Stomorhina Rondani, 1861: 9
treatment provided by
|Stomorhina Rondani, 1861: 9|
NOTES: Stomorhina is fairly well represented in the warmer parts of the Old World (Zumpt 1958a: 89). Stomorhina discolor (Fabricius, 1794) has been recorded from Australia from nests of several termites and is known to be a predator in nests of ants and termites (vide Ferrar 1987: 91, for references). In New Caledonia, Kurahashi and Fauran (1980) observed that a female fly deposited eggs on a rearing vessel where house flies were breeding. The hatched larvae grew and attacked the house fly larvae in the vessel. Several adults emerged. Stomorhina lunata is recorded as a parasite of locust eggpods in Africa (vide infra). The biology, life histories, and immature stages of most species remain unknown.
Fig. 82 View FIGURES 81–86 .
TYPE LOCALITY: Zaïre [= Democratic Republic of Congo] .
DISTRIBUTION: Widespread West and East Africa: Benin, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Liberia, Namibia *, South Africa (Natal), Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe.
MATERIAL: 1♀, Salambala forest, 23–29.xii.2002, KirkSpriggs(2) ( MT).
NOTES: Biology, life history, and immature stages unknown. In Namibia the species has only been collected in a Malaise trap in December. The single Namibian record is from the ‘mesic’ savanna biome in northeastern Namibia ( Fig. 82 View FIGURES 81–86 ).
Fig. 83 View FIGURES 81–86 .
TYPE LOCALITY: Sierra Leone .
DISTRIBUTION: Widespread Afrotropical Region: Botswana, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Mali, Namibia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa (Cape, Natal, Transvaal), Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
PUBLISHED RECORD: Warmbad [=Warmquelle nr. Sesfontein] [19°17'S, 13°82'E], ii.1925 (Zumpt 1958a: 108).
MATERIAL: 1♂, Kwando River: Susuwe , 28.ix–2.x.1998, KirkSpriggs (1) ( MT) dry woodland; 1♂, Nova , 5 km N, 16–18.xii.1999, Marais, Mann & Newman ( MT) ; 1♂, same except: MMN8 ( MT) ; 1♂, Salambala forest , 23–29.xii.2002, KirkSpriggs (2) ( MT) ; 1♂, Salambala campsite, 29.xii.2002, KirkSpriggs (2), hovering syrphidlike at dusk ; 1♂, 3♀, Kubunyana camp: Kwando River, 28–30.x.2003, KirkSpriggs (2) ( MT) ; 6♂, same except: hovering syrphidlike at dusk; 4♀, Hippo Lodge (Zambezi River), 6–7.ii.2004, KirkSpriggs (1), hovering at dusk .
NOTES: Cuthbertson (1933: 104) found adults (as Rhinia tricincta ) to be abundant on garden flowers in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, in March and May. Females were observed to oviposit in rich humus soil at the edge of cattle dung in the shade of trees in long grass. He studied the life history and noted that larvae live in soil at the bottom of Aardvark burrows, among dead termites. Later Cuthbertson (1938: 125) noted the hovering habits of males, stating that they hover several feet from the ground. He went on to suggest that larvae may also develop in grasshopper and locust egg pods, but this was pure supposition. In Namibia collected in Malaise traps and hovering syrphidlike, usually at dusk at several localities, often around the margins of isolated trees. Swarms of both sexes have been recorded in Namibia. The extreme agility of their flight explains why they are so infrequently collected in Malaise traps. Northeastern and northwestern Namibia; apparently restricted to the ‘arid’ and ‘mesic’ savanna biome ( Fig. 83 View FIGURES 81–86 ). Recorded in February, October and December; most abundantly in October (vide Table 2).
Fig. 84 View FIGURES 81–86 .
TYPE LOCALITY: South Africa .
DISTRIBUTION: Southern Africa: Lesotho, Namibia and South Africa (Cape, Natal, Transvaal).
PUBLISHED RECORDS: Great Karas Mountains [locality unknown], xi.1936; Warmbad [=Warmquelle nr. Sesfontein] [19°17'S, 13°82'E], ii.1935 [sic – 1925] (Zumpt 1958a: 103).
