Hemigymnochaeta Corti, 1895: 142

Kurahashi, Hiromu & Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H., 2006, The Calliphoridae of Namibia (Diptera: Oestroidea), Zootaxa 1322 (1), pp. 1-131 : 67-70

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.1322.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C54E8D07-81A3-40F0-8891-A990241AAA13

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FB8903-F820-FFB7-FEBB-FE7966D8FCDF

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Hemigymnochaeta Corti, 1895: 142
status

 

Genus: Hemigymnochaeta Corti, 1895: 142 .

TYPE SPECIES: Hemigymnochaeta lutea Corti, 1895 [= Ochromyia unicolor Bigot, 1888 ], by monotypy.

NOTES: A large genus restricted to the Afrotropical Region; species of which develop in various kinds of organic matter, such as mushrooms, dung and faeces. Some species drop their eggs in and between the openings of temporary nests of driver ants (Zumpt 1953c: 481). Engel and Cuthbertson (1937: 10, as Tricyclea resurgens ) and Ferrar (1987: 85–86) note females of H. apicifera Curran, 1931 , collected at fungus material removed by termites ( Isoptera ) from their nest in Zimbabwe. The Namibian species appear to be primarily associated with the fungus gardens of termites and the fruiting bodies of associated fungi.

Hemigymnochaeta bequaerti Curran, 1931 a: 14.

Figs. 41 View FIGURES 39–42 , 63 View FIGURES 63–68 .

TYPE LOCALITY: Liberia .

DISTRIBUTION: Widespread West Africa to southern Africa: Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Liberia, Namibia *, Nigeria and South Africa (Natal, Transvaal).

MATERIAL: 4♀, Salambala campsite, 1–3.iii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) faeces; 2♀, same except: 3–4.iii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) fish; 2♂, 17♀, same except: 26–28.ii.2001, Marais & Kirk­ Spriggs (1) ( HT) fruit; 2♂, 4♀, same except: 8–10.ii.2004, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) fruit; 1♂, 5♀, same except: ( MT) ; 1♂, same except: 22–24.ii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) & Marais ( MT) ; 1♂, same except: 1–4.iii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( PT) baited millipede; 2♀, Bum Hill campsite ( Kwando River), 10–13.ii.2004, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) fruit; 1♀, same except: ( MT) ; 1♀, Toggenburg 591 campsite, 18–20.ii.2004, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) fruit; 4♂, 2♀, Popa Falls restcamp, 13–16.ii.2004, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( MT) , riverine forest; 1♀, same except: ( HT) fruit.

NOTES: Biology and immature stages unknown. Reared from mushrooms collected near Agatha, South Africa by Zumpt (1953c: 488). In Namibia collected in hanging traps baited with fermenting fruit bait, rotting fish and faeces, in Malaise traps, and in a pitfall trap baited with a dead millipede. North­eastern Namibia; in the ‘arid’ and ‘mesic’ savanna biome ( Fig. 63 View FIGURES 63–68 ). Most abundant in February (vide Table 2).

Hemigymnochaeta laticeps Zumpt, 1953c: 490 .

Figs. 42 View FIGURES 39–42 , 64 View FIGURES 63–68 .

TYPE LOCALITY: Rhodesia [= Zimbabwe] .

DISTRIBUTION: Botswana, Namibia *, South Africa (Transvaal), Uganda, Upper Volta and Zimbabwe.

MATERIAL: 3♀, Salambala campsite, 8–10.ii.2004, Kirk­Spriggs(1) ( HT) fruit; 2♀, same except: ( MT).

NOTES: Biology, life history and immature stages unknown. In Namibia collected in a Malaise trap and a hanging trap baited with fermenting fruit. North­eastern Namibia; in the ‘mesic’ savanna biome ( Fig. 64 View FIGURES 63–68 ). Recorded in February (vide Table 2).

Hemigymnochaeta maraisi sp. nov.

Figs. 15–20 View FIGURES 15–20 , 39 View FIGURES 39–42 , 65 View FIGURES 63–68 .

TYPE LOCALITY: Namibia .

DISTRIBUTION: Katima Mulilo and Tsumkwe Districts of north­eastern Namibia, in the ‘mesic’ savanna biome ( Fig. 65 View FIGURES 63–68 ).

MATERIAL: vide description, p. 28.

Hemigymnochaeta trichaeta sp. nov.

Figs. 21–26 View FIGURES 21–26 , 40 View FIGURES 39–42 , 66 View FIGURES 63–68 .

