Canarium obtusifolium Scott-Elliot

Daly, Douglas C., Raharimampionona, Jeannie & Federman, Sarah, 2015, A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia 37 (2), pp. 277-345 : 328-330

publication ID 10.5252/a2015n2a2

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Canarium obtusifolium Scott-Elliot


Canarium obtusifolium Scott-Elliot View in CoL

( Fig. 20 View FIG )

Journal of the Linnaean Society, Botany 29: 10. 1891 . — Typus: Madagascar. [Toliara], Fort Dauphin, (without date), G. F. Scott- Elliot 2933 (holo-, K, n.v.).

SELECTED MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. Antsiranana, Sava, Sambava, Bemanevika, Antsakajohy, Ambatobiribiry, 100 m, 14°10’53”S, 50°05’05”E, 25.III.2001, J. Rabenantoandro, R. Ranaivojaona, F. Jaoby & F. Malandy 458 (NY). Fianarantsoa, Vatovavy- Fitovinany, Nosy Varika, Ambahy, 9 m, 20°48’07”S, 48°28’56”E, 15.IX.2004, D. Rabehevitra, R. Ludovic & S. Boto 908 (MO, NY, P, TEF); Mahanoro, Ambodibonara, Forêt de Nakinana, 5 km from Ambalavontaka, 20°21’34”S, 48°36’21”E, 13.XI.2003, R. Rabevohitra, D. Rabehevitra, R. Ludovic & R. Razakamalala 4776 (MO, NY, P, TEF); Vatovavy-Fitovinany, Mananjary, Ankatafana, Marohita, Anato, Ambahisosotra, 13 m, 21°29’12”S, 48°16’20”E, 19.VI.2004, R. Ranaivojaona et al. 489 (NY, MO, P, TEF). Toamasina, S of Mangoro, XI.1921, H. Perrier de la Bâthie 14212 (US); Atsinanana, 1 km N of Ambila-Lemaitso (10 km E of Brickaville), 0-50 m, 18°51’S, 49°08’E, 04.04.1987, G. E. Schatz & P. P. Lowry 1315 (MO, NY). Toliara, Taolagnaro, Sainte Luce/Ambatoatsinanana, 0 m, 24°47’38”S, 47°10’15”E, 19.XII.2000, L. Faliniaina, J. Rabenantoandro & E. Ramisy 70 (MO, TEF).

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY. — Canarium obtusifolium is widely distributed in eastern Madagascar, from Fort-Dauphin in the south

to Vohémar in the north, and disjunct in the NW in the subhumid mountains of Tsaratanana and Manongarivo. It is found in (sub-) littoral and montane forests at 0-100 m elevation, although there are two collections of less than certain identification that are from montane forests up to 1150 m. Flowering Nov.-Feb. (Jun.), fruiting Dec.-Sep.

COMMON NAMES AND USES. — Ramyfotsy, ramy. Resin used for incense; wood used for construction.


