Canarium bullatum (Daly & Raharimampionona & Federman, 2015)

Daly, Douglas C., Raharimampionona, Jeannie & Federman, Sarah, 2015, A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia 37 (2), pp. 277-345 : 296-298

publication ID 10.5252/a2015n2a2

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scientific name

Canarium bullatum

comb. et stat. nov.

Canarium bullatum View in CoL

(Leenh.) Daly, Raharim. & Federman, comb. et stat. nov. ( Fig. 6 View FIG )

Canarium madagascariense Engl. subsp. bullatum Leenh. View in CoL , Blumea View in CoL 9 (2): 381. 1959. — Typus: Madagascar. Forêt d’Ambatosoratra , 8.I.1949, Cours 3368 (holo-, P[P00048600]!).

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. Antsiranana, Sava, Sambava, Parc National Marojejy ( Campement 1, Mantella ), 100-350 m, 14°26’07.8”S, 49°46’19.2”E, 26.I.2006, D. C. Daly, J. Raharimampionona, J. Razanatsoa & D. Ravelonarivo 13001 ( NY, TEF) GoogleMaps ; Mandena, Maroambihy, Réserve Naturelle Intégrale no. 12 de Marojejy, 470- 530 m, 14°26’13”S, 49°46’32”E, 11.X.1996, P. J. Rakotomalaza, N. Messmer & D. Ravelonarivo 733 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps . Toamasina, Ambanizana, Parc National Masoala, Tampolo , 50-200 m, 15°37’58”S, 49°58’22”E, 15.I.2006, D. C. Daly, J. Raharimampionona, J. Razanatsoa, J. Aridy & Senario 12952 ( NY, P[P04799031], TEF); Analanjirofo , 1-2 km E of Fampanambo, 20-25 m, 15°25’56”S, 49°50’41”E, 26.I.1999, G. E. Schatz et al. 3818 ( MO) GoogleMaps ; Station Forestière Farankaraina , 20 m, 15°22’35”S, 49°37’46”E, 28.I.1999, G. E. Schatz et al. 3859 ( MO) GoogleMaps . DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY. — Although often abundant where it occurs, Canarium bullatum , stat. nov. is restricted to NE and far northern Madagascar, including Maroantsetra , Farankaraina , Tampolo , and Ambanizana , but also at lower elevations at Marojejy and Montagne d’Ambre. Found in (sub-)littoral forest in sandy soils, also moist forest on steep slopes and on ridges, usually between 10-350 m elevation, rarely 1000-1150 m. Flowering Jan.; fruiting Jan. - May .

COMMON NAMES. — Ramy be, ramy, haramy be, ramy fotsy.


