Smeringopus pallidus ( Blackwall, 1858 )

Huber, Bernhard A., 2012, 3461, Zootaxa 3461, pp. 1-138: 65-68

publication ID

0704C43A-73D8-4A28-915A-7FF8611C8606

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0704C43A-73D8-4A28-915A-7FF8611C8606

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FBB532-FFC5-1740-FF6A-0BC03842FE90

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Smeringopus pallidus ( Blackwall, 1858 )
status

 

Smeringopus pallidus ( Blackwall, 1858)  

Figs. 11, 372–373, 378–379, 382–383, 387–400

? Pholcus geniculatus White, 1841: 477   ( Brazil); nomen dubium (see Kraus 1957: 220); considered a synonym of S. elongatus (Vinson)   by Mello-Leitão (1918: 121).

Pholcus pallidus Blackwall 1858: 433–434   (♀, Brazil). Blackwall 1861: 444 (♂, Brazil). Simon 1893: 481.

Smeringopus pallidus (Blackwall)   : Mello-Leitão 1918: 119–120. Kraus 1957: 219–222, figs. 1–6 ( Brazil, Cuba, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Indonesia, Philippines, Polynesia, Samoa). Lawrence 1958: 863–864 ( Congo R.). Yaginuma 1960: 48, fig. 98 ( Japan). Lawrence 1964: 67 ( South Africa). Lee 1966: 35, fig. 8r (“ S. pullidus   ”) (not seen). Yaginuma 1970: 646. Timm 1976: 70–72, figs. 7–8. Saaristo 1978: 102–103, figs. 23–26, 31–38 ( Seychelles). Yaginuma 1986: 28–29, pl. 6, fig. 8, fig. 17.4a,e,p. Pérez González and García-Debrás 1997: 26 ( Cuba). Huber 1998: 1597, figs. 64, 120–122 ( Costa Rica). Song et al. 1999: 65, figs. 26i–o ( China, Taiwan). Huber 2000: 129, 149, figs. 15, 72, 119, 164, 191. Murphy and Murphy 2000: 249. Huber 2001: 134, figs. 431, 434–436 ( Australia). Saaristo 2001: 23, figs. 49–55 ( Seychelles). Cai 2003: 20–21 (“ S. pullidus   ”), figs. 1–9 ( China). Beatty et al. 2008: 21–23, figs. 20, 55, 67 ( Micronesia, Polynesia, Australia, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Philippines, Solomon Isl.). Sewlal and Starr 2008: 78 (Lesser Antilles). Irie 2009: 111, figs. (2-2-13) 39–41, pl. 5, figs. 6–7 ( Japan).

Pholcus elongatus Vinson 1863: 135–137   , 307; pl. 3, figs. 5, 5a ( Réunion). Thorell 1878: 162–163 ( Ambon). Thorell 1881: 179. Thorell 1887: 8 ( Myanmar). Karsch 1891: 276 ( Sri Lanka); synonymized by Kraus (1957: 219).

Smeringopus elongatus (Vinson)   : Simon 1890: 94. Simon 1893: 476. Simon 1894: 519 ( St. Vincent). Thorell 1895: 70 ( Myanmar). Thorell 1898: 274 ( Myanmar). Moenkhaus 1898: 91 ( Brazil). Pocock 1900: 239 ( Sri Lanka, India, Myanmar). Strand 1907c: 125 ( China). Simon 1909: 80 ( Vietnam). Simon 1910: 190 ( South Africa). Petrunkevitch 1911: 163. Strand 1915: 58 ( Madagascar). Sherriffs 1919: 228 ( India, Sri Lanka). Berland 1924: 193 ( New Caledonia). Berland 1929: 43, figs. 2–3 ( Samoa). Petrunkevitch 1929: 144–147, figs. 136–138 ( Bermudas, Puerto Rico). [ Lessert 1930: misidentification; see S. lesserti   ]. Berland 1934: 326, 335 ( Samoa, Marquesas). Franganillo 1936a: 46 ( Cuba). Franganillo 1936b: 77 ( Cuba). Berland 1936: 81 ( Cape Verde). Berland 1938: 162 ( New Hebrides). Millot 1941: 18–20, figs. 7a–i ( Guinea, Ivory Coast). Millot 1946: 150–151, fig. 25a ( Madagascar). Marples 1955: 466 ( Samoa). Gertsch 1973: 167 (Hawaii). Roth 1985: B-33-1 ( USA). Sierwald 1988: 11 ( Bermuda).

Pholcus distinctus O. Pickard-Cambridge 1869: 380   , pl. 11, figs. 28–30 (♀, Sri Lanka); synonymized by Simon (1893: 475).

Pholcus tipuloides L. Koch 1872: 281–283   , pl. 23, figs. 5, 5a–g (♂, Samoa); Marx 1889: 99, pl. 4, fig. 5 ( Bermudas) (not seen). Sánchez Roig 1911: 360 ( Cuba); synonymized by Thorell (1878: 162).

Pholcus tigrinus Taczanowski 1874: 104–105   , pl. 2, fig. 7 ( French Guiana); Simon 1893: 478 (transfer to Priscula   suggested); synonymized by Huber and Zhu (2001: 151).

Priscula tigrina (Taczanowski)   : Mello-Leitão 1946: 60.

Physocyclus tigrinus (Taczanowski)   : Brignoli 1981: 96.

Pholcus excavatus Simon, 1877: 482–483   . New synonymy.

Smeringopus excavatus (Simon)   : Huber 2011b: 126.

Pholcus margarita Workman 1878: 451–452   , pl. 18, figs. 1a–e ( Myanmar); synonymized by Simon (1893: 475).

Smeringopus purpureus Moenkhaus 1898: 91–93   , pl. 5, figs. 1, 1a–b (♀, Brazil); Mello-Leitão 1918: 120–121; synonymized by Kraus (1957: 219).

Smeringopus pholcicus Strand 1907a: 527   (♂, Tanzania). Strand 1907b: 571–573. New synonymy.

Smeringopus todai Kishida 1913: 827   , fig.1 (not seen); synonymized by Lee (1966: 36).

Smeringopus kishidai Saito 1933: 41   , pl. 3, fig. 8 (not seen) synonymized by Kraus (1957: 219).

Smeringopus katangae Giltay 1935: 2   , figs. 1–3 (♂, Congo D.R.); synonymized by Kraus (1957: 219).

Smeringopus buehleri Schenkel, 1944: 176–178   , figs. 2a–c ( Indonesia). New synonymy.

Pholcus phalangioides Walck.   [sic!]” (misidentification): Doleschall 1859: 47 (see Thorell 1878: 162).

Pholcus   v-notatus Thorell, 1878 ” (misidentification): Leardi in Airaghi 1902: 349–350 ( Mahé: India or Seychelles?) (see Huber 2011b).

Types. Pholcus pallidus   : ♀ holotype from Brazil, Pernambuco [~ 8°S, 35°W], leg. E. Williams, no further data, not examined GoogleMaps   .

Pholcus elongatus   : unspecified number of syntypes from Réunion [21°07’S, 55°32’E], date and collector not given, not examined GoogleMaps   .

Pholcus distinctus   : ♀ holotype from Sri Lanka, leg. J. Nietner, no further data, not examined   .

Pholcus tipuloides   : unspecified number of syntypes from Samoa, Upolu [13°55’S, 171°45’W], no further data, in ZMH, not examined GoogleMaps   .

Pholcus tigrinus   : 5♀ 6 juv. syntypes (2 vials) from French Guiana, St. Laurent de Maroni [5°30’N, 54°00’W] and Uassa [now Brazil, Amapá, Uaça, ~ 4°10’N, 51°32’W], leg. K. Yelski, dates not given, in MZPW (examined; see Huber and Zhu 2001) GoogleMaps   .

Pholcus excavatus   : ♂ holotype from “ Congo ”, no further locality data, apparently lost (not in MNHN).

Pholcus margarita   : unspecified number of specimens from ship bringing rice from Myanmar, Rangoon to Great Britain, Liverpool, no further data, not examined.

Pholcus geniculatus   : unspecified number of syntypes from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro [22.9°S, 43.2°W], leg. C. Darwin, no further data, not examined GoogleMaps   .

Smeringopus purpureus   : unspecified number of female syntypes from Brazil, São Paulo, São Sebastião [23°46’S, 45°25’W], date and collector not given, not examined GoogleMaps   .

Smeringopus pholcicus   : ♂ holotype from Tanzania, Tanga Region, East-Usambara, Amani [5°06’S, 38°38’E], leg. Voesseler, date not given, in ZMB (9861) and MNHN ( AR 10471 View Materials , right palp), examined GoogleMaps   .

Smeringopus katangae   : 2♂ 2♀ syntypes from Congo D. R., Haut-Katanga , Katompé [near Lubumbashi, ~ 11°40’S, 27°30’E], vi.1933 (C. Seydel), not examined GoogleMaps   .

