Acanthocyrtus yolngui, ZHANG

Zhang, Feng, Deharveng, Louis, Greenslade, Penelope & Chen, Jian-Xiu, 2009, Revision of Acanthocyrtus (Collembola: Entomobryidae), with description of a new genus from eastern Asia, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 157 (3), pp. 495-514: 505-510

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00521.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FC146E-FFBA-FFF9-EDAA-FD9B0919FD18

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Acanthocyrtus yolngui
status

SP. NOV.

ACANTHOCYRTUS YOLNGUI ZHANG   SP. NOV. ( FIG. 7 View Figure 7 )

Type material: HOLOTYPE: female, Australia: Northern Territory: Gove Peninsula , 12 °17′S, 136 °49′E, iii.1996, collected by D. Hinz. GoogleMaps   PARATYPES: three females, same data as holotype GoogleMaps   .

Description: Body length up to 2.4 mm.

Colour pattern. Ground colour pale yellow in alcohol. Antennae light. Eye patches dark blue. Blue pigment and irregular patch present along lateral margins. Base of leg and manubrium slightly pigmented ( Fig. 7A View Figure 7 ).

Head. Antenna about 2.5 times as long as cephalic diagonal. Ratio of segments of antennae I: II: III: IV = 1: 1.8: 1.4: 2.0. Antennal apical bulb absent.

Eyes eight + eight, G and H smaller and subequal. Labral papilla absent. Prelabral and labral setae four/ five, five, four, all smooth. Lateral process of labial palp slightly curved, as thick as normal setae, with tip obviously not reaching apex of labial papilla ( Fig. 7B View Figure 7 ). Subapical seta of maxillary outer lobe large, subequal in length to and thick as apical one; three smooth hairs on sublobal plate ( Fig. 7C View Figure 7 ). Basal setae of labium as M 1 M 2 RELL; all finely ciliate; M 2 much smaller than others ( Fig. 7D View Figure 7 ). Cephalic dorsal chaetotaxy with seven to eight An, three M, and three S macrochaetae, two macrochaetae in Gr. I and five macrochaetae in Gr. II. Interocular area as setae p, q, r, s, t, v ( Fig. 7E View Figure 7 ).

Thorax and legs. Dorsal macrochaetae shown in Figure 7F View Figure 7 . Th. II with five mediomedial (m1, m1i, m1i2, m2, and m2i), two medio sublateral (m4 and m4i) 14–18 posterior macrochaetae on each side; p2ea often absent. Th. III with 12 macrosetae; a5i and a6i absent.

Trochanteral organ with about 40 smooth spiny setae ( Fig. 7H View Figure 7 ). Tibiotarsus with inner differentiated setae finely ciliate, the distal one smooth; inner outstanding macrochaetae tapered only at tip. Unguis with one outer, two lateral, and four inner teeth, all tiny; outer one near base, lateral one at 0.25¥ distance from base, inner pair with tip reaching 0.30– 0.35¥ internal length of claw, median one at 0.69– 0.74¥, and distal one 0.90¥ distance from base. Unguiculus slender and acuminate. Tenent hair clavate and subequal to unguis ( Fig. 7I View Figure 7 ).

Abdomen. Abd. IV 4.0–5.5 times as long as Abd. III along dorsal midline. Dorsal macrochaetae shown in Figure 7G View Figure 7 . Abd. I with four dorsocentral macrochaetae (m2, m3, m4, and m5) in one row on each side. Abd. II with three dorsocentral (m3, m3e, and m3ep) and one lateral (m5) macrochaetae. Abd. III with one dorsocentral (m3) and four lateral (am6, pm6, p6, and m7) macrochaetae. Abd. IV usually with 13 dorsocentral macrochaetae (A1, A3, A5–6, Ae1, Ae3–4, Ae6–7, B3, B5–6, Be1) on each side; Ae5 rarely present. Accessory microchaetae of bothriotrichial complexes on Abd. II –IV ciliate, broadly modified, or fan-shaped ( Fig. 7J View Figure 7 ). Tenaculum with four + four teeth and one large striate seta. Ventral tube anteriorly with three large ciliate setae and about 17 ciliate setae of different sizes on each side; each lateral flap with five smooth and seven ciliate setae ( Fig. 7K View Figure 7 ). Furcal segmental ratio of manubrium to dens plus mucro = 1: 1.1–1.4. Manubrium ventrally covered with scales and ciliate setae. Dens with spines ( Fig. 7L View Figure 7 ) and scales, distal smooth part 1.5 times mucro in length. Mucro bidentate, apical tooth subequal to subapical one; basal spine short with tip reaching apex of subapical tooth ( Fig. 7M View Figure 7 ).