Trees, reproductive size 12-40 m tall, up to 200 cm diam, with plank buttresses to 2.5 m high and 3 m extension. Outer bark gray, slightly scalloped, sometimes fissured at base; hoop marks sometimes present, sparsely to densely lenticellate but relatively smooth; shed in short, thin, irregular plates 10-20 cm long; inner bark tan. Resin clear. Leaves 28-50 cm long, 5-6-jugate; petiole 3.5-9 cm long, petiole and rachis with dense to sparse erect fine golden hairs to 0.1 mm long, also scattered to dense erect to flexuous golden hairs to 0.5 mm long, and scattered to sparse capitate glands; stipules 0-5 mm from petiole insertion, 4-5 mm long, (semi-)orbicular, surface with dense appressed golden hairs to 0.4 mm long at base, submembranaceous, scar 3-8 mm long, raised; basal petiolules 4-6 mm long, other laterals 2-8 mm long, terminal one 15-30 mm long, petiolules not canaliculate, lateral pulvinuli inconspicuous; basal leaflets (2.6) 4-6.6 × (2.6) 4-6.3 cm, suborbicular or less often broadly ovate, other laterals 9.6-21.5 × 5.3-10 cm, broadly oblong-ovate or rarely suborbicular, the terminal 11-16 × 5.2-11.4 cm, ovate (usually broadly so), rarely oblong-ovate, leaflet apex abruply to somewhat gradually and narrowly short-acuminate, the acumen 3-8 (10) mm, sometimes the apex tip apiculate; lateral leaflet base symmetrical, cordate (truncate on terminal); margin usually slightly revolute; leaflets coriaceous and rigid, drying brown and often glossy on one or both sides, adaxial leaflet surface usually bullate (rarely not), on abaxial surface the veinlets and veins forming minute concavities,); secondary vein framework mixed eucamptodromous and brochidodromous (sometimes with some festooning), secondaries in 12-18 pairs, spreading, spacing decreasing toward base, angle slightly acute but decreasing toward apex and increasing toward base, intercostal tertiary fabric opposite-alternate percurrent; perpendicular epimedial tertiaries present; on abaxial side all veins acutely prominent, surface papillate, also with dense to sparse, erect, thick golden hairs to 0.1 mm long on the veins and veinlets, and scattered ascending to erect golden hairs to 0.7 mm long (usually only on midvein); on adaxial side the midvein and secondaries (also sometimes tertiaries) prominulous but sunk in a groove, remaining veins finely prominulous, midvein and secondaries with sparse to scattered erect to ascending golden hairs to 0.2 (0.3) mm long, rest of surface with sparse ascending hairs to 0.1 mm long, all of surface with scattered capitate glands. Inflorescences all 14-34.5 cm long overall but pistillate ones more robust and less branched, all axes with sparse to dense flexuous golden hairs to 0.3 (0.5) mm long, sparse to scattered thick erect hairs to 0.1 mm long, and sparse capitate glands, also with long narrow lenticels; on staminate inflorescences the secondary axes 4-14 cm long, bracts on primary axes to 7 mm long, obovate to broadly subulate, fleshy, bracts on other axes 1.8-4 mm long, lanceolate to (ob) ovate, bracteoles 0.8-2 mm long, almost linear; pedicel 0.7-2 (4) × 0.7-1.1 (1.4) mm. Staminate flowers 6.3-8 (8.5) mm long at anthesis; calyx 2.1-2.8 (4.8) × 4.2-4.5 mm overall, shallowly cupular to slightly campanulate, taller than the ovariodisk, the lobes 0.3-0.85 mm long, rounded depresseddeltate, abaxial surface densely provided with flexuous golden hairs to 0.35 mm long, thick appressed hairs to 0.15 mm long, and capitate glands; petals 5.3-6 (9) × 3.7-4.3 (5) mm, oblong-ovate, visible portion much longer than the calyx, (sulfur-)yellow to light orange-beige, fleshy, abaxial side densely provided with thick golden hairs to 0.35 mm long, appressed in the center but retrorse-appressed toward the margin; stamens inserted at base of ovariodisk, yellow, the antesepalous ones 3.5-4.6 mm long with anthers 1.8- 2.5 mm long, antepetalous ones 3.2-4.45 mm long with anthers 1.4-2 mm long, anthers ovate in dorsiventral view and obliquely oblong-ovate in lateral view, filaments fleshy; ovariodisk 1.5-2.4 × 0.85-2.1 mm, essentially cylindrical to (depressed-)obovate with craggy apex, glabrous or provided with ascending hairs to 0.15 mm long. On pistillate inflorescences the secondary axes 2-11 cm long; bracts on primary axes 5-8 mm long, broadly subulate, somewhat fleshy, other bracts 3-5.2 mm long, (narrowly) lanceolate to ligulate, acute, bracteoles 1.3-3.5 mm long, narrowly lanceolate, usually acuminate. Pistillate flowers 7-9.2 mm long at anthesis, the calyx 3.8-5.7 × 4.7-6 mm overall, somewhat urceolate, the lobes 0.4-1 mm long, depressed-deltate; petals 7.1-7.5 × 5.2-5.7 mm, broadly ovate, visible part of corolla shorter than calyx; antesepalous staminodes 2.6-3 mm long with lanceolate anthers 1.55-1.8 mm long, antepetalous staminodes 2.2-2.6 mm long with ovate anthers 1.4-1.75 mm long, the anthers with dense, ascending hairs to 0.25 mm long; disk 0.7-0.9 mm tall, 0.25-0.3 mm thick; pistil set in a shallow hypanthium, 6.7 × 3.8 mm overall, green, ovary ovoid and substipitate, with ascending dark-ferrugineous hairs to 0.3 mm long; the style 1.6 mm long, stigmata area 1.3 mm tall. Infructescences robust, to 16 mm diam at base, the pedicel 3.2-7 × 5.2-7 mm, cylindrical to clavate, with sparse white raised lenticels, fruiting calyx 3-5 mm long, patent to very shallowly cupular, the lobes sometimes distinct. Fruits erect, 3-4.5 × 2.3-3 cm, gray-brown, when immature obovoid, when mature slightly obovoid or less often slightly ovoid, apex and base rounded to obtuse; surface glabrous, with lenticels dense, small, circular, slightly raised, (pale) tan. NOTES

Canarium bullatum , comb. et stat. nov. and C. multinervis , sp. nov. both belong to a group of 10 species that all have relatively large, broad leaflets with truncate to slightly cordate base; both also have the stipules inserted at the petiole base (or up to 5 mm from base in C. bullatum , comb. et stat. nov.), up to 18 secondary veins, leaflet abaxial surface with sparse to scattered pubescence or the surface glabrous,and adaxial surface often glossy. Canarium bullatum , comb. et stat. nov. can be distinguished in this group by the stipules 4-5 (vs 5-13) mm long, basal leaflets usually suborbicular (vs broadly ovate), lateral leaflets usually longer (9.6-21.5 vs 6.8-12 cm), terminal leaflet usually broadly (ob)ovate, less often ovate, rarely oblong-ovate (vs usually broadly elliptic), leaflets usually bullate and drying light brown (vs not bullate and drying dark brown), bracts on secondary axes of staminate inflorescences 3-5.2 mm long and (narrowly) lanceolate to ligulate, acute (vs 5.5-7 mm long, rounded, concave, and covering the subtended buds), and staminate flowers 6.3-8 (vs 4.4-5.5) mm long, and calyx 2.1-2.8 (vs 3.1-3.5) mm long overall, the lobes 0.3-0.85 (vs 1.5-1.7) mm long.


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural


Missouri Botanical Garden














Canarium bullatum

Daly, Douglas C., Raharimampionona, Jeannie & Federman, Sarah 2015

Canarium madagascariense Engl. subsp. bullatum

Leenh. 1959: 381
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