Canarium planifolium Daly, Raharim. & Federman, 2015

Daly, Douglas C., Raharimampionona, Jeannie & Federman, Sarah, 2015, A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia 37 (2), pp. 277-345 : 334-335

publication ID 10.5252/a2015n2a2

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scientific name

Canarium planifolium Daly, Raharim. & Federman

sp. nov.

Canarium planifolium Daly, Raharim. & Federman View in CoL , sp. nov.

( Figs 17 View FIG ; 27 View FIG )

Large trees, leaflets coriaceous, (sub)glabrous, with an abruptly and very broadly short-acuminate apex, calyx deeply tubular and far exceeding the ovariodisk, fruits broadly oblong(-ovoid) with densely lenticellate surface; distinguished from C. obtusifolium Scott-Elliot by the leaves (3)5-7-jugate (vs 2-4(5)-jugate in C. obtusifolium ), petiole and rachis more lignified, lateral leaflets usually oblong (vs obovate to oblongelliptic), and the fruit (very) broadly oblong(-ovoid) (vs oblong-ellipsoid to (oblong)-obovoid).

TYPUS. — Madagascar. Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park, parcelle 3, S of National Road 25 7 km W of Ranomafana, Talatakely trail system, 950-1150 m elev., 21°15’30”S, 47°25’00”E, 18.V.1993, D. Turk, J. Solo & D. Randriamanatena 476 (holo-, NY!; iso-, MO, P[P05311933]!, TAN) GoogleMaps .

PARATYPI. — Madagascar. Antsiranana, SAVA, 1.5 W of Cap Est, 35 m, 15°16’30”S, 50°28’09”E, 24.I.1999, G. E. Schatz et al. 3801 ( NY) GoogleMaps . Fianarantsoa, Parc National de Ranomafana, E of Fianarantsoa, Vatoharanana, Parcelle III, W of Ranomafana, 4 km S of Ambodiamontana, 900-1100 m, 21°16’S, 47°26’E, 11.III.1994, A. Kotozafy & P. Rasabotsy 501 ( MO) GoogleMaps ; Ihorombe, Réserve Spéciale Ivohibe , 975 m, 22°25’36”S, 46°56’18”E, 17.XI.1997, P.-J. Rakotomalaza, N. Messmer & C. Rakotovao 1542 ( NY) GoogleMaps ; Forêt d’Ifanadiana , 5.I.1953, Service Forestier 9897 ( NY, TEF) ; Vatovavy-Fitovinany, Sakahavia, Tolongoina , Fort Carnot , 878-1000 m, 21°31’30”S, 47°45’30”E, 17.XI.1954, Service Forestier 13652 ( NY, P, TEF [not seen]) GoogleMaps . Toamasina, Alaotra-Mangoro, Perinet, Analamazaotra , 1000m, 18°56’S, 48°26’E, 20.V.1964, Service Forestier 21835 ( NY, TEF [not seen]) GoogleMaps ; Analanjirofo, Masoala peninsula, S. of Ambanizana , 110- 260 m, 15°40’24”S, 49°57’51”E, 22.XII.1994, N. Vasey & N. Velo 266 ( NY) GoogleMaps . Toliara, Anosy, Taolagnaro / Fort Dauphin , Ranomafana , Mangatsiaka , 201 m, 24°34’39”S, 47°01’41”E, 23.XI.2009, R. Razakamalala 4882 ( MO, NY, P, TAN) GoogleMaps ; Anosy, Mahatalaky, near Amborokozotsy , Forêt de Bero , 739 m, 24°42’S, 47°04’E, 19.X.1954, Service Forestier 10862 ( NY, TEF [not seen]) GoogleMaps .

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY. — Canarium planifolium , sp. nov. has a broad range in eastern Madagascar, from Fort-Dauphin N to Ranomafana National Park, Tolongoina, and Réserve Spéciale Vohibe, to Cap Est Masoala. This rare but ecologically versatile species has been found in primary or disturbed, lowland or montane forests at elevations between 35-1150 m. Flowering Oct.-Jan., fruiting Nov.-May.

ETYMOLOGY. — The specific epithet refers to the markedly flat appearance of the compound leaves.


