Canarium lamianum Daly, Raharim. & Federman, 2015

Daly, Douglas C., Raharimampionona, Jeannie & Federman, Sarah, 2015, A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia 37 (2), pp. 277-345 : 314-316

publication ID 10.5252/a2015n2a2

persistent identifier

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scientific name

Canarium lamianum Daly, Raharim. & Federman

sp. nov.

Canarium lamianum Daly, Raharim. & Federman View in CoL , sp. nov.

( Figs 17 View FIG ; 18 View FIG ).

Small to large trees, leaves (2)3-4-jugate, leaflet secondary veins in 6-10 pairs and on adaxial side very broadly prominulous to flat, the spacing (slightly) decreasing toward the apex, and fruits 3.3-5 cm long, (oblong-) ovoid to (oblong-)obovoid, with small raised lenticels; distinguished from C. obtusifolium Scott-Elliot by the leaflets drying darker brown and often glossy, the apex usually broadly short-acuminate (vs usually rounded in C. obtusifolium ), and the secondary veins not wavy and concolorous (vs wavy and discolorous), and branching close to the flat margin (vs not branching close to the flat margin).

TYPUS. — Madagascar. Toamasina, Commune Ambodirina, Réserve Intégrale Naturelle Betampona, 400-600 m elev., 10.IV.2008, T. Treuer, S. Federman & Sylvain 109 (holo-, NY!; iso-, G, MO, P, TAN!). PARATYPI. — Madagascar. Antsiranana, DIANA, Réserve Spéciale Manongarivo , Antsatrotro, E of Ankaramy, 1500-1600 m, 14°05’S, 48°23’E, 13.IV.1992, S. Malcomber, J. Hutcheon, A. Razafimanantsoa & M. Zjhra 1469 ( MO, NY, TAN) GoogleMaps . Fianarantsoa: Fivondronana , Mahanoro , Firaisana , Ambodibonara , Fokontany , Ambalavontaka , Forêt de Nankinana, 10 m, 20°21’33”S, 48°36’20”E, R. Razakamalala, R. Ranaivojaona & Z. Rogers 1152 ( US) GoogleMaps . Toamasina , Analanjirofo , Mananara , Vanono , Anjian’i Madiarano forest , 816 m, 15°54’03”S, 49°27’44”E, 23.VII.2007, P. Antilahimena et al. 5631 ( MO, NY, P, TAN, TEF); Masoala Peninsula , Mahalevona , Maroantsetra , 375- 1011 m, 15°17’22”S, 50°00’58”E, 08.X.1997, C. Birkinshaw, H. Ralimanana & R. Ranaivojaona 493 ( MO, NY, P, TAN); Atsinanana, Réserve Naturelle Intégrale Betampona, 400-600 m, 17°54’18”S, 49°12’22”E, 07.III.2008, S. Federman, T.Treuer & Sylvain 40 ( NY) GoogleMaps ; Atsinanana , Réserve Naturelle Intégrale Betampona, 400-600 m, 17°54’11”S, 49°13’06”E, 07.IV.2008, T. Treuer, S. Federman & Sylvain 84 ( NY) GoogleMaps .

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY. — Canarium lamianum , sp. nov. is one of the most broadly distributed, variable, and ecologically versatile species of the genus in Madagascar. It has been recorded in many of the moister parts of the country except the southeast. It tends to occur in dense forest on slopes and dense lowland forest, but it ranges between 5-1500 m elevation. Flowering Jan.-Mar., fruiting all year.

COMMON NAME AND USES. — Ramy. Used for caulking canoes, illumination, and in religious (tromba) ceremonies.

ETYMOLOGY. — We name this species in honor of H. J. Lam, who contributed so much to our understanding of paleotropical Burseraceae .


