Canarium multiflorum Engl.

Daly, Douglas C., Raharimampionona, Jeannie & Federman, Sarah, 2015, A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia 37 (2), pp. 277-345 : 322-323

publication ID 10.5252/a2015n2a2

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scientific name

Canarium multiflorum Engl.


Canarium multiflorum Engl. View in CoL

( Fig. 20 View FIG )

In A.DC. & C.DC., Monographiae Phanerogamarum Prodromi 4: 128, 129 (1883). — Typus. Madagascar, Mouroundavo , (without date), Grevé s.n. (holo-, P[P00048613]!; iso-, P[P00048614]) .

SELECTED MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. Antananarivo, Analamanga, Parc du Tsimbazaza, 1300 m, 18°55’S, 47°31’E, 06.XI.1984, L. Barnett & L. J. Dorr 172 ( MO, NY) GoogleMaps ; Antsiranana, Sava, Vohémar / Iharana , Tsarabaria , Manakana , Ambondrobe , 13 m, 13°43’05”S, 50°05’52”E, 3.III.2003, J. Rabenantoandro, R. Rabevohitra, R. Razakamalala & I. d’Analovana 1413 ( MO, NY) GoogleMaps ; Fivondronana, Vohémar, Firaisana , Tsarabaria , Fokontany , Manakana , Ambondrobe , 13°42’46”S, 50°05’25”E, R. Razakamalala & D. Rabehevitra 1338 ( US) GoogleMaps . Mahajanga, Melaky, 20 km W of Marerano on Manambolo river, 200 m, 19°03’S, 45°07’E, 21.III.1990, B. Du Puy, D. Du Puy, J. Andriantiana & B. Carlson 778 ( MO, P); Sofia, Bora, Antsohihy, Ampombilava, 100 m, 14.XI.1956, Service Forestier 16444 ( NY, P, TEF [not seen]; Betsiboka, Forêt d’Ambika, Tsaratanana, 0-400 m, 16°49’40”S, 47°36’30”E, 12.VI.1956, Service Forestier 16515 ( NY, TEF [not seen]); Maintirano, Belitsaky, Antsakoabe, 18°05’05”S, 44°32’55”E, 352 m, 20.XI.2012, C. Rakotovao, I. Luino & J. Razafimandimby 6304 ( NY) GoogleMaps . Toliara, Menabe, Berge de la Maharivo, Makojeby, Befasy-Morondava, 0-400 m, 23.XI.1956, Service Forestier 16549 ( NY, P, TEF [not seen]); Ankilizato, Mahabo, Sakamaly River near Migodo , 04.XII.1957, Service Forestier 17870 ( NY, TEF) . DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY. — Canarium multiflorum is one of the most abundant and widely distributed species of the genus in Madagascar. It occurs in dry and subhumid forests and so is absent from the eastern moist forests. Still, it is somewhat versatile, ranging between 13-300 m elevation and from deciduous forests in Morondava to Mandritsara and near the Réserve Spéciale Manongarivo, to subhumid evergreen forest from the center to the north near Vohémar, and including Sambirano in the Nosy Be Reserve . It is also found in littoral forest and riparian forest. Flowering Nov. - Dec., fruiting Aug. - Nov .

COMMON NAMES AND USES. — Ramy. Resin used as insect repellant (Service Forestier 16444).