Body scales. Scales coarsely striate, mostly round or truncate, and a few pointed ( Fig. 7N View Figure 7 ); present on head and body, Ant   . I and II, whole leg, and ventral side of furcula; scales on dens pointed and narrower than body scales ( Fig. 7O View Figure 7 ).

Ecology: Collected from pitfalls in eucalypt tall open forest, typically dominated by Darwin woollybutt ( Eucalyptus miniata   ) and Darwin stringybark ( Eucalyptus tetrodonta   ), with smaller areas of monsoon rainforest and eucalypt woodland.

Etymology: The name acknowledges the indigenous people of the region where this species occurs.

Remarks: The new species can be easily distinguished from other known Acanthocyrtus species   by the colour pattern, dorsal chaetotaxy, and short lateral process of the labial palp. Cephalic sutural setae are fewer than in other species (three versus four or six). The positions of Ae6 and Ae7 are comparatively more anterior to their normal position.

ACANTHOCYRTUS LOFTYENSIS ZHANG   SP. NOV.

( FIG. 8 View Figure 8 )

Type material: HOLOTYPE: female on slide, Australia: South Australia: Mt Lofty, Summit , 700 m a.s.l. 34 °58′S, 138 °42′E, 29.vii.1978, collected by GoogleMaps  

P. Greenslade. PARATYPES: one female on slide and two in alcohol, same data as holotype GoogleMaps   .

Description: Body length up to 2.2 mm.

Colour pattern. Ground colour pale yellow in alcohol. Antennae light except blue Ant   . I. Eye patches dark blue. Legs pigmented from coxa to femur. Irregular patches present along lateral margins of body from Th. II to Abd. IV. Manubrium laterally dark blue ( Fig. 8A View Figure 8 ).

Head. Antenna about 2.2–2.5 times as long as cephalic diagonal. Ratio of segments of antennae I: II: III: IV = 1: 1.7: 1.5: 1.9. Antennal apical bulb absent.

Eyes eight + eight. Labral papillae absent. Prelabral and labral setae four/five, five, four, all smooth; three media setae of the first row are larger than others ( Fig. 8B View Figure 8 ). Subapical seta of maxillary outer lobe large, subequal in length to, and thick as apical one; three smooth hairs on sublobal plate ( Fig. 8C View Figure 8 ). Basal setae of labium as MmRRSELL; all finely ciliate ( Fig. 8D View Figure 8 ). Cephalic dorsal chaetotaxy with seven to eight An, three M, and four S macrochaetae, four macrochaetae in Gr. I and four macrochaetae in Gr. II. Interocular area with setae p, q, r, s, t ( Fig. 8E View Figure 8 ).

Thorax and legs. Dorsal macrochaetae shown in Figure 8F View Figure 8 . Th. II with six mediomedial (m1, m1i, m1i2, m2, m2i, and m2i2), five mediosublateral (m4, m4i, m4p, m4pi, and m4pi2) 18–19 posterior macrochaetae on each side; p1ia often absent. Th. III with 13 macrosetae; a5i and a6i absent.

Trochanteral organ with many smooth spiny setae. Tibiotarsus with inner differentiated setae finely ciliate, the distal one smooth; inner outstanding macrochaetae tapered only at tip. Unguis with one outer, two lateral, and three inner teeth; lateral one at 0.33¥ distance from base, inner pair with tip reaching 0.47¥ internal length of claw, and distal one 0.74¥ distance from base. Unguiculus slender and acuminate. Tenent hair clavate and subequal to unguis ( Fig. 8H View Figure 8 ).

