Tupistra khangii Aver., N.Tanaka & N.Vislobokov, 2014

Vislobokov, Nikolay A., Тanaka, Noriyuki, Averyanov, Leonid V., Nguyen, Hiep Tien, Nuraliev, Maxim S. & Kuznetsov, Andrey N., 2014, Tupistra khangii (Asparagaceae), a new species from northern Vietnam, Phytotaxa 175 (5), pp. 287-292 : 288-291

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https://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.175.5.8

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Tupistra khangii Aver., N.Tanaka & N.Vislobokov

sp. nov.

Tupistra khangii Aver., N.Tanaka & N.Vislobokov View in CoL , sp. nov. ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 )

Differs from a related species T. longispica by the white stigma (vs. pale purple stigma), yellow pollen, and the shorter peduncle (vs. peduncle 20–33 cm long).

Type:— NORTHERN VIETNAM. Son La prov., Van Ho distr., Tan Xuan municipality, Cot Moc village , Xuan Nha natural reserve, eastern slopes of Pha Luong Mountain . Broad-leaved evergreen humid forest on very steep mountain slopes as well as on large mossy boulders along narrow shady rocky stream, elev. about 1000 m a.s.l., around point 20°40’33.3’’N, 104°39’00.3’’E. Occasional. 15 November 2013, L GoogleMaps . Averyanov , N. T . Hiep , N. S . Khang , N . D. Thang , L . D. Qui CPC 7158 View Materials (holotype, LE!; isotypes, CPC!) GoogleMaps .

Terrestrial and occasionally lithophytic clustering perennial herb. Rhizome erect, suberect or ascending, simple to many branched, terete, stout, semi-woody, with many dense nodes, 5–10 cm long, Ø (1.5–) 2–3 cm, yellowish to almost white. Roots numerous, branching, fleshy, semi-woody, wiry. Stem erect, very short, 3–5 cm tall, covered with sheath leaves (cataphylls) and many sub-distichous, imbricate, petiole-like leaf bases. Sheath leaves equitant, conduplicate, herbaceous, (5–)10–20(–25) cm long, 1–2 cm wide, yellowish-green or light green, becoming dark dirty-brown and partially disintegrated with age. Leaves (4–)5–7(–10), sometimes with few, partially disintegrated, old leaf remnants, suberect to arcuate, equitant, oblanceolate to broadly oblanceolate, gradually tapering to thick, rigid, canaliculate, petiole-like basal part, acute to shortly acuminate at apex, (0.8–)1.1–1.4(–1.8) m long, (4–)6–12(–15) cm wide, leathery, glossy, uniformly dark green, midvein prominently raised abaxially. Peduncle axillary in apical part of stem, erect, straight or slightly curved, fleshy, rigid, subterete or irregularly angled longitudinally, glabrous, (4–)5–8(– 10) cm long, shorter than half of inflorescence rachis, Ø (4–)5–8(–10) mm, white. Inflorescence terminal, spadix-like spike, dense or subdense with many flowers, (12–)15–35(–40) cm long, Ø 1.5–2.2 cm. Flower-subtending bract 1 per flower, bail-shaped (or cucullate), rectangular-ovate, rigid, very fleshy at base, blunt to truncate at apex, irregularly slightly incised and scarious along margin, light green to white, (4–)5–6(–7) mm long and wide, much shorter than flowers, persistent. Floral bracteoles 1 per flower, lateral to flower, oblong, scarious and slightly crenulate along margin, 3–5 mm long, ca. 1.5–2 mm wide (see note below). Flower buds obliquely ovoid, externally white or tinged with pink or light purple-brown. Flowers sessile. Perigone broadly campanulate, 6-lobed, funnel-shaped in proximal tubular part, 9–10 mm long, Ø (15–)17–19(–20) mm (full open perigone with recurved lobes Ø (10.5–)12–14(–15) mm), fleshy, purely white to slightly dull yellowish; segments broadly triangular-ovate, irregularly incised or crenulate along distal margin, strongly recurved in mid anthesis, 4–5 mm long and wide. Stamens 6, anthers ovoid 0.9–1.1 mm long, dull yellow, ventral side facing upward, dorsifixed on short fleshy filaments about 1 mm long, Ø 1 mm; filaments inserted at base of perigone segments. Pistil 12–15 mm long, distal part prominently exserted from perigone, purely snow-white, becoming nodding, and turning gray and then black at late and final stage of anthesis. Ovary superior, inconspicuous, shortly cylindrical 1–1.5 mm long, Ø 1.5–2 mm, glabrous, glossy, 3-locular, each chamber containing 2 ovoid ovules. Style narrowly obpyramidal 9–11 mm long, Ø 1–1.3 mm at base and Ø 2–2.5 mm in distal part, slightly ribbed longitudinally, finely papillose on ribs, narrowly channeled longitudinally in middle of interior, the channel transversally triangular. Stigma in flower buds and at early anthesis hemispheric or subcapitate, Ø (5.5–) 6–7 mm, entire or very indistinctly 3-sected, margins irregularly lobed and curved downwards, finely tuberculate on both front and rear surfaces; in mid and late stage of anthesis distal part of pistil becoming split into many irregular subfunnelform branches of which stigma densely papillose and style irregularly ribbed. Fruit berry-like, obovoid to almost globular, often slightly obliquely inflated, irregularly prickly tuberculate, (1.5–)2–2.5(–3) cm in longer axis, green to yellowish-green, 1-seeded, rarely 2 or 3-seeded, indehiscent.

Note: —In immature inflorescence flower-subtending bracts closely adjacent to flower buds. Therefore young bracteole is inconspicuous ( Fig. 1d, e View FIGURE 1 ). Later inflorescence rachis continues to elongate until fruits appear ( Fig. 1b, c View FIGURE 1 ). In developed inflorescence each flower has one flower-subtending bract and one lateral bracteole. Presence or absence of bracts and bracteoles is very important and stabile character for many monocot species (Remizova et al. 2013). Nevertheless in genus Tupistra a few species without floral bracteoles occur, e.g. Tupistra theana , as well as in closely related genus Rohdea , e. g. Rohdea dracaenoides Averyanov & Tanaka in Averyanov et al. (2014: 21).

and design by L. Averyanov].

Additional specimens studied (paratypes): — VIETNAM. Hoa Binh prov. [Ha Son Binh], Luong Son distr. , Lam Son municipality, 300 m a.s.l., 27 April 1986, P. K . Loc, P 6051 ( HNU!, LE!); Son La prov., Moc Chau distr. , Chieng Hac municipality, around point 20°51’50’’N, 104°31’17’’E. Evergreen dry forest, elev. 1200–1300 m a.s.l. 31 October 2006, N. T GoogleMaps . Hiep, L . Averyanov, P. V . The, HAL 9403 View Materials ( HN!, LE!, MO!); Dien Bien prov., Dien Bien distr., Muong Phang municipality. Broad-leaved forest on shaly hills. 11 December 2010, L . Averyanov, P. K . Loc, P. V . The, N. T . Vinh, CPC 857 View Materials ( HN!, CPC!, LE!); Ha Noi City area , Ba Vi district , Ba Vi Mountain , September 2013, O . Colin s.n. ( LE!, photo); Id., Ba Vi National Park , 21°04.662’N, 105°21.859’E, elev. 658 m, 29 November 2010, J GoogleMaps . Leong-Škorničková (photo); Id., Ba Vi National Park , 21°03’37’’N, 105°21’49’’E, elev. 1100 m, 18 June 2014, S. P GoogleMaps . Kuznetsova, M. S . Nuraliev 1079 ( MW!); Id., Ba Vi National Park , 21°04’27’’N, 105°21’48’’E, elev. 780 m, 19 June 2014, M. S GoogleMaps . Nuraliev 1081 ( MW!); Id. , mountain forest, elev. 700 m, 21˚04,096’ N, E 105 ˚21,501’ E. 20 October 2013, N. A . Vislobokov 13049 (flowers in liquid collection at Moscow University, photo); Id., mountain forest, elev. 1093 m, 21°03.617’N, 105°21.809’E. 24- 29 October 2013, N. A GoogleMaps . Vislobokov 13071/13063 (flowers and fruits in liquid collection at Moscow University); Nghe An prov., Ky Son distr. , Na Ngoi municipality, eastern slopes of Phu Xai Lai Leng Mountain . Broad-leaved forest on steep mountain slopes, elev. 1300–1500 m a.s.l., around point 19°13’53.4’’N, 104°12’09.7’’E. 26 October 2013, L GoogleMaps . Averyanov, N. T . Hiep, N. S . Khang, L. M . Tuan, N. A . Trang, L. H . Dan, CPC 6344 View Materials ( CPC!, LE!) GoogleMaps .

Etymology: —The new species is named after a Vietnamese botanist N.S. Khang, who collected best samples representing the species.

Ecology: —Primary and secondary broad-leaved evergreen lowland and submontane forests on sandstone, shale and granite, rarely on alluvium derived from limestone, common along damp rocky valleys or in shady humid depressions on mountain slopes, terrestrial on soils rich in humus or on large, shady, mossy, often wet boulders along mountain streams at elev. (300)500–1300(1500) m a.s.l. In optimal ecological conditions, large clump of many densely clustering stems, measuring 1.5–2.5 m across, develops from a single shortly branched rhizome. Locally often common.

Flowering: —September–December.

Fruiting: —October–February.

Pollination: —According our sporadic observations, flowers of Tupistra khangii visited by ants ( Fig. 2k View FIGURE 2 ). Notable that ants were recognized as pollinators of Rohdea ( Migliorato 1910) . Also visits of ants recorded in flowers of closely related genus Aspidistra Ker Gawler (1822: 628) ( Vislobokov et al. 2013). But its role in pollination of Tupistra is unclear.

Distribution: —Northern Vietnam. The new species is presently recorded from Ha Noi City area (Ba Vi distr.), and provinces Dien Bien (Dien Bien distr.), Hoa Binh (Luong Son distr.), Nghe An (Ky Son distr.) and Son La (Moc Chau and Van Ho distr.). It is probably a local endemic of north-eastern Indochina, ranging widely in north-western Vietnam and adjacent territories of north-eastern Laos.

Taxonomic relationships: — Tupistra khangii is very close to T. longispica Y.Wan & X.H.Lu in Wan (1984: 168) endemic to southwestern Guangxi but differs from it by the white stigma (vs. pale purple stigma), yellow pollen, and the shorter peduncle (vs. peduncle 20–33 cm long). The new species is also close to T. hongheensis G.W.Hu & H.Li in Hu et al. (2013: 230) occurring in southern Yunnan, but differs from it by the much shorter, erect or ascending rhizome (vs. long creeping rhizomes to 1 m long), the purplish flower buds (vs. greenish buds), the stamens arising from the base of perigone segments (vs. stamens from the middle of the segments), and the prickly tuberculate fruits (vs. subsmooth fruits). It is also close to T. muricata ( Gagnepain 1934: 287) Tanaka (2003b: 335) [= T. albiflora Larsen (1961: 43) ] occurring in northern Thailand, Laos and southern Yunnan ( Tanaka 2010b), but differs by the much larger hemispheric or subcapitate stigma (vs. smaller, thin, centrally concave, peltate or subfunnel-shaped stigma). The pistil of Tupistra khangii is unique not only in its large subcapitate stigma which is prominently exserted from the perigone but also in the character that it becomes remarkably fissured toward the end of anthesis.


Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch


Nanjing University


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Servico de Microbiologia e Imunologia


Culture collection of Pedro Crous


Botanical Museum - University of Oslo


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Royal Botanic Gardens


Hunan Normal University


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


National Center for Natural Sciences and Technology


Missouri Botanical Garden


Botanical Museum - University of Oslo


University of the Witwatersrand


Botanische Staatssammlung München


Museum Wasmann


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum


University of Helsinki

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