TYPE LOCALITY: Namibia .

DISTRIBUTION: Bwabwata National Park of north­eastern Namibia, in the ‘mesic’ savanna biome ( Fig. 66 View FIGURES 63–68 ).

MATERIAL: vide description, p. 32.

Hemigymnochaeta unicolor (Bigot, 1888: 608) ( Ochromyia ).

Figs. 27–32 View FIGURES 27–32 , 67 View FIGURES 63–68 .

TYPE LOCALITY: Sierra Leone .

DISTRIBUTION: Widespread in Afrotropical Region: Benin, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (Cape, Natal, Transvaal), Togo, Uganda, Zambia * and Zimbabwe.

PREVIOUS RECORDS: Grootfontein [19°57'S, 18°12'E]; Okakarara [20°58'S, 17°43'E]; Omatjette [21°05'S, 15°05'E]; Epukiro [21°07'S, 19°12'E] (Zumpt 1953c: 488) GoogleMaps .

KNOWN RECORDS: Grootfontein [19°33'S, 18°05'E], 30.iv.1950 GoogleMaps ; Omatjette [21°05'S, 15°05'E], 11.iv.1950 (NMSA)

MATERIAL: 1♂, Ondundozonananandana Mts. , 16.v–22.vi.1986, Griffin (1) ( PT) ; 1♂, 1♀, Okaukuejo­Duikersdrink rds. junction on, 15.v–16.vi.1986, Griffin (1) ( PT), H65447 View Materials ; 2♂, 1♀, Etosha Game Park at: 20.v–18.vi.1986, Griffin (1) ( PT), H65568 View Materials / H65569 View Materials ; 3♀, Wolfnes­Okondeka rds., W of junction of, 16.v–12.vi.1986, Griffin (1) ( PT) H65403 View Materials ; 2♂, 4♀, Ghaub 47, 16–26.vii.1986, Irish (1) ( MT) ; 1♀, Sturmfeld 252, iii.1986, Tölken, H65186 View Materials ; 1♂, Tobiroen , 15.v.1986, Curtis ; 1♂, 1♀, Dorsland , 14.v–16.vi.1986, Griffin (1) ( PT) ; 1♀, Hereroland­Oos at: 20.i.1984, Irish (1), H58092 View Materials ; 1♂, Okahandja 6.xii.[19]72, Gaerdes, H25130 View Materials ; 1♀, Sprokieswoud , 7.viii–15.ix.1987, Griffin (1) ( PT) ; 1♀, Waterberg Plateau Park (2), 2.ii–1.iii.1993, Pusch ( PT) ; 2♂, 11♀, Ruacana area , 14.iii.1997, Koch ( MT) ; 3♂, 2♀, Helio (2), 27.iii–4.v.1988, Griffin (1) ( PT) ; 1♂, 2♀, Okaukuejo, SE 1915 Bb , vi.1991, Versfeld ; 1♀, B de la Bat Restcamp, 9–13.iv.1993, Green ( MT) ; 1♂, 1♀, Persianer 705, 25.ii.1994, Marais ; 1♂, 1♀, Popa Falls (1), 26.ii–1.iii.1992, Marais & Pusch (LT) ; 1♀, Nakatwa , 8–13.iii.1992, Pusch & Marais ( MT) ; 1♂, Mushare, S of, 27.iii–28.iv.1988, Griffin (1) ( PT) ; 1♂, Wolfsnes, W of, 24.iii–10.v.1988, Griffin (1) ( PT) ; 2♂, 4♀, Waterberg Plateau Park, Onjoka , iv.1992, Green ( MT) ; 1♀, Grootberg 191: Khoadi // Hôas M24, 24–27.v.2001, Marais & Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( PT) ; 1♀, Shaka: Salamabala [sic – Salambala] M8, 27.ii–2.iii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( MT) ; 1♂, 1♀, mopane in Salambala M4, 24–26.ii.2001, Marais & Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( YP) ; 1♀, Simataa : Salambala B 6, 24–27.ii.2001, Marais & Kirk­ Spriggs (1) ( YP) ; 4♀, Shaka : Salambala M 8, 27.ii–2.iii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( MT) ; 11♂, 10♀, Salambala , 4 km NE of, 25.ii–1.iii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) & Marais ( MT) ; 1♀, Salambala forest , 23–29.xii.2002, Kirk­Spriggs (2) ( MT) ; 2♂, 3♀, Salambala campsite, 28–29.xii.2002, Kirk­ Spriggs (2) ( HT) fish; 1♂, same except: 3–4.iii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) fish; 1♂, 3♀, same except: 23–28.xii.2002, Kirk­Spriggs (2) ( HT) mango; 18♂, 24♀, same except: 26–28.ii.2001, Marais & Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) fruit; 4♂, 