Abdomen. Abd. IV 7–10 times as long as Abd. III along dorsal midline. Dorsal macrochaetae shown in Figure 8G View Figure 8 . Abd. I with four dorsocentral macrochaetae (m2, m3, m4, and m5) in one row on each side. Abd. II with three dorsocentral (m3, m3e, and m3ep) and one lateral (m5) macrochaetae. Abd. III with one dorsocentral (m3) and four lateral (am6, pm6, p6, and m7) macrochaetae. Abd. IV with about 15 dorsocentral macrochaetae on each side; Ae5 and A4 often absent. Accessory microchaetae of bothriotrichial complexes on Abd. II –IV ciliate, broadly modified or fan-shaped ( Fig. 8I View Figure 8 ). Tenaculum with four + four teeth and one large striate seta. Furcal segmental ratio of manubrium to dens plus mucro = 1: 1.1–1.3. Manubrium ventrally covered with scales and ciliate setae. Dens with spines ( Fig. 8J View Figure 8 ) and scales, distal smooth part 1.3–1.5 times mucro in length. Mucro bidentate, apical tooth subequal to subapical one; basal spine short with tip reaching apex of subapical tooth ( Fig. 8K View Figure 8 ).

Body scales. Scales present on head and body, Ant   . I and II, whole leg, ventral tube, and ventral side of furcula. Most scales coarsely striate and leaf-like with pointed tip ( Fig. 8L View Figure 8 ), scales on dens ventrally distinctly narrower ( Fig. 8M View Figure 8 ).

Ecology: Found in leaf litter of tall eucalypt stringy bark open forest, where a Mediterranean-type climate predominates.

Etymology: The new species is named after the type locality.

Remarks: Acanthocyrtus loftyensis   can be easily distinguished from other known Acanthocyrtus species   by colour pattern, dorsal chaetotaxy, the presence of Rs on labial base, and absence of seta v in eyepatch. It is most similar to Acanthocyrtus yolngui   in dorsal chaetotaxy, bidentate mucro, and labral setae. It can be separated from it by pigmented leg, presence of RS on labial base, four sutural, four in Gr. I and four macrochaetae in Gr. II, on head, presence of seta v in the interocular area and m2i2 on Th. II.

ACANTHOCYRTUS BARROWENSIS ZHANG   SP. NOV.

( FIG. 9 View Figure 9 )

Type material: HOLOTYPE: female on slide, Australia: Western Australia: Barrow Island , 20 °48′S, 115 °23′E, vi.2005, collected by S. Callan. GoogleMaps   PARATYPES: six females on slides, same data as holotype. Additional records: male and GoogleMaps   two females on slides, Australia: Western Australia: Barrow Island , 20 °48′S, 115 °23′E, 8.iii.2006, collected by S. Callan. GoogleMaps  

Description: Body length up to 2.7 mm.

Colour pattern. Ground colour pale yellow in alcohol. Eye patches dark blue. Blue pigment present on Ant   . I and II, base of leg, and manubrium ( Fig. 9A View Figure 9 ).

Head. Antenna 2.8–3.4 times as long as cephalic diagonal. Ratio of segments of antennae I: II: III: IV = 1: 1.6–2.0: 1.4–1.7: 2.1–2.4. Antennal apical bulb bilobed ( Fig. 9B View Figure 9 ).

Eyes eight + eight. Labral papillae absent. Prelabral and labral setae four/five, five, four, all smooth; three median setae of the first row are larger than others ( Fig. 9C View Figure 9 ). Lateral process of labial palp slightly curved, as thick as normal setae, with tip just reaching apex of labial papilla ( Fig. 9D View Figure 9 ). Subapical seta of maxillary outer lobe large, subequal in length to and thick as apical one; three smooth hairs on sublobal plate ( Fig. 9E View Figure 9 ). Basal setae of labium as M 1 M 2 RELL; all finely ciliate ( Fig. 9F View Figure 9 ). Cephalic dorsal chaetotaxy with six to eight An, three M, and six S macrochaetae; S 0 present; two macrochaetae in Gr. I and five in Gr. II. Interocular area with setae p, q, r, s, t ( Fig. 9G View Figure 9 ).

