Canarium pulchrebracteatum Guillaumin

Daly, Douglas C., Raharimampionona, Jeannie & Federman, Sarah, 2015, A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia 37 (2), pp. 277-345 : 335-336

publication ID 10.5252/a2015n2a2

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scientific name

Canarium pulchrebracteatum Guillaumin


Canarium pulchrebracteatum Guillaumin View in CoL

( Fig. 8 View FIG )

Notulae Systematicae 1: 72 (1909). — Typus. Madagascar, Farafangana, s.d., anon. s.n. (holo-, P[P00048870]!).

SELECTED MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. Antsiranana, Sava, Beankoraka-Vinanivao road, Masoala peninsula, 10-60 m, 15°57’S, 50°12’E, 17.XI.1994, J. Rabe 155 ( NY, MO, P, TAN); Antalaha, Mouth of Ambohitralanana , Masoala Peninsula, 0-15 m, 15°13’S, 50°28’E, 23.IV.1994, G. Rahajasoa 296 ( MO) GoogleMaps ; Ambatoasana, Ambodigavo-Tsaratanana, Antananambo , Antalaha , Diego , 230 m, 14°52’05”S, 50°05’44”E, 12-13.V.1999, F. Ratovoson, J. Rabenantoandro, F. Randriantafika, T. Fevilice & J. J. Sylvain 77 ( MO, NY, P, TAN). Fianarantsoa, Atsimo-Atsinanana, S of Farafangana near Manombo Reserve , 100 m, 23°03’16”S, 47°40’28”E, 15.XI.2001, G. McPherson & J. Rabenantoandro 18430 ( MO, NY, P, TEF). Toamasina, Atsinanana, Réserve Naturelle Intégrale Betampona, 400-600 m, 17°55’19”S, 49°11’58”E, 11.II.2008, S. Federman, T. Treuer & J. Sylvain 4 ( NY) GoogleMaps , Réserve Naturelle Intégrale Betampona , 400-600 m, 17°53’54”S, 49°12’34”E, 04.IV.2008, T. Treuer, S. Federman & J. Sylvain 64 ( NY) GoogleMaps .

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY. — Canarium pulchrebracteatum has a broad distribution in eastern Madagascar, ranging from Farafangana in the south to Ranomafana National Park and Andasibe National Park in the east-central part of the country, north to the Baie d’Antongil and Maroantsetra and to Vohémar and the Sambava region. It is found in moist forest on steep terrain between 50-375 m elevation. Flowering Nov.-Feb. (Jun.), fruiting Mar.-Aug.

COMMON NAMES. — Tsiramiramy, ramy mainty.