Smeringopus buehleri   : ♀ holotype from Indonesia, “Timor, Soë” [Nusa Tenggara Timur, Soë : 9°51.7’S, 124°16.2’E], vi. 1935 (A. Bühler), in NHMB (1224a), examined GoogleMaps   .

FIGURES 372–385. Smeringopus pallidus   (372–373, 378–379, 382–383) and S. lesserti   (374–377, 380–381, 384–385). 372–375. Males, dorsal and ventral views. 376–377. Female, dorsal and ventral views. 378–381. Left male palps, prolateral and retrolateral views (arrow points to retrolateral apophysis). 382–385. Epigyna, ventral views and cleared female genitalia, dorsal views.

Justification of new synonymies. The holotypes of S. pholcicus   and S. buehleri   were both examined and found to be identical to specimens from all over the world. The type of Pholcus excavatus   is lost and the description would fit almost any Smeringopus   . However, it is likely that the specimen originated from the lower Congo rather than from the interior, and only four species are known to occur there. Of these, only S. pallidus   and S. lesserti   fit Simon’s (1877) description of the bulbal apophysis (“divisée dès la base en deux branches divergentes, arquées”), and since Simon did not mention the distinctive long spine at the tip of the procursus of S. lesserti   (Fig. 380), I conclude that Ph. excavatus   is most likely a synonym of S. pallidus   .

Diagnosis. Easily distinguished from similar congeners ( S. lineiventris   and other species of the arambourgi   species group) by tip of procursus ( Figs. 387–389), shapes of bulbal processes ( Figs. 390, 391), and epigynum shape (small oval to rectangular dark plate; Figs. 382, 399).

Male ( Uganda, Bumaga). Total body length 5.3, carapace width 1.8. Leg 1: 47.0 (12.7 + 0.8 + 12.1 + 19.1 + 2.3), tibia 2: 8.1, tibia 3: 6.0, tibia 4: 8.4; tibia 1 L/d: 67. Habitus as in Figs. 372 and 373. Carapace ochre-yellow with brown median and lateral marks, clypeus with pair of dark stripes, sternum brown, legs ochre-yellow to light brown, femora and tibiae with dark subdistal rings and lighter tips, abdomen ochre-gray with distinct dorsal and ventral pattern. Distance PME-PME 160 µm, diameter PME 170 µm, distance PME-ALE 55 µm, distance AME- AME 35 µm, diameter AME 115 µm. Ocular area slightly elevated, secondary eyes with barely visible ‘pseudolenses’; deep thoracic pit. Chelicerae as in Fig. 392, with small distal apophyses. Palps as in Figs. 378 and 379, coxa with small but distinct retrolateral apophysis, trochanter barely modified, femur with wide retrolateral furrow, proximal rim slightly more distinct, cymbium with projection near tarsal organ, procursus with distinctive distal processes ( Figs. 387–389, 394), bulb with sclerotized embolus and distinctive dorsal process ( Figs. 390, 391). Legs without spines, few vertical hairs, with curved hairs ventrally on tibiae and metatarsi 1 and 2, retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 2.5%; prolateral trichobothrium present on tibia 1. Gonopore with two epiandrous spigots ( Fig. 398); ALS with eight spigots each (cf. female; Fig. 396).

Variation. Tibia 1 in 26 males: 8.8–14.0 (mean 11.7). The S. pholcicus   holotype is very pale and the right palp is missing; tibia 2: 6.4.

Female. In general similar to male; tibia 1 in 41 females: 8.3–13.3 (mean 11.0). Epigynum a simple, small oval to rectangular dark plate without pockets (Figs. 382, 399); internal genitalia as in Figs. 383, 393, and 400.

Distribution. Pantropical. In Africa, S. pallidus   is widely distributed from Cape Verde to Madagascar and Mauritius, but is seems to be largely absent from southern and northeastern Africa ( Fig. 386).

Material examined. Listed here are only the African countries from which I have seen material: Cape Verde, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Congo D.R., Burundi, Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Angola, Mozambique, South Africa, Madagascar, Comoros, Seychelles, Mascarene Islands.