Thorax and legs. Dorsal macrochaetae shown in Figure 9H View Figure 9 . Th. II with six mediomedial (m1, m1i, m1i2, m2, m2i, and m2i2), five mediosublateral (m4, m4i, m4p, m4pi, and m4pi2), 26–33 posterior macrochaetae on each side; p3p and p1i2 often absent. Th. III with 13 macrosetae; a5i and a6i absent.

Trochanteral organ with 39–58 smooth spiny setae ( Fig. 9I View Figure 9 ). Tibiotarsus with inner differentiated setae finely ciliate, the distal one smooth; inner outstanding macrochaetae tapered only at tip. Unguis with one outer, two lateral, and four inner teeth; outer one near base, lateral one at 0.25¥ distance from base, inner pair with tip reaching 0.58–0.62¥ internal length of claw, median one at 0.78¥ and distal one 0.89¥ distance from base. Unguiculus slender and acuminate with outer edge serrate. Tenent hair strong clavate and shorter than unguis ( Fig. 9J View Figure 9 ).

Abdomen. Abd. IV 4.4–7.2 times as long as Abd. III along dorsal midline. Dorsal macrochaetae shown in Figure 9K View Figure 9 . Abd. I with four dorsocentral macrochaetae (m2, m3, m4, and m5) in one row on each side. Abd. II with three dorsocentral (m3, m3e, and m3ep) and one lateral (m5) macrochaetae. Abd. III with one dorsocentral (m3) and five lateral (am6, pm6, p6, m7, and p7) macrochaetae. Abd. IV usually with about 19 dorsocentral macrochaetae on each side; Ae2 and A4a sometimes absent. Accessory microchaetae of bothriotrichial complexes on Abd. II –IV ciliate, broadly modified or fan-shaped ( Fig. 9L View Figure 9 ). Tenaculum with four + four teeth and one large striate seta. Ventral tube anteriorly with three large ciliate setae and numerous ciliate setae of different sizes on each side ( Fig. 9M View Figure 9 ); each lateral flap with five smooth and about 12 ciliate setae ( Fig. 9N View Figure 9 ). Furcal segmental ratio of manubrium to dens plus mucro = 1: 1.3–1.5. Manubrium ventrally covered with scales and ciliate setae. Dens with spines ( Fig. 9O View Figure 9 ) and scales, distal smooth part 1.8 times mucro in length. Mucro bidentate, apical tooth obviously larger than subapical one; basal spine long with tip reaching beyond apex of subapical tooth but not to the apical one ( Fig. 9P View Figure 9 ).

Body scales. Scales coarsely striate, most round or truncate, and some pointed ( Fig. 9Q View Figure 9 ); present on head and body, Ant   . I and II, whole leg, and ventral side of furcula; scales on dens narrower than on body.

Ecology: Collected from pitfalls in hummock grassland ( Triodia spp.   ) with some scattered low shrubs and herb.

Etymology: The new species is named after the type locality.

Remarks: The new species from Barrow Island can be separated from other Acanthocyrtus species   by its unique mucro with long basal spine, more abundant sutural setae on head and on Th. II, long, narrow distal teeth on unguis, and shorter tenent hair. It is most close to Acanthocyrtus yolngui   in labial chaetotaxy (M 1 M 2 RELL), two in Gr. I and five in Gr. II on dorsal head, presence of p5 on Th. II, chaetotaxy of Th. III, Abd. I– II and central Abd. III, trochanteral organ, and morphology of dental spines; it differs from Acanthocyrtus yolngui   in six sutural setae, longer lateral process of labial palp, shorter tenent hair on leg, absence of p5 on Th. II, presence of p8 on Abd. III, more macrochaetae (A4a, A4, B1–2, B4, C1, T 1) on Abd. IV, and smaller subapical tooth on mucro.

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics