05 mm long, also scattered elongate raised lenticels; stipules 6-10 mm from petiole insertion, c. 3 mm long, subulate, fleshy, surfaces with scattered fine appressed pale golden hairs to 0.1 mm long, scar 1.5 mm long; all lateral petiolules 6-8 mm long, terminal one 18-22 mm long, petiolules canaliculate, lateral pulvinuli conspicuous; basal leaflets 2.5-4.5 × 1.5-2.2 cm, elliptic to ovate, other laterals 4-9 × 1.7-3.2 cm, elliptic, terminal one 4.5-8.1 × 1.9-3.5 cm, oblanceolate to elliptic; leaflet apex gradually (sometimes abruptly) and broadly short-acuminate, the acumen 2-5 mm long; leaflet base symmetrical, cuneate to acute; margin flat, leaflets chartaceous, drying dark brown, glossy (at least abaxially); secondary vein framework festooned-brochidodromous, secondaries in 6-10 pairs, discolorous, nearly straight, spacing decreasing toward apex and base, angle nearly perpendicular and increasing slightly toward apex, perpendicular epimedial tertiaries (and a few intersecondaries) present; intercostal tertiaries irregularreticulate, quaternaries regular-polygonal; on abaxial side all veins narrowly prominent, surface glabrous or with scattered capitate glands; on adaxial side the midvein narrowly prominulous but sunk in a groove, rest of veins impressed, surface glabrous. Flowers unknown. Infructescences 6-9 cm long, with few fruits, axes with sparse ascending golden hairs to 0.35 mm long; fruiting pedicel 4-5 × 2-3 mm, cylindrical or slightly clavate; fruiting calyx 5-6 mm long, not cupular, the lobes 2-3 mm long. Fruits 2-2.8 × 1.9-2.4 cm, broadly ovoid to subglobose, apex obtuse or rounded, sometimes the tip apiculate, the base truncate, the surface glabrous or with scattered capitate glands, maturing fruits with scattered light-colored pustules.


Canarium subtilis   , sp. nov. is distinguished from C. manongarivum   , sp. nov. in the discussion under the latter species and from C. pallidum   , sp. nov. in the discussion under that species.


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Missouri Botanical Garden


Parc de Tsimbazaza