ZMH

Zoologisches Museum Hamburg

MZPW

Polish Academy of Science, Museum of the Institute of Zoology

ZMB

Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

NHMB

Natural History Museum Bucharest

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Smeringopus

Loc

Smeringopus pallidus ( Blackwall, 1858 )

Huber, Bernhard A. 2012
2012
Loc

Smeringopus excavatus (Simon)

Huber, B. A. 2011: 126
2011
Loc

Physocyclus tigrinus (Taczanowski)

Brignoli, P. M. 1981: 96
1981
Loc

Priscula tigrina (Taczanowski)

Mello-Leitao, C. de 1946: 60
1946
Loc

Smeringopus buehleri

Schenkel, E. 1944: 178
1944
Loc

Smeringopus katangae

Kraus, O. 1957: 219
Giltay, L. 1935: 2
1935
Loc

Smeringopus kishidai

Kraus, O. 1957: 219
Saito, S. 1933: 41
1933
Loc

Smeringopus pallidus (Blackwall)

Irie, T. 2009: 111
Beatty, J. A. & Berry, J. W. & Huber, B. A. 2008: 21
Sewlal, J. N. & Starr, C. K. 2008: 78
Cai, B. - Q. 2003: 20
Saaristo, M. I. 2001: 23
Huber, B. A. 2000: 129
Murphy, F. & Murphy J. 2000: 249
Song, D. & Zhu, M. & Chen, J. 1999: 65
Huber, B. A. 1998: 1597
Yaginuma, T. 1986: 28
Saaristo, M. I. 1978: 102
Timm, H. 1976: 70
Yaginuma, T. 1970: 646
Lee, C. L. 1966: 35
Lawrence, R. F. 1964: 67
Yaginuma, T. 1960: 48
Lawrence, R. F. 1958: 863
Kraus, O. 1957: 219
Mello-Leitao, C. de 1918: 119
1918
Loc

Smeringopus todai

Lee, C. L. 1966: 36
Kishida, K. 1913: 827
1913
Loc

Smeringopus pholcicus

Strand, E. 1907: 527
Strand, E. 1907: 571
1907
Loc

Pholcus

Leardy Airaghi, Z. 1902: 349
1902
Loc

Smeringopus purpureus

Kraus, O. 1957: 219
Mello-Leitao, C. de 1918: 120
Moenkhaus, W. J. 1898: 93
1898
Loc

Smeringopus elongatus (Vinson)

Sierwald, P. 1988: 11
Gertsch, W. J. 1973: 167
Millot, J. 1946: 150
Millot, J. 1941: 18
Berland, L. 1938: 162
Franganillo, P. B. 1936: 46
Franganillo, P. B. 1936: 77
Berland, L. 1936: 81
Berland, L. 1934: 326
Berland, L. 1929: 43
Petrunkevitch, A. 1929: 144
Berland, L. 1924: 193
Sherriffs, W. R. 1919: 228
Strand, E. 1915: 58
Petrunkevitch, A. 1911: 163
Simon, E. 1910: 190
Simon, E. 1909: 80
Strand, E. 1907: 125
Pocock, R. I. 1900: 239
Thorell, T. 1898: 274
Moenkhaus, W. J. 1898: 91
Thorell, T. 1895: 70
Simon, E. 1894: 519
Simon, E. 1893: 476
Simon, E. 1890: 94
1890
Loc

Pholcus margarita

Simon, E. 1893: 475
Workman, T. 1878: 452
1878
Loc

Pholcus excavatus

Simon, E. 1877: 483
1877
Loc

Pholcus tigrinus

Huber, B. A. & Zhu, M. 2001: 151
Simon, E. 1893: 478
Taczanowski, L. 1874: 105
1874
Loc

Pholcus tipuloides L. Koch 1872: 281–283

Sanchez Roig, M. 1911: 360
Marx, G. 1889: 99
Thorell, T. 1878: 162
Koch, L. 1872: 283
1872
Loc

Pholcus distinctus O. Pickard-Cambridge 1869: 380

Simon, E. 1893: 475
Pickard-Cambridge, O. 1869: 380
1869
Loc

Pholcus elongatus

Kraus, O. 1957: 219
Karsch, F. 1891: 276
Thorell, T. 1887: 8
Thorell, T. 1881: 179
Thorell, T. 1878: 162
Vinson, A. 1863: 137
1863
Loc

Pholcus phalangioides

Thorell, T. 1878: 162
Doleschall, C. L. 1859: 47
1859
Loc

Pholcus pallidus

Simon, E. 1893: 481
Blackwall, J. 1861: 444
Blackwall, J. 1858: 434
1858
Loc

Pholcus geniculatus

Kraus, O. 1957: 220
Mello-Leitao, C. de 1918: 121
White, A. 1841: 477
1841