Trees, reproductive size 5-20 m tall, to 60 cm diam. Trunk with branched plank buttresses. Outer bark gray, densely lenticellate, shed in large, thin, irregular plates; inner bark light orange, fibrous. Resin white. Leaves 7-28 cm long, 2-3-jugate (4-jugate on Service Forestier 19784); petiole (0.8) 1.8-6.5 (8) cm long, petiole and rachis with sparse thick golden hairs to 0.05 mm long, also sparse snail-shaped glands; stipules 3-16 mm from petiole insertion, 3-7 mm long, obovate to orbicular, laterally revolute and glabrescent with age, both surfaces with sparse ascending or flexuous fine hairs to 0.1 mm long and thick short hairs to 0.1 mm long (sometimes only the latter), the scar 0.5-1.5 mm long; basal petiolules (1) 3-15 mm long, other laterals (1) 3-15 (19) mm long, terminal one (6) 11-37 mm long, petiolules canaliculate, lateral pulvinuli usually conspicuous; basal leaflets 1.6-7.3 × 1-3.5 cm, broadly obovate or rarely broadly ovate or broadly oblong, other laterals 2.2-9.6 (12) × 1.2-3.6 (5.7) cm, oblong(- obovate) to oblong-elliptic, terminal one 3.4-9.6 × 1.7-4.2 cm, obovate; leaflet apex rounded to truncate to slightly retuse, rarely some leaflets very broadly and short-acuminate, (then the acumen to 2 mm long); leaflet base usually symmetrical, obtuse to truncate to slightly cordate (to acute on terminal leaflet); margin often slightly revolute; leaflets coriaceous, usually drying light brown, dull; secondary vein framework festooned-brochidodromous, secondaries in 6-10 pairs, usually almost straight but the course concave toward base, insertion decurrent, often slightly discolorous, spacing decreasing toward apex, angle perpendicular to broadly acute, essentially uniform; intercostal tertiaries alternate-percurrent and irregular-reticulate and admedially branched; quaternaries irregular-reticulate; on abaxial side the midvein broadly prominent (sometimes sunk in a groove), secondaries (broadly) prominulous, tertiaries (narrowly) prominulous, surface essentially glabrous except for a few fine pale hairs to 0.05 mm long; on adaxial side all veins broadly prominulous to nearly flat (midvein sunk in a groove), sometimes narrowly prominulous, surface essentially glabrous. Staminate inflorescences (7.5) 12-20 cm long, secondary axes to 6 cm long, axes with sparse flexuous hairs to 0.1 mm long and sparse snail-shaped glands (both denser at insertion of pedicels and dense on pedicel), also with small raised round ferrugineous lenticels at base of inflorescence; bracts on primary axes 2.5-3.8 mm long, (ob)ovate, constricted at base, not semi-clasping, fleshy and often persistent, other bracts 1.7-2.7 mm long, lanceolate to ovate, bracteoles 1.3- 1.5 mm long, subulate; pedicel 0.9-1.2 × 0.5-0.8 mm. Staminate flowers 5-5.5 (6.9) mm long; calyx 2-2.9 × 3-4.6 mm overall, taller than ovariodisk, shallowly cupular, green, the lobes 0.4-0.8 mm long, rounded depressed-deltate, slightly spreading, abaxial surface with dense thick hairs to 0.05 mm long and sparse snail-shaped glands, usually also with flexuous hairs to 0.1 mm long, adaxial surface with dense appressed fine hairs to 0.2 mm long; petals 4.7-5.2 (6.5) × 2.2-3.2 mm, exposed part much longer than calyx, narrowly ovate or less often slightly obovate, apex rounded to obtuse, cream, abaxial surface with dense flexuous ascending pale hairs to 0.2 mm long; stamens inserted at base of ovariodisk, 3.5-4.3 (5.3) mm long, anthers 1.4-1.9 mm long, (narrowly) ovate to somewhat oblong in dorsiventral view, lanceolate to narrowly ovate in lateral view; ovariodisk 0.6-1.4 × 0.6-1.7 mm, thickly discoid, apex craggy. Pistillate inflorescences 3-15 cm long, secondary axes to 4 cm long, bracts 25- 2.7 mm long, ovate, bracteoles c. 2 mm long, oblanceolate, most longer than buds; pedicel 2.3-5.7 × 1-1.1 mm. Pistillate flowers 6.6-6.7 mm long; calyx 3.2-3.6 × 4.7-5 mm overall, slightly taller than staminodes and nearly level with base of stigma, deeply cupular, the lobes 1.2-1.6 mm long, rounded depressed-deltate; petals 6-6.2 × 2.7-3 mm, exposed part about as long as calyx, ovate, apex acute, fleshy; staminodes 2.2-2.5 mm long, inserted on rim of annular disk, anthers 1-1.1 mm long, oblong; disk 0.5- 0.8 mm tall × 0.1 mm thick, receptacle flat; pistil 3.7-4.1 × 1.7-2.4 mm, ovary depressed-ovoid, substipitate, with dense appressed brown hairs to 0.1 mm long, the style 1.3-1.5 × 0.6 mm, the stigmatal area 0.4-0.5 mm tall, 3-lobed. Fruiting pedicel (0.8) 1.4-4.4 mm (can appear up to 9 mm long when bracts along inflorescence are obscured), subcylindrical, fruiting calyx 6-11 mm long, deeply cupular but distally spreading to patent, lobes indistinct, surface with sparse raised round lenticels. Fruits 2.7-4.2 (4.7) × 1.6-2.2 (2.5) cm, beige, usually (oblong-)obovoid, sometimes oblong-ovoid or oblong-ellipsoid, the apex truncate or obtuse, less often acute, the base obtuse, lenticels on surface sparse to relatively dense, round, small, raised, ferrugineous, surface also with golden hairs to 0.4 mm long, ascending near apex and descending near base (denser on young fruit).


Canarium obtusifolium is most easily confused with C. lamianum , sp. nov., with which it shares these characters: leaves 2-4-jugate, stipules 3-16 mm from petiole insertion, lateral leaflets usually (oblong-)elliptic or oblong-obovate, leaflet secondary veins in 6-10 pairs and on adaxial side very broadly prominulous to flat, the spacing (slightly) decreasing toward the apex, and the fruits 3.3-5 cm long, (oblong-) ovoid to (oblong-)obovoid, with small raised lenticels. Canarium obtusifolium can be distinguished from the latter by its leaflets drying a lighter brown and dull (vs often glossy in C. lamianum , sp. nov.), the apex usually rounded (vs usually broadly short-acuminate), the secondary veins usually wavy (vs not), discolorous (vs concolorous), and branching far from the margin, the abaxial surface micro-pitted (vs smooth), the margin often revolute when dry (vs flat), and the fruit more often oblong (vs more often (ob)ovoid).

Like C. planifolium , sp. nov., C. obtusifolium has stipules 3-7 mm long, leaflets coriaceous and the laterals 2.2-9.6 cm long and usually oblong(-elliptic), and the fruits 3.5-5.5 cm long with small ferrugineous lenticels.The latter can be distinguished from C. planifolium , sp. nov. by the leaves 2-4(5)-jugate (vs 5-7 in C. planifolium , sp. nov.), the stipules usually farther from petiole insertion (3-16 vs 2-6 mm), the leaflet margin often slightly revolute (vs flat), fewer pairs of secondary veins (5-10 vs 9-14), the inflorescence hairs shorter (sparse, to 0.1 mm long vs dense, to 0.3 mm long), the staminate flowers shorter (5-5.5 (6.9) mm vs 7-10.5 mm), the bracts narrower and constricted at base, and the fruit usually ellipsoid (vs oblong).

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