Trees, reproductive size 10-16 m × 35-150 cm diam. Outer bark gray, thin. Leaves 10-41 cm, 3-5(6)-jugate; petiole 3.2-5.6 mm long, often slightly dilated proximal to stipular scar, petiole and rachis with sparse to dense erect fine 0.15-0.5 (0.7) mm long, also scattered snail-shaped glands; stipules caducous, 6-15 (20) mm from petiole insertion,, scar 1-2.5 mm long; basal petiolules 4-16 mm long, other laterals 4-22 (27) mm long, terminals one 12-30 (45) mm long, petiolules not canaliculate, lateral pulvinuli inconspicuous; basal leaflets 2.3-7.7 × 1.2-5.5 cm, (broadly) ovate, other laterals 3.4-21 × 1.2-7.6 cm, (oblong-)lanceolate to (oblong-)ovate, terminal one 4-13.5 × 1.9-6.1 cm, ovate or less often (broadly) elliptic; leaflet apex (usually) gradually acuminate, on basals 1-4 mm long, on others 4-11 (15) mm long; base (slightly) asymmetrical, broadly truncate to broadly cordate; margin flat; leaflets slightly coriaceous, drying brown to dark grayish-brown, glossy adaxially and often abaxially; secondary framework festooned-brochidodromous, secondaries in 6-14 pairs, almost straight, spacing slightly decreasing toward base and apex, angle subperpendicular, slightly increasing toward base and decreasing toward apex, usually discolorous adaxially and sometimes abaxially, acute to perpendicular intersecondaries sometimes present, perpendicular epimedial tertiaries usually present, intercostal tertiaries alternate-percurrent and irregular-polygonal; on abaxial side the midvein and secondaries narrowly prominent, rest narrowly prominulous, axils of secondary veins with tufts of usually dense, erect to ascending, ferrugineous hairs to 0.7 mm long, also the midvein and secondaries (rarely all) with scattered or sparse fine erect to appressed hairs to 0.1 mm long; on adaxial side all veins narrowly prominulous but midvein also sunk in groove; surface usually glabrous except often along midvein near base with a few fine erect hairs to 0.1 mm long and snailshaped glands. Staminate inflorescences 18-34 cm long, secondary axes to 11 cm long, axes with sparse thick hairs to 0.1 mm long, sparse snail-shaped glands, and (usually only on tertiary branches) flexuous hairs to 0.2 mm long; bracts on primary axes 1.5-2.2 mm long, lanceolate, fleshy, not semi-clasping; other bracts 1.3-2 mm long, linear to ovate; bracteoles 0.4-1.2 mm long, subulate to lanceolate, shorter than the buds; pedicel 1-1.6 × 0.5-0.7 mm long. Staminate flowers c. 7 mm long; calyx 3.3 × 3.4 mm overall, shallowly cupular, much taller than ovariodisk, lobes 1.4 mm long, rounded depressed-deltate, abaxial surface densely provided with all three types of hairs; petals 5.7 × 3.6 mm, exposed part shorter than calyx, slightly obovate, yellow-orange, abaxial surface with dense appressed pale hairs to 0.2 mm long (retrorse-appressed along margin); stamens 4.1-4.5 mm long, anthers 1.6-1.7 mm long, narrowly ovate in dorsiventral view, lanceolate in lateral view; ovariodisk 1.5 × 1.3 mm, essentially broadly obovoid, apex craggy. Pistillate inflorescences to 11 cm long, the secondary axes to 2.5 cm; pedicel 0.2-0.6 × 0.8-0.9 mm; bracts on secondary axes c. 3 mm long, ovate with constricted base; bracteoles c. 1.7 mm long, ovate to lanceolate, partly covering the buds. Pistillate flowers c. 6.8 mm long; calyx 3.7-4 × 4-4.3 mm overall, deeply cupular, almost level with stigmas, lobes 0.8-1 mm long, rounded-deltate; petals 5 × 3.6 mm, exposed part much shorter than calyx, broadly ovate, apex obtuse, suberect at anthesis; staminodes c. 2 mm long, inserted on hypanthium or at base of thin annular disk, anthers 0.8-0.9 mm long, triangular in dorsiventral view, lanceolate in lateral view, filaments flat and almost triangular; pistil 3.4 × 2.3 mm, set in a shallow hypanthium but sometimes a short thin disk present c. 0.2 mm tall, style 0.6 × 1.1 mm, stigmatal area 0.7 mm tall, stigma lobes globose. Fruiting pedicel 3-6 × 2.8-3.8 mm, subterete (somewhat clavate in N Madagascar), fruiting calyx 2-4 mm long, not cupular, patent, lobes not distinct. Fruits 1.7- 3.8 (4) × 1.7-2.8 cm, brown, subglobose to broadly (ob) ovoid to oblong-ellipsoid, rarely somewhat angular, the apex slightly acuminate to obtuse, base slightly cordate to truncate, or obtuse; lenticels on surface dense, flat, small, white; among the lenticels provided with dense to sparse retrorse-appressed pale hairs to 0.25 mm long (forwardappressed toward apex).


Canarium multiflorum belongs to a group of 10 species that all have relatively large leaflets with truncate to slightly cordate base; it can be distinguished from them by the secondary vein axils with tufts of usually dense, erect to ascending, ferrugineous hairs to 0.7 mm long.

This species displays two somewhat distinct fruit morphologies: in populations throughout the range of the species, they are (2) 3.5-4 × 1.8-2.5 cm, broadly (ob)ovoid to oblongellipsoid, rarely somewhat angular, apex round to slightly acuminate, base slightly cordate to truncate or obtuse, but in populations that follow the west coast of the country, they can be (1) 1.7-2.5 × 2-2.8 cm and (sub)globose.


Missouri Botanical Garden


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


University of Stellenbosch


Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural

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