Trees, reproductive size 6-30 m tall × 15-57 cm diam, with simple or branched plank buttresses 32-200 cm tall and extending 2-4 m from trunk. Outer bark (brownish-)gray, thin or thick, scalloped,sometimes with hoop marks, sometime finely fissured, with dense to sparse raised lenticels, shed as irregular plates; inner bark pale red, light orange, or reddish orange. Resin clear when fresh. Leaves 14.5-33 cm long, (2) 3-4-jugate; petiole 2.5- 6.5 cm, petiole and rachis usually with scattered thick, appressed golden hairs to 0.05 mm long, also with scattered (rarely sparse) capitate glands; stipules 4-13 (19) mm from petiole insertion, 3-7 mm long, orbicular to ovate, base constricted, fleshy, usually persistent, with dense ascending to appressed thick golden hairs to 0.15 mm long (sometimes sparse, or on older leaflets subglabrous); the scar 1.3-1.6 mm long, raised; basal and other lateral petiolules 4-12 mm long, terminal one 13-30 mm long, petiolules slightly canaliculate, lateral pulvinuli conspicuous; basal leaflets 2.7-11.1 × 1.7-4.1 cm, (ob)ovate to broadly elliptic or rarely lanceolate, other laterals 4 × 13.5 × 1.8-4.0 cm, (oblong) elliptic to slightly oblong-obovate or oblong-oblanceolate, terminal one 4.5-11.5 × 2-35, obovate or sometimes elliptic; leaflet apex abruptly and broadly short-acuminate, the acumen 2-7 (11) mm long (very rarely some leaflets with rounded apex or the apex tip sometimes retuse); lateral leaflet base usually subsymmetrical, obtuse to truncate to acute, sometimes short-attenuate; margin flat; leaflets coriaceous, drying dark brown, dull; secondary vein framework brochidodromous but secondaries branching near margin, secondaries in 6-10 pairs, slightly arcuate, concolorous, spacing slightly decreasing toward apex and base, often irregular, angle acute to subperpendicular, increasing toward apex and decreasing toward base or uniform, perpendicular epimedial tertiaries sometimes present; intercostal tertiaries random-reticulate with some admedial branching; on abaxial side the midvein broadly prominent, rest nearly flat, the surface subglabrous but often with a few scattered capitate glands and sometimes a few appressed fine hairs to 0.1 mm long; on adaxial side midvein narrowly prominulous but sunk in a groove, secondaries narrowly prominulous, sometimes immersed, rest nearly flat, the surface glabrous. Inflorescences 7-19 cm long, 1.8-3.2 (4) mm diam near base (2.5-5 mm diam in fruit), secondary axes to 6.5 mm long, axes with dense flexuous golden hairs to 0.25 mm long and dense capitate glands, or with sparse flexuous hairs to 0.1 mm long and sparse capitate glands (both scattered in fruit); bracts on primary axes of staminate inflorescences 3.4 mm long, very broadly ovate, semi-clasping, fleshy; other bracts 3.5-4.5 mm long, (ob)ovate to lanceolate, often with constricted base, longer than buds; bracteoles 2.2-2.7 mm long, lanceolate; bracts mostly deciduous, unknown for pistillate inflorescences; in staminate inflorescences the pedicel 0.5-2 × 0.9-1.1 mm, cylindrical. Staminate flowers (5.4) 6-8.6 (9.5) mm long at anthesis; calyx 3.6-4.5 × 4-5.3 (6) mm overall, the lobes 1.2-2 (3) mm long, ovate to deltate, somewhat spreading, abaxial surface with dense flexuous hairs to 0.1 mm long and capitate glands; petals 5.6-8.1 (9) × 1.8-3.3 mm, exposed part longer than calyx, (oblong-) ovate to oblong-obovate, sometimes slightly acuminate (usually acute),with an inflexed apiculum (not always evident) 0.35-0.4 mm long, abaxial surface with dense thick appressed hairs to 0.1 mm long (0.15 mm at apex), these retrorse near base, adaxial surface with dense capitate glands; two series of stamens inserted at two levels near base of ovariodisk, (3.2) 3.8-5 mm long (6.6 mm in Service Forestier 5892), some- times the two series somewhat unequal, the anthers 1.1-1.7 (2.3) mm long, lanceolate in dorsiventral view, (oblong-)lanceolate in lateral view; ovariodisk 0.9-2 × (0.7) 0.9-2.2 mm, essentially columnar to slightly (depressed-)obovoid with craggy apex.Pedicel for pistillate flowers 3-3.7 × 2.3-2.4 mm, clavate; pistillate flowers (passed and incomplete) c. 11 mm long; calyx 6.8-8 × 7.4-7.7 mm overall, cupular, lobes 2-2.5 mm long, rounded depressed-deltate; pistil with dense appressed stiff pale hairs to 0.3 mm long. Fruiting pedicel 2-4.5 (7) × 3.4-5 mm, clavate, fruiting calyx 4-5 mm long, usually slightly cupular, the lobes distinct, 1-2 mm long, spreading. Fruits 3.3-4.6 × (1.5) 1.9-2.7 (3) cm (to 3.4 cm diam when fresh), (grayish-) green to (light) brown, usually slightly obovoid, sometimes oblong-elliptic or rarely slightly ovoid, sometimes trigonous, apex rounded, base obtuse to truncate, lenticels on surface dense, small,slightly raised, ferrugineous, surface also with dense ferrugineous capitate glands and dense erect to flexuous golden to whitish hairs to 0.25 mm long, rarely glabrescent on older fruits. Pyrene (oblong-)ovoid, operculum ¾ its length.


Canarium lamianum , sp. nov. is contrasted with C. arcuatum , sp. nov., C. laxiflorum , sp. nov. and C. obtusifolium under the discussions for these latter species.


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Missouri Botanical Garden


Parc de Tsimbazaza


Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural

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