Trees, reproductive size 18-35 m × 38-94 cm diam.Resin white. Leaves 14-32 cm long, (3)5-7-jugate; petiole 3-5 cm long, woody and stout, base often dilated below stipule insertion, petiole and rachis and petiolule surface on younger leaves with dense flexuous golden hairs to 0.2 mm long, also sparse white bristles to 0.1 mm long, but soon (sub)glabrescent; stipules 2-6 (8) mm from petiole insertion, 3-6 mm long, subulate to obovate, base not constricted, often fleshy (especially in fruit), surface with dense, thick, appressed, often whitish hairs 0.1-0.2 mm long, sometimes also capitate glands, stipule scar 1.5-2 mm long; basal petiolules 2-7 mm long, other laterals 5-11 mm long, terminal one 11-22 mm long, petiolules sometimes woody, sometimes shallowly canaliculated, pulvinuli often conspicuous; basal leaflets 1.6-4.3 × 1.3-2.4 cm, ovate to broadly elliptic or rarely oblong-obovate (Service Forestier 10862), other laterals 3.2-9.5 × 1.7-4.5 cm, (narrowly) oblong, rarely oblong-elliptic, terminal one 4.7-12.5 × 1.8- 5.4 cm, obovate or less often elliptic or oblong; leaflet apex abruptly and very broadly (rarely narrowly) short-acuminate, the acumen 2-6 mm long, apex tip glandular; lateral leaflet base often asymmetric, the acroscopic side truncate to obtuse, basiscopic side obtuse, rarely acute or slightly cordate; margin flat; leaflets coriaceous, drying medium to dark brown, dull; secondary vein framework brochidodromous, secondaries in (8) 9-14 pairs, spreading or rarely arcuate, spacing somewhat irregular but decreasing toward apex and base, angle acute, increasing toward apex and decreasing toward base, intercostal tertiaries opposite-alternate percurrent and admedially ramified; on abaxial side the midvein broadly prominent, secondaries prominulous and usually sunk in a groove, rest of veins flat or broadly prominulous, midvein (and less so on secondaries) with dense to scattered, flexuous to ascending, golden hairs to 0.15 mm long, or rarely glabrous; on adaxial side the midvein narrowly prominulous but sunk in a groove, secondaries slightly impressed or flat, sometimes the proximal part narrowly prominulous, glabrous. Staminate inflorescences 15-18 cm long with secondary axes to 6 cm long, the axes with sparse, fine, flexuous to ascending golden hairs to 0.5 mm long; inflorescence bracts to 10 mm long, lanceolate to ovate, long-acuminate and base constricted, bracteoles 4-6.5 mm long, broadly subulate to ovate, chartaceous, on all bracts the abaxial side with dense flexuous ascending or descending golden hairs to 0.3 mm, adaxial side with dense retrorse-appressed golden hairs to 0.6(0.7) mm; pedicel 2-3 × 1.2-1.3 mm. Staminate flowers 7-10.5 mm long; calyx 4.5-7 × (3) 3.5-5.5 mm overall, deeply tubular, far exceeding the disk, the lobes 1.4-2.7 (3.5) mm long, (broadly) ovate, abaxial side with dense appressed fine golden hairs to 0.4 mm long, near the apex retrorse-appressed, adaxial side with dense appressed golden hairs 0.15-0.2 mm long; petals 6.8-10 cm × 3-3.1 mm, lanceolate, exposed portion somewhat shorter than the calyx, fleshy, with an inflexed apiculum 0.7 mm long; abaxial surface as on calyx but up to 0.5 mm long; antesepalous stamens 8-8.2 mm long with anthers 2.4 mm long, antepetalous stamens 7-7.4 mm long with anthers 2-2.2 mm long, anthers very slightly oblong-lanceolate in dorsiventral view, narrowly oblong in lateral view; ovariodisk 2.1-2.7 × 1.5-2.2, columnar to slightly obovoid with central depression and craggy apex. Infructescences (8) 25-30 cm long with secondary axes to 4 cm long, pubescence becoming sparse; fruiting pedicel 4-7 × 4-5 mm, slightly clavate, fruiting calyx 7-9 cm long overall, shallowly cupular, the lobes relatively distinct, 3-4 mm long. Fruits 3.5-5.5 × 2.1-3.2 cm, (very) broadly oblong(-ovoid), apex round, base obtuse, surface often densely lenticellate, the lenticels round, relatively small, ferrugineous to reddish, surface also with dense, appressed, white hairs to 0.5 mm long among the lenticels (scattered when lenticels quite dense).


Canarium planifolium , sp. nov. and C. obtusifolium both have relatively small, coriaceous, mostly or entirely glabrous leaflets with an abruptly and very broadly short-acuminate apex (or rounded in the latter), but C. planifolium , sp. nov. has more leaflets ((3)5-7-jugate vs 2-4 (5)-jugate in C. obtusifolium ), more lignified petiole and rachis, pseudostipules closer to the petiole base (2-6 (8) vs 3-16 mm from base), the lateral leaflets usually oblong (vs obovate to oblong-elliptic), fruit broadly oblong(-ovoid) (vs oblong-ellipsoid to (oblong)-obovoid), and the fruit surface densely lenticellate and densely pubescent (vs sparsely lenticellate with scattered pubescence).

Canarium planifolium , sp. nov. also resembles C. boivinii Engl. because both have leaves up to 7-jugate, similar placement of the stipules, coriaceous leaflets of similar shape, and large ovoid-ellipsoid fruits, but in C. planifolium , sp. nov. the stipules are fleshy (vs somewhat coriaceous in C. boivinii ) and with sparse to scattered, erect, thick, whitish hairs to 0.2 mm long (vs dense, ascending to appressed, fine, ferrugineous hairs to 0.15 mm, the leaflets are dull (vs glossy but sometimes dull adaxially), the secondary veins are broader, somewhat irregularly spaced while decreasing toward apex and base (vs more regularly spaced), arcuate and the angle acute and increasing toward apex and decreasing toward base (vs straight and the angle usually almost perpendicular and increasing toward the base), and the inflorescence hairs are longer (up to 0.5 mm vs up to 0.25 mm long).


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Missouri Botanical Garden


Parc de Tsimbazaza


Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural

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