Canarium scholasticum Daly, Raharim. & Federman, 2015

Daly, Douglas C., Raharimampionona, Jeannie & Federman, Sarah, 2015, A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia 37 (2), pp. 277-345 : 336-338

publication ID 10.5252/a2015n2a2

persistent identifier

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scientific name

Canarium scholasticum Daly, Raharim. & Federman

sp. nov.

Canarium scholasticum Daly, Raharim. & Federman View in CoL , sp. nov.

( Figs 10 View FIG ; 28 View FIG )

Small to very large trees, leaves 3-4(6)-jugate, terminal leaflet usually obovate, leaflet apex usually abruptly and broadly short-acuminate with the acumen 2-6 mm long; distinguished from C. lamianum Daly, Raharim. & Federman , sp. nov. by the bark finely fissured or smooth (vs deeply fissured in C. lamianum , sp. nov.), lateral leaflets (oblong-)ovate (vs variously shaped but not ovate), lateral leaflet base cordate or less often truncate, very rarely acute (vs obtuse, truncate, or acute), secondary vein angle decreasing toward the base (vs increasing or uniform), on staminate inflorescences the secondary branch endings not congested (vs often congested).

TYPUS. — Madagascar. [Toamasina] Tamatave, District Tamatave II, Commune Ambodirina, Réserve Naturelle Intégrale Betampona , on mild slope 3.7 km N of reserve base, 325-375 m elev., 17°55’53”S, 49°12’12”E, 3.II.2006, D. C. Daly, R. Ranaivojaona, R. B. Iambana & C. Razafy 13075 (holo-, NY!; iso-, G!, MO!, TEF!) GoogleMaps .

PARATYPI. — Madagascar. Mahajanga, Sofia, Mangindrano , 1855 m, 14°13’17”S, 49°03’47”E, X.2005, M. Callmander, S. Buerki, C. Rakotovao, Joro & Jovazaha 429 (G, MO, NY, P, TAN) GoogleMaps . Fianarantsoa, Vatovavy-Fitovinany, Between Fianarantsoa and Ifanadiana, Parc National Ranomafana , 1100 m, 21°15’S, 47°27’E, 11-15.XI.1991, S.T. Malcomber 1046 ( NY, MO) GoogleMaps . Toamasina, Analanjirofo, Maroantsetra, Ampokafo , Ambatoledama , 15°17’S, 50°00’E, 15.VIII.2003, P. Antilahimena 2051 ( MO) GoogleMaps ; Alaotra-Mangoro, Moramanga, Andasibe , Menalamba , between Analamay and Ambatovy, 1221 m, 18°49’52”S, 48°18’43”E, 21.V.2007, P. Antilahimena, F. Edmond & Tojoniaina 5540 ( MO, P, TAN, TEF); Alaotra Mangoro , Moramanga , Ambohibary , Ampitambe , Ambatovy , Andranovery forest , 1028 m, 18°52’06”S, 48°18’14”E, P.Antilahimena et al. 7098 ( US) GoogleMaps ; Analanjirofo, Befandriana Nord, Antsakabary , Andapanomby , Ampandisana River , 149 m, 15°19’44”S, 49°08’15”E, 30.IV.2007, R. Bernard & C. Birkinshaw 502 ( MO, P, TAN); 3 km E of Mandraka, along Antananarivo-Toamasina highway, 1090 m, 18°56’S, 47°56’E, 27.I.1993, G. E. Schatz, W. D. Stevens & J. P. Rakotomazaza 3425 ( MO, NY, P, TAN); Atsinanana, Réserve Naturelle Intégrale Betampona, 400-600 m, 17°55’23”S, 49°11’57”E, 11.II.2008, T. Treuer, S. Federman & J. Sylvain 4 ( NY) GoogleMaps .

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY. — Canarium scholasticum , sp. nov. has one of the broadest distributions of the genus in Madagascar.

It ranges from Ranomafana National Park in the south, to Tsiroanomandidy in the west and Analamazaotra National Park in the center, to Maroantsetra, Vohémar and Sambava in the North; it is also broadly distributed in the Sambirano-Ambanja region. It is usually found in montane forests between (325) 800-1600 m elevation. Flowering Jan.-Mar., fruiting Nov.-Apr.

COMMON NAMES. — Ramy blanc, ramy mena, ramy, tsiramiramy, aramy.

ETYMOLOGY. — The specific epithet refers to the occurrence of the species near places of study, the Cabine de Recherche and the Vato camp used by primatologists in Ranomafana National Park.


Trees, reproductive size 3-35 m, to 300 cm diam, with low plank buttresses. Outer bark gray, thick, deeply fissured, lenticellate, shed in thick irregular plates, inner bark light orange. Resin white, flammable. Leaves 8.5-36.5 cm long, 3-4(6)-jugate; petiole (1.4) 5-10 cm, petiole and rachis with sparse to scattered erect ferrugineous hairs to 0.05 mm long, also sparse snail-shaped glands, in fruit often woody and lenticellate; stipules (1) 5-13 mm from petiole insertion, 5-6 mm long, obovate and usually constricted at base, surfaces with dense ferrugineous ascending to appressed hairs to 0.25 mm long, the scar 3-5 mm long; basal petiolules (2) 4-14 (20) mm, other laterals (3) 6-20 mm long, terminal one (10) 14-40 (56) mm long, not canaliculate, lateral pulvinuli sometimes conspicuous; basal leaflets (1.8) 3-10.5 × (1.1) 1.8-5.6 cm, (broadly) ovate to suborbicular, other laterals (3.5) 5.8-13 × (1.7) 2.5-6.2 cm, (oblong-)ovate, less often (oblong)obovate or rarely broadly elliptic, terminal one 4.7-14 × 2.4-8.2 cm, obovate, less often broadly elliptic, rarely ovate; leaflet apex rounded to abruptly and broadly short-acuminate, the acumen 2-6 mm long, leaflet base usually symmetric, sometimes basal insertion slightly asymmetric, cordate or less often truncate, very rarely acute; margin flat; leaflets coriaceous, sometimes splitting along midvein when pressed and dried, drying (greenish) brown, dull or sometimes glossy on adaxial side and rarely on abaxial side; secondary vein framework brochidodromous but usually looping near the margin, secondaries in 8-13 pairs, slightly arcuate to spreading, spacing decreasing toward apex and markedly toward base, angle increasing toward base, intercostal tertiaries alternate-percurrent or sometime irregular-reticulate, quaternaries regular-polygonal; on abaxial side the midvein narrowly prominent, secondaries prominent but slightly sunk in a groove, tertiaries usually narrowly prominulous and then often sunk, sometimes flat or broadly prominulous, the midvein with sparse to scattered erect ferrugineous hairs to 0.05 mm long, also flexuous ferrugineous hairs to 0.2 mm, also sparse snail-shaped glands, rest of surface with scattered short thick appressed hairs; on adaxial side the midvein narrowly prominulous but sunk in a groove, secondaries narrowly prominulous but usually sunk, rest of veins broad and almost flat, surface subglabrous or with fine erect or ascending white hairs, these sparse to scattered on midvein, relatively dense on petiolules, scattered on rest of surface plus a few along the margin. Inflorescences 5-25 cm long, axes with dense flexuous ferrugineous hairs to 0.3 mm long, also some elongate lenticels; staminate inflorescences with secondary axes to 9 cm long; bracts on axes c. 7.8 mm long, with dense flexuous golden hairs to 0.2 mm long, narrowly elliptic, some ovate (especially on primary axes); bracteoles c. 3.7 mm long, obovate and acuminate, often longer than buds; pedicel 3.4-4.6 × 0.9-1.3. Staminate flowers 4.8- 5.5 mm long overall; calyx 2.1-2.6 × 3.6-4 mm, taller than ovariodisk, deeply cupular, lobes 0.6-1.7 mm long, (depressed) rounded-deltate, abaxial surface with dense appressed flexuous ferrugineous hairs to 0.15 mm long, adaxial surface with dense ascending to appressed golden hairs to 0.3 mm long; petals 5-5.3 × 3.4 mm, exposed part slightly shorter than or equal to calyx, ovate, abaxial surface with appressed golden hairs to 0.3 mm long, these retrorse at apex, oriented toward the apex up the center of the petals, and exmedial up the sides of the petals; stamens 3.4-3.5 mm long (sometimes stamens slightly dimorphic in length), anthers 1.2-1.4 mm long, narrowly oblong-ovate in dorsiventral view, lanceolate to narrowly ovate in lateral view; ovariodisk 0.8-1.5 × 1.2-1.6 mm, shortcolumnar to perdepressed-obovoid, apex truncate and craggy. Pistillate inflorescences with secondary axes to 5.5 cm long; bracts on axes 6.1-8.1 mm long, ovate to obovate and foliose, with ascending to appressed flexuous golden hairs to 0.3 mm long; bracteoles 5-6 mm, shorter than buds, obovate and acuminate; pedicel 2 × 1-1.5 mm, slightly clavate. Pistillate flowers 9.4-9.5 mm long overall; calyx 5.5-6.5 × 5.8-6.6 mm overall, the lobes 0.8-1.2 mm long, rounded perdepresseddeltate; petals 6 × 3.8 mm, exposed part much shorter than calyx, ovate, fleshy; staminodes 2.4-2.8 mm long, inserted around rim of a hypanthium 1.3-1.5 mm deep, level with the base of the stigmas, the anthers 1-1.1 mm long, ovate in dorsiventral view and oblong in lateral view, pubescent; pistil 5-5.4 × 2.6-3.2 mm overall, ovary ovoid and with appressed golden hairs to 0.2 mm long, the style 1.1 × 1-1.6 mm long, the stigmata area 1.1-1.4 tall, 3-lobed. Fruiting pedicel 3-10 × 3-4.2 mm, slightly clavate, with scattered erect ferrugineous to golden hairs 0.25 mm long, fruiting calyx 4-10 mm, shallowly cupular, lobes sometimes distinct, 2-4 mm long, patent, with scattered lenticels. Fruits 3.5-5.1 × 2.3-3.5 cm, brown or gray, ovoid to broadly oblong-ellipsoid to slightly obovoid, sometime slightly angular, rarely broadly ovoid, apex (slightly) tapering to rounded, base truncate to obtuse, surface with lenticels usually dense, relatively large, very raised, slightly ferrugineous, among the lenticels glabrous or some fine white hairs to 0.8 mm long.


Canarium scholasticum , sp. nov. belongs to a group of 10 species that have relatively large, broad leaflets with truncate to slightly cordate base; within that group, it is contrasted with C. pilicarpum , sp. nov. in the discussion under that species, and outside that group it is contrasted with C. ferrugineum , sp. nov. in the discussion under that species.

Both C. lamianum , sp. nov. and C. scholasticum , sp. nov. for the most part have usually 3-4-jugate leaves, stipules 4-13 mm from petiole insertion and 3-7 mm long, basal petiolules 4-14 mm long, terminal leaflet obovate, leaflet apex abruptly and broadly short-acuminate with the acumen 2-7 (11) mm long, and calyx deeply cupular in pistillate flowers. The latter differs by the bark finely fissured if at all (vs deeply fissured in C. lamianum , sp. nov.), the lateral leaflets (oblong-)ovate (vs variously shaped but not ovate) and often folding lengthwise when dry (vs flat), the lateral leaflet base cordate or less often truncate, very rarely acute (vs obtuse to truncate to acute, sometimes shortattenuate), the secondary vein angle decreasing toward the base (vs increasing or uniform), on abaxial surface the secondary veins more prominent and the lamina often corrugated between secondary veins, on adaxial surface the secondary veins discolorous, and in staminate flowers the stamens inserted around the base of the ovariodisk (vs inserted on the side).


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Missouri Botanical Garden


Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural


Parc de Tsimbazaza


University of Stellenbosch

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