7♀, same except: 22–24.ii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) & Marais ( MT) ; 6♀, Salambala pan, 1–4.iii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( MT) ; 1♀, same except: 23–27.xii.2002; 7♀, Simanya : Okavango River, 23–24.i.1998, Kirk­Spriggs (1) & Marais ( MT) primary woodland; 3♀, Dussi , 10 km W of, 29–30.xii.1998, Kirk­Spriggs (1), Marais & Mann ( MT) ; 2♂, 5♀, Divuju : Okavango River, 1.i.1999, Kirk­Spriggs (1), Marais & Mann ( MT) & (S) ; 1♂, Xawasha pan, 2 km W, 26–27.xii.1998, Kirk­Spriggs (1), Marais & Mann ( MT) ; 1♂, Xawasha pan, 26.xii.1998, Marais & Kirk­Spriggs (1) (S) ; 3♀, Namib Desert Res, Stn., Kuiseb Riv. , 14–26.ii.1997, Kapofi & Irwin ( MT) riparian vegetation; 1♀, Varianto 771/2, 30.iii–1.iv.2003, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( MT) ; 1♀, same except: Kirk­Spriggs(1) & Mey (LT); 3♂, 2♀, same except: ( HT) fungi; 5♂, 9♀, same except: 29–30.iii.2003, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) fruit; 2♂, Mile 46, 25–27.iii.2003, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( MT) ; 1♂, 1♀, same except: ( HT) fruit; 1♂, 1♀, Rundu (Kavango Lodge ), 28.iii.2003, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) fruit; 4♂, 2♀, same except: 27–29.iii.2003, Kirk­Spriggs(1) & Mey (LT); 4♀, Somerkoms 521, 6–8.ii.2001, Kirk­ Spriggs (1), Marais & Wheeler ( MT) ; 3♀, Luchando village , 26–27.ii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) & Marais ( MT) ; 1♂, 4♀, Xawasha pan, 27.xii.1998, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( MT) ; 1♂, 3♀, Mannheim Research Station , 31.i–7.ii.2000, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( MT) mango plantation; 1♀, Salambala campsite, 1–4.iii.2001, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( PT) baited millipede; 3♀, Hippo Lodge (Zambezi River), 6–7.ii.2004, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) fruit; 2♂, 5♀, Toggenburg 591 campsite, 18–20.ii.2004, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) fruit; 1♀, same except: ( MT) ; 6♂, 18♀, Popa Falls restcamp, 13–16.ii.2004, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( MT) , riverine forest; 3♀, Bum Hill campsite ( Kwando River), 10–13.ii.2004, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( MT) ; 14♂, 17♀, same except: ( HT) fruit; 1♂, 4♀, Salambala campsite, 8–10.ii.2004, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( MT) ; 3♂, 6♀, same except: ( HT) fruit; 6♂, 5♀, Omatjenne Agricultural Research Station, 7.ii.2004, Shihepo , fruiting Termitomyces schimperi [all with associated puparia, 3♂, larva coll: 7.ii.2004, pupated: 15.ii.2004, emerged: 22.ii.2004; 3♂, 2♀, larva coll: 7.ii.2004, pupated: 14.ii.2004, emerged: 21.ii.2004; 3♀, larva coll: 7.ii.2004, pupated: 15.ii.2004, emerged: 21.ii.2004] ; 2♂, 7♀, same except: fruiting Termitomyces schimperi [all with associated puparia, larva coll: 5.ii.2004, pupated: 14.ii.2004, emerged: 20.ii.2004]; 1♂, Veterinary Services HQ ( KM1 )(2) , 5–12.iii.2004, Mudenga ( NU­L) ; 1♂, Hungorob ravine at(1): 25.iv.2000, Meakin / Raleigh Int. (LT) Bberg UV 31 ; 1♀, Upper Hungorob ravine at: 7.iv.2000, Meakin / Raleigh Int ( MT) Bberg Mal 36 ; 1♀, Falls rock ravine at: 17.iv.2000, Meakin / Raleigh Int. ( MT) Bberg Mal 37 .

NOTES: The commonest species of the genus in Africa (Zumpt 1953c: 486) bred from mushrooms in South Africa. Cuthbertson (1935: 17, as H. clara ) notes that flies are attracted to the honeydew of scale insects ( Hemiptera : Coccidae ) on fruit trees and were occasionally observed on fresh cattle dung. He briefly discusses the breeding habits and notes a large number of flies as being attracted to a mushroom growing out of a large termite hill in Zimbabwe. Later (Cuthbertson 1939: 145, as Tricyclea clara ) also notes the occurrence of larvae in wild mushrooms in December and January in Zimbabwe. In Namibia collected in pitfall, yellow pan and Malaise traps; by sweeping, and at UV­light. Further collected in hanging traps baited with fermenting mango, fruit bait, rotting fish and rotting fungi, and in a pitfall trap baited with a dead millipede. Most significantly, the species has been reared in numbers from the fruiting bodies of the fungus Termitomyces schimperi (Pat.) , which grows from termite hills in the rainy season. Occurring at low and high elevations on the Brandberg (700 m, 1170 m, 1920 m). Widely distributed in central, north and north­eastern Namibia; in the ‘arid’ and ‘mesic’ savanna, nama­karoo and desert biomes ( Fig. 67 View FIGURES 63–68 ). Recorded throughout the year, except the colder months of September, October and November; most abundantly in February (vide Table 2). Cuthbertson (1935: 17, as H. clara ) briefly describes the egg, larvae and puparium and illustrates: the larval anal compartment, lateral aspect (Plate IV, 15a); posterior spiracles, from behind (ibid, 15b); cephaloskeleton, lateral aspect and detail of the mouthooks (ibid, 15d and 15f); anterior spiracles (ibid, 15e), and the pupal posterior spiracles, from behind (ibid, 15c).

Hemigymnochaeta varia (Hough, 1898: 178) ( Parochromyia ). Fig. 68 View FIGURES 63–68 . TYPE LOCALITY: Somalia. DISTRIBUTION: Widespread in East Africa to southern Africa: Angola, Democratic Republic of

Congo, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa (Cape, Natal, Transvaal), Somalia, Tanzania,

Uganda and Zimbabwe. PREVIOUS RECORD: Omatjette [21°05'S, 15°05'E] (Zumpt 1953c: 490) GoogleMaps .

KNOWN RECORDS: Gobabis [22°45'S, 18°97'E], 11.iii.1971; Okakuejo [=Okaukuejo] [19°18'S, 15°93'E], 13.iii.1971; Omatjette [21°05'S, 15°05'E], 11.iv.1950 (NMSA).

MATERIAL: 1♂, 1♀, Simanya : Okavango River, 23–24.i.1998, Kirk­Spriggs (1) & Marais ( MT) primary woodland; 1♀, Ruacana area , 14.iii.1997, Koch ( MT) ; 1♀, Nama , 20–22.xii.1998, Kirk­ Spriggs (1), Marais & Mann ( MT) ; 3♀, Persianer 705, 25.ii.1994, Marais ; 3♀, Toggenburg 591 campsite, 18–20.ii.2004, Kirk­Spriggs (1) ( HT) fruit.

NOTES: Cuthbertson (1935: 17, as H. pallens ) reared larvae from the broken down fungus beds of termites and adults from Aardvark burrows in termite nests. He also observed adults of both sexes on fresh cattle dung in shade. Engel and Cuthbertson (1937: 10, as Tricyclea angola ) note larvae from mushrooms in Uganda and provide details of the immature stages. Later (Cuthbertson 1939: 17, as Tricyclea tridentata ) noted both sexes encountered on faeces, pig dung and fresh cattle dung, plus males in blossoms. In Namibia only collected in Malaise traps and in a hanging trap baited with fermenting fruit. Widely distributed over central and northern Namibia; apparently restricted to the ‘arid’ savanna biome ( Fig. 68 View FIGURES 63–68 ). Recorded from December to March (vide Table 2). Cuthbertson (1935: 17–18) provides a brief description of the larva and puparium and illustrates the following larval parts: anal compartment, lateral aspect (Plate IV, 16a); posterior spiracles, from behind (ibid, 16b); anterior spiracle (ibid, 16c); and cephaloskeleton, lateral aspect (ibid, 16d).

MT

Mus. Tinro, Vladyvostok

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Calliphoridae

Loc

Hemigymnochaeta Corti, 1895: 142

Kurahashi, Hiromu & Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H. 2006
2006
Loc

Hemigymnochaeta laticeps

Zumpt 1953: 490
1953