Canarium ferrugineum Daly, Raharim. & Federman, 2015

Daly, Douglas C., Raharimampionona, Jeannie & Federman, Sarah, 2015, A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia 37 (2), pp. 277-345 : 304-306

publication ID 10.5252/a2015n2a2

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scientific name

Canarium ferrugineum Daly, Raharim. & Federman

sp. nov.

Canarium ferrugineum Daly, Raharim. & Federman View in CoL , sp. nov.

( Figs 4 View FIG ; 13 View FIG ).

Small to medium-sized trees, leaves 2-4(5)-jugate, terminal leaflet usually (broadly) obovate, the fruits usually broadly ovoid to slightly oblongobovoid and densely lenticellate; distinguished from C. scholasticum Daly, Raharim. & Federman , sp. nov. by the stipules 1-3 (vs 5-6) mm long, leaflets chartaceous (vs coriaceous in C. scholasticum , sp. nov.), the apex usually abruptly and narrowly sharp-acuminate (vs rounded to abruptly and broadly short-acuminate), the base acute to rounded to truncate (vs cordate or less often truncate), and stamens inserted on side of ovariodisk (vs around base).

TYPUS. — Madagascar. Prov. Toamasina, W of Vavatenina, Réserve Naturelle Intégrale Zahamena, forest of Amboditamenaka , 500- 750 m elev., 17°44’S, 49°00’E, 15-20.IX.1993, S. Malcomber et al. 2574 (holo-, NY!; iso-, G, K, MO, P[P00501656]!, S, TAN, WAG). PARATYPI. — Madagascar GoogleMaps . Antsiranana, Nosy Komba, Andranobe, Nosy Be [Nossi Be], 225 m, 09.XII.1947, Bernard 1288 ( NY) . Fianarantsoa, Vatovavy-Fitovinany, Ranomafana , 21°15’S, 47°27’E, VII.1988, F. J. White 2 ( MO) GoogleMaps . Toamasina, Analanjirofo, Vavantenina, Miarinarivo , Anamborano , Savaharina , Réserve Naturelle IntégraleZahamena , 17°41’08”S, 48°59’43”E, 650 m, 12.VI.2001, S. Rakotonandrasana 486 ( NY) GoogleMaps , N of Andraratanantsoitra, Réserve Naturelle Intégrale Zahamena , 590 m, 17°43’S, 49°01’E, 14.XII.1993, L. M. Randrianjanaka & B. M. J. Arnaud 19 ( MO, NY, P[P00501655], TAN) GoogleMaps .

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY. — Canarium ferrugineum , sp. nov. is known from Ranomafana National Park in the south to Andasibe and Moramanga in central Madagascar, north to Zahamena Reserve and Marojejy, as well as within the Sambirano region. It occurs in wet forest on steep slopes with discontinuous canopy, also moist lowland forest, submontane forest, and rarely sublittoral forest, between (100) 550-950 m elevation. Known to flower Dec. and to fruit most of the year. Eaten by Varecia lemurs (White 2).

ETYMOLOGY. — The specific epithet refers to the distinctly rusty pubescence on the abaxial leaflet surface.

USES. — Wood used to make pirogues (canoes).


Trees, reproductive height 7- 25 m. Outer bark gray-white, shed in thick brittle plates; inner bark rose-colored. Resin clear. Leaves 21-74 mm long, 2-4-(5)-jugate (- 8 in Daly et al. 13094); petiole 4.1-11 cm, petiole and rachis usually with dense ascending golden hairs to 0.5 mm, also with dense snail-shaped glands, thick erect golden hairs to 0.1 mm, and (when longer hairs not present) flexuous golden hairs to 0.15 mm; stipules (3)5-12(16) mm from petiole insertion, 3-4(8) mm long, broadly ovate to (obliquely) orbicular, sometimes constricted at base, both sides with dense appressed hairs to 0.4 mm long or dense flexuous hairs to 0.3 mm long, scar 1-3 mm long; lateral petiolules 4-14 mm (to 20 mm on sterile leaves), terminal petiolule 15-40 mm long, petiolules not canaliculate, pulvinuli inconspicuous; basal leaflets 2.2- 9 × 1-7 cm, ovate (rarely elliptic-ovate) or broadly elliptic, other laterals 3.5-22.4 × 1.7-6.5 cm, ovate to elliptic, terminal one 5.8-19.4 × 2.1-7.1 cm, (broadly) obovate, less often (broadly) ovate, leaflet apex usually abruptly and narrowly and sharply acuminate, the acumen (2) 5-12 mm long (to 20 mm on sterile branchlets); lateral leaf base symmetric or rarely slightly oblique, acute to rounded to truncate; leaflets drying dark brown, chartaceous, dull; secondary vein fabric weakly brochidodromous but looping submarginal, less often eucamptodromous, secondaries in 9-16 pairs, slightly arcuate, spacing uniform to somewhat irregular, the angle uniform or increasing distally, 1-2 perpendicular and basiflexed epimedial tertiaries per pair of secondaries, intercostal tertiaries mixed opposite-alternate percurrent and sometimes random-reticulate, also admedially branched toward secondary vein axils; on abaxial side the midvein and secondaries prominent, quaternaries flat to narrowly prominulous, midvein with dense erect golden hairs to 0.45 mm and sparse snail-shaped glands (sparser on secondary veins), rest of surface either with dense erect hairs or with sparse appressed thick golden hairs to 0.1 mm and scattered snail-shaped glands and long erect hairs; on adaxial side midvein and secondaries narrowly prominulous but sunk in a groove, rest of veins flat or narrowly prominulous, midvein sometimes pubescent as on abaxial side, otherwise all the surface with scattered thick erect golden hairs to 0.1 mm and snail-shaped glands. Inflorescences 8.5-25 cm, the axes as well as bracts and pedicel with dense flexuous golden hairs to 0.4 mm and snail-shaped glands; on staminate inflorescences the secondary axes to 5.8 cm long, often densely branched, bracts on secondary axes 1.6-2.5 mm long, subulate to lanceolate, bracteoles 0.6-1 mm long, bracts usually caducous. Staminate flowers 4-4.6 mm long at anthesis, the calyx 1.7-2.4 × 2.3-2.7 mm, exceeding the ovariodisk, green, the lobes 0.6-1 mm, rounded-deltate, abaxial surface with dense capitate glands, sparse ascending to appressed thick golden hairs to 0.2 (0.25) mm long, and scattered flexuous golden hairs to 0.2 mm, adaxial surface with dense appressed-retrorse golden hairs to 0.15 mm; petals 3.9-4 mm long, exposed part as long as the calyx, petals obovate with rounded and very slightly acuminate apex, milky white, abaxial surface with dense appressed to ascending pale golden hairs to 0.2 mm long, adaxial surface glabrous; stamens 2.5-2.6 mm long, anthers 1-1.05 mm long, yellow, lanceolate in dorsiventral view, ovate in lateral view; ovariodisk 0.9- 0.8 mm, slightly obovoid, the apex craggy. Secondary axes on infructescences to 2.5 cm long; fruiting pedicel 3-11x 2.7-3.5 mm, clavate, fruiting calyx 3-5 mm long, the lobes distinct, 2-4 mm long but sometimes broken off, broadly triangular, patent. Fruits 3-3.5 × 2-2.4 cm (4.4 × 3 cm on White 2), broadly ovoid to slightly oblong-obovoid, slightly trigonous, or broadly (oblong-)ellipsoid, apex rounded or obtuse or rarely acute, base obtuse, pale brown, green-brown, or brick red, the surface with dense fine raised ferrugineous lenticels and dense retrorse-appressed golden hairs to 0.5 mm long among the lenticels. Seedlings with cotyledons reddish green and fleshy; first eophylls opposite, simple, densely pubescent; first metaphylls alternate and unifoliolate.


Like C. scholasticum , sp. nov., C. ferrugineum , sp. nov. has the petiole (1.4) 4.1-11 cm long, the basal petiolules (2) 4-14 mm long, the terminal leaflet obovate or less often broadly elliptic or ovate, the leaflet apex rounded or abruptly acuminate, the apex tip eglandular, the leaflet secondary vein angle increasing or uniform toward base, the leaflet abaxial surface usually pubescent, and the fruit surface lenticellate and usually pubescent. The latter can be distinguished by its stipules 1-3 (vs 5-6 in C. scholasticum , sp. nov.) mm long, the scar 1-3 (vs 3-5) mm long, petiole and rachis usually with dense ascending golden hairs to 0.5 mm (and other hair types)(vs sparse to scattered erect ferrugineous hairs to 0.05 mm long), leaflet apex usually abruptly and narrowly sharp-acuminate, the acumen (2) 5-12 mm long (vs rounded to abruptly and broadly short-acuminate, the acumen 2-6 mm long), the base acute to rounded to truncate (vs cordate or less often truncate, very rarely acute), on abaxial surface the midvein with dense erect golden hairs to 0.45 mm (vs sparse to scattered erect ferrugineous hairs to 0.05 mm long, also flexuous ferrugineous hairs to 0.2 mm long), the leaflets chartaceous (vs coriaceous), and the stamens inserted on side of ovariodisk (vs around the base).


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Missouri Botanical Garden


Parc de Tsimbazaza


Wageningen University

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