MATERIAL: 1♀, Upper Panner Gorge, 13.iii–10.iv.1984, Irish(1) & Liessner, H5824; 1♂, Keimasmund 98, 16.iii.1988, Marais & Irish(1); 1♀, Claratal , 27.i.1971, [SMStaff]; 1♂, Duwisib 84, 28.i–1.iv.1995, Marais ( PT); 1♂, Skorpion area, 9–12.viii.1997, Marais & Kirk Spriggs(1) ( YP); 1♂, Dakota 424(1), 13–23.xii.1993, Pusch ( YP); 1♂, Hungorob ravine at(1): 2.xi.1999, Meakin/Raleigh Int. ( MT) Bberg Mal 2.
NOTES: Biology, life history and immature stages unknown. In Namibia collected in yellow pans and pitfall traps. Occurring at low elevations on the Brandberg (700 m). The distribution pattern appears to largely follow that of the Namibian Escarpment, with records from all Namibian biomes ( Fig. 84 View FIGURES 81–86 ). Recorded in January, March, August, November and December in low numbers (vide Table 2).
Fig. 85 View FIGURES 81–86 .
TYPE LOCALITY: Madeira Is .
DISTRIBUTION: Widespread in Afrotropical Region, southern Europe, Mediterranean subregion, eastwards to India, Bermuda. Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Réunion Is., Rodriquez Is., South Africa (Cape, Natal, Transvaal), Tanzania, Yemen and Zimbabwe.
PUBLISHED RECORD: Warmbad [=Warmquelle nr. Sesfontein] [19°17'S, 13°82'E], ii.1925 (Zumpt 1958a: 98).
MATERIAL: 1♀, Wasserfallfläche(2), 7–10.iv.1999, van Noort & Compton ( YP) well vegetated valley below waterfall, Bushy KarooNamib shrubland, NA99–Y55; 1♀, Falls rock ravine at: 2.v.2000, Meakin/Raleigh Int. ( YP) Bberg pan 52; 1♂, same except: Bberg pan 54; 1♀, Upper Hungorob ravine at: 8.viii. 2000, 1170 m, Meakin/Raleigh Int. ( YP) Bberg pan 96.
NOTES: The life history is reviewed by Ferrar (1987: 91). Cuthbertson (1934: 40) notes that larvae are associated with the eggpods of locusts and outlines the breeding habits of larvae. Later (Cuthbertson 1935: 19) noted that larvae are not exclusively associated with egg pods, as he reared the species from larvae found in the brokendown fungus beds of a termite nest; being associated with dead and dying termite workers and soldiers. The association with locust eggpods is discussed by Greathead (1962, 1963). In Namibia the species has been collected in Malaise and yellow pan traps. Occurring at high elevations on the Brandberg (1170 m, 1920 m, 1960 m). Virtually restricted to the Brandberg Massif on the edge of the namakaroo biome, with a single additional record further north in the ‘arid’ savanna biome ( Fig. 85 View FIGURES 81–86 ). Recorded in April, May and August in low numbers (vide Table 2). Cuthbertson (1935: 19) briefly describes the egg, all three larval instars and the puparium; illustrating: the egg, lateral aspect (Plate V: 19a); the posterior end of the larvae, from behind (ibid, 19b); anal compartment, lat eral aspect (ibid, 19c); posterior spiracles, from behind (ibid, 19d); anterior spiracles (ibid, 19e); cephaloskeleton (mature larvae) (ibid, 19f); cephaloskeleton (‘young’ larvae) (ibid, 19g); and posterior spiracles of ‘young’ larvae (ibid, 19h).
Fig. 86 View FIGURES 81–86 .
TYPE LOCALITY: Sierra Leone .
DISTRIBUTION: Widespread mainland Afrotropical Region: Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia *, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa (Cape, Natal, Transvaal), Tanzania, Yemen and Zimbabwe.
MATERIAL: 1♀, B8 reststop at: 15.xii.1999, Marais, Mann & Newman, MMN3, termite nest; 2♂, 2♀, Simanya: Okavango River, 23–24.i.1998, KirkSpriggs (1) & Marais ( MT) primary woodland .
NOTES: Biology, life history, and immature stages unknown. Cuthbertson (1934: 40, as S. mitis ) records the species as abundant on daisies (Compositae) in Zimbabwe and observed females ovipositing in newly excavated termite mounds. In Namibia collected from a damaged termite mound and in Malaise traps in January and December (vide Table 2). Apparently restricted to the ‘mesic’ savanna biome in northeastern Namibia ( Fig. 86 View FIGURES 81–86 ).
Mus. Tinro, Vladyvostok
Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.