Trees, reproductive height 12-30 m × 12-50 cm diam; plank buttresses to 1.2 m high. Outer bark gray, thick or thin, rough due to raised sparse lenticels, also with hoop marks, thin, shed as large irregular spongy plates; inner bark brittle, beige to orange, oxidizing reddish. Resin clear. Leaves 11.8-39.8 cm, 1-3(4)-jugate; petiole 2.5-10 cm long, petiole and rachis with dense, fine, flexuous hairs to 0.15 mm long; stipules 5-13(23) mm from petiole insertion, 3.5-7 mm long, orbicular or less often broadly ovate, usually constricted at base, pubescence as on petiole, the scar (1) 2-3.5 mm long; basal petiolules 4-11 mm long, other laterals 5-17 mm long, terminal one 11-45 mm long, sometimes shallowly canaliculate, lateral pulvinuli inconspicuous; basal leaflets 1.9-7 × 1.5-5.4 cm, nearly orbicular to ovate, very rarely lanceolate, other laterals 3.8-15.2 × 2-4.6 (6.9), elliptic to obovate, rarely ovate or lanceolate, terminal one 4.6-14 × 1.8-6.8 cm, obovate to elliptic or rarely ovate; leaflet apex abruptly short-acuminate or often gradually and narrowly long-acuminate, the acumen (1) 2-13 mm long; leaflet base symmetrical or often slightly oblique, obtuse to truncate or acute, on basal leaflets sometimes slightly cordate; margin flat and sometimes with scattered flexuous hairs to 1.0 mm long; leaflets chartaceous to slightly coriaceous, drying brown. dull, occasionally slightly glossy; secondary vein framework brochidodromous but looping near margin, secondaries in 5-10 pairs, arcuate to spreading, slightly discolorous abaxially, spacing decreasing toward apex and base, angle increasing toward apex and decreasing toward base, intersecondaries average less than 1 per pair of secondaries and usually perpendicular, usually reticulating, intercostal tertiaries opposite-alternate percurrent, tertiary angle decreasing exmedially, quaternaries regular-polygonal; on abaxial side all veins prominent, midvein and secondaries with sparse to dense, stiff, relatively fine erect hairs to 0.25 mm long, rest of surface papillate and glabrous or with sparse stiff hairs; on adaxial side all veins narrowly prominulous except the midvein sometimes sunk in a groove, midvein with sparse to dense, appressed to ascending, thick whitish hairs to 0.3 mm long, scattered on secondaries, rest of surface glabrous or sometimes rest of blade like the abaxial blade, rarely the midvein and secondaries with sparse fine erect golden hairs to 0.7 mm long. Staminate inflorescences to 28 cm long, secondary axes to 7.5 cm long, axes with dense flexuous ferrugineous hairs to 0.4 mm long, also with dense capitate glands; bracts on primary axes c. 3.5 mm long, lanceolate, other bracts 2.5-3.5 mm long, lanceolate to subulate, bracteoles 2.7-4 (5) mm long, ovate to (narrowly) elliptic. Staminate flowers 10-13.5 mm long; calyx (3.4) 4.4-5 × (4) 5.3-6.2 mm overall, (deeply) cupular, the lobes 0.8-1.4 mm long, rounded depressed-deltate, abaxial surface with dense flexuous ferrugineous hairs to 0.4 mm long, ascending near apex and descending near base, the adaxial side with dense apparessed hairs to 0.3 mm long; petals 9.2-11.7 × 3-5 mm, exposed part much longer than calyx, oblong to slightly (ob)ovate, cream-colored, abaxial surface with straight fine golden hairs to 0.4 mm long, appressed toward apex and retrorse-appressed toward base, the apex with an inflexed apiculum 0.4-0.7 mm long; antesepalous and antepetalous stamens 7.2-10 mm and 6.6-9.3 mm long, respectively, anthers 2.2-2.5 mm long, slightly lanceolate in dorsiventral view and oblong in lateral view, the apex apiculate; ovariodisk 1.3-2.2 × 1.7-2.2 mm, shortly columnar, yellow, the apex craggy. Pistillate inflorescences 5.5-16 (23) cm long, secondary axes to 6 cm long, with few flowers; bracteoles c. 3.8 mm long, oblanceolate; Pistillate flowers c. 11 mm long; calyx c. 5.4 × 5 mm overall, deeply cupular, the lobes c. 1.2 mm long, rounded depressed-deltate; petals c. 9.4 × 2 mm, exposed part slightly longer than calyx, oblong-lanceolate with an inflexed apiculum c. 0.5 mm long; antesepalous stamens c. 5 mm long with anthers c. 1.7 mm long, antepetalous stamens c. 4.1 mm long with anthers c. 1.4 mm long, the anthers oblong, the filament bases slightly swollen; disk lacking and the stamens inserted on a shallow hypanthium; pistil c. 5 × 2 mm, the ovary ovoid, substipitate, the style c. 1.5 mm long, the stigmatal area c. 0.6 mm long. Fruiting pedicel 2-6 × 4-5 mm, slightly clavate, fruiting calyx (4) 5-6.5 mm long, often slightly cupular, the lobes sometimes distinct. Fruits 3-4.7 × 1.8-2.5 cm, (broadly) ovoid and usually trigonous, rarely narrowly ovoid (dry), the apex acute to acuminate or rarely rounded, the base obtuse, less often truncate; surface usually glabrous and smooth; lenticels very few, raised, somewhat foveolate.


Like Canarium nitidifolium , sp. nov., C. pulchrebracteatum has the stipules inserted 5-18 (23) mm from petiole insertion, the lateral petiolules 5-18 mm long, similarly shaped leaflets (although narrower in the latter), 5-10 secondary vein pairs, the leaflets markedly pubescent abaxially, the fruiting calyx cupular and lenticellate, and the fruit ovoid with the surface smooth and glabrous. The latter can be distinguished by the petiole and rachis with dense, fine, flexuous hairs to 0.15 mm long (vs with sparse to scattered flexuous ferrugineous hairs to 0.3 mm long, also fine erect to ascending hairs to 0.2 mm long in C. nitidifolium , sp. nov.); stipules longer (5-7 vs 2-3 mm long), leaflet acumen usually narrow (vs usually broad) with the apex tip glandular-apiculate (vs eglandular), lateral leaflet base rounded to obtuse or acute (vs truncate to cordate or less often acute), and the secondary veins usually spreading (vs usually arcuate) and the angle increasing (vs decreasing) toward the base, and the fruit base obtuse to truncate (vs attenuate).

Canarium laxiflorum , sp. nov. and C. pulchrebracteatum have chartaceous leaflets of similar size, with the leaflet secondary veins in 5-9 pairs, arcuate, and the spacing and angle decreasing toward the base, and the inflorescences long with well-developed secondary axes. The latter can be distinguished by the stipules 5-13 (23) (vs 18-20 in C. pulchrebracteatum ) mm from petiole insertion, the basal leaflets nearly orbicular to ovate or rarely lanceolate (vs ovate or broadly elliptic), the other laterals elliptic to obovate, rarely ovate or lanceolate (vs narrowly oblong(-elliptic) to oblanceolate), the leaflet apex narrowly (vs broadly) acuminate, the midvein on the abaxial leaflet surface with sparse to dense stiff, relatively fine erect hairs (vs scattered, thick, ascending to appressed hairs), the inflorescence somewhat shorter (up to 28 cm vs up to at least 34 cm), the bracteoles ovate to (narrowly) elliptic (vs almost linear), the flowers longer (10-13.5 vs 7.6-8 mm), and the calyx deeper and broader ((3.4) 4.4-5 × (4) 5.3-6.2 vs 2.8- 3.1 × 4.5-4.8 mm overall).


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Missouri Botanical Garden


Parc de Tsimbazaza


Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural

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