Pauropsalta decora, POPPLE, 2013

POPPLE, L. W., 2013, <p class = " HeadingRunIn " align = " left "> <strong> A revision of the <em> Pauropsalta annulata </ em> Goding & amp; Froggatt species group (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) based on morphology, calling songs and ecology, with investigations into calling song structure, molecular phylogenetic relationships and a case of hybridisation between two subspecies </ strong> </ p>, Zootaxa 3730 (1), pp. 1-102: 58-63

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Pauropsalta decora

sp. nov.

Pauropsalta decora   sp. nov.

( Figs 2K View FIGURE 2 , 4L View FIGURE 4 , 22F View FIGURE 22 , 31C View FIGURE 31 , 35A–B View FIGURE 35 , 36–38 View FIGURE 36 View FIGURE 37 View FIGURE 38 )

Types: Holotype: ♂ ‘ 82km N. of St George /SCQ’, ‘ 30.xii.2001 /m.v. lamp’, ‘ L. Popple & A. Strange’, ‘436-0009’, ‘ QM Reg. no. T156328’ ( QM)   ; Paratypes: QUEENSLAND: 1♀ Biggenden Qld , 4.i.1972, Frauca, scl[ero]ph[yl]l forest ( ANIC)   ; 1♀ SEQ: 25°31'S 150°03'E, Boggomoss no. 10 via Taroom , 14.xi.1996, at light, 065, Cook ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 6♂ 4♀, Qld : 26°23'S 146°12'E, 5km NW. of Charleville, 3–5.iii. 2003, 310m, Mulga, 51123, Monteith & Burwell ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ 2♀ 5.2km S. of Charleville, SWQ, 26°26.86'S 146°14.54'E, Mulga , 8.xii.2000, Ewart & Rattray ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 2♀ red eyes, Cape R., 100km S. of Charters Towers Qld , 21. xii.1983, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM)   ; 4♂ 2♀ Chesterton Range Nat. Pk Qld , 9.xii.1995, Dollery ( MSM)   ; 1♂ 2♀ Jct. Auburn – Warrego Rds, Chinchilla S. Qld , 9–10.i.1994 [Ewart]   ; 2♂ Comet Qld , 10.iii.1958, Common ( ANIC)   ; 1♂ 1♀ "Coo-ee yards", Red Hill Rd, Chinchilla S. Qld , 9.i.1994, [Ewart] ( AE)   ; 1♂ 27.58°S 145.47°, 16km NE. of Cunnamulla Qld , 20.iii.1990, Edwards & Fisk ( ANIC)   ; 7♂ 10♀ Edungalba Qld , 5.xii.1979, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM)   ; 1♂ Emerald Qld , 6.ii.1983, North   ; 3♂ red eyes, Clermont Qld , 7.ii.1981, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM)   ; 1♀ Qld: 19°49.0'S 146°03.5'E, Fletcher Ck Rest Area , 12.ii.2007, QM Party, m. v. lamp   , 280M ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 2♂ 1♀ Glebe Weir, Dawson R., via Taroom SEQ, 4–5.xii.1999, m. v. lamp, Moss & Popple (LWP)     ; 2♂ 2♀ Qld : 26°16'S 148°45'E, Gubberamunda S.F. site 1, 12–14.xii.2001, cypress, 380m, at MV light, Monteith & Wright ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ 1♀ 70km E. of Hughend [e]n Qld , 6.i.1987, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM)   ; 1♂ 55km NNE. of Injune Qld , 23. xi.1986, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM)   ; 1♂ Hookswood Rd N. of Miles SEQ, 2.xii.1999, Moss & Popple ( LWP)   ; 2♀ 26°29'S 147°58'E, Mitchell, Maranoa River , 24.xi.2005, m. v. lamp, Popple & Hando (LWP)   GoogleMaps   ; 2♀ 116km S. of Mitchell Qld , 18.xii.1983, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM)   ; 5♀ 6km E. of Mourangee H [ome]s[tea]d, nr Edungalba C. Qld , 11.xi.1987, Adams & Adams ( MSM)   ; 10♂ 7♀ 1km SW. of Mourangee H [ome]s[tea]d, nr Edungalba C. Qld , on grey box, 19.xii.1985, Adams & Adams ( MSM)   ; 5♂ 4♀ 2km W. of Mourangee H [ome]s[tea]d, nr Edungalba C. Qld, 4.xi.1986, Adams ( MSM)   ; 1♀ 1.5km W. of Mourangee H [ome]s[tea]d, nr Edungalba C. Qld, 12.xi.1984, Adams ( MSM)   ; 1♀ Qld : 21°38.4'S 146°54.6'E, "Nairana" turn off, 12.ii. 2007, 220m, Cook ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Red-eyed annulata   ?, "Rockwood" Chinchilla , i.1983, Cameron ( AE)   ; 12♂ 2♀ 6km NE. of Rolleston Qld , 24.xi.1986, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM)   ; 1♂ 80km S. of Rolleston Qld , 24.xi.1986, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM)   ; 4♂ 2♀ AU. Qld. MAC, 21km SE. of St George Qld , 28°09.959'S 148°42.883'E, 205m, 2.i.2005, Hill, Marshall & Moulds ( MSM) GoogleMaps   ; 18♂ 5♀ 82km N. of St George SCQ, 30.xii.2001, m. v. lamp, Popple & Strange (LWP)     ; 1♀ 82km N. of St George SCQ, 30.xii.2001, m. v. lamp, Popple & Strange   , 436-0010 ( QM)   ; 3♂ 2♀ 3km S. of Wyseby Junction, Rolleston–Injune Rd , 11.xii.1985, Moss & Ewart ( AE)   ; NEW SOUTH WALES: 1♂ 1♀ AU.NSW.SBB c. 16km SE of Boggabilla N.S.W., 28°44.673'S 150°25.050'E, 1.i.2005, Hill, Marshall & Moulds ( MSM) GoogleMaps   .

Description. Male ( Figs 4L View FIGURE 4 , 22F View FIGURE 22 , 31C View FIGURE 31 , 35A View FIGURE 35 ). Head. Dorsal surface black with a yellow-brown triangular depression between the lateral ocelli, pointing anteriorly, with flat side against posterior margin of head; long silver pubescence behind eyes, with shorter yellow pubescence over remainder. Genae black, with long silver pubescence; vertex black with contrasting yellow lobes. Mandibular plate black with an outer narrow pale marginal ridge, extending to suture between genae; long silver pubescence. Antennae dark brown to black. Ocelli pinkishred. Eyes bright red in live specimens, often darkening to dark red or reddish-brown in dried specimens; distinct furrow between eyes and pronotum. Postclypeus black anteriorly, with pinkish-brown margin and a small yellow dorsal spot on midline extending onto dorsal surface; short and long silver pubescence along ventral surface except down midline; short yellow pubescence along posterior ventral surface. Anteclypeus black, with long silver pubescence. Rostrum pale brown grading to black apically, with silver pubescence; extending to mid coxae.

Thorax. Pronotum black; central fascia yellow to yellow-brown, forming a smear that tapers posterior to head, not extending to posterior or anterior margins; silver-yellow pubescence, especially along oblique fissures; pronotal collar yellow to yellow-brown, paler laterally. Mesonotum, including submedian and lateral sigilla, matte to slightly glossy black, with yellow to yellow-brown, dorsolateral fasciae present between submedian and lateral sigilla and additional fasciae along lateral margins; dorsolateral fasciae triangular, never merging medially; lateral fasciae narrow; cruciform elevation yellow-brown to orange-brown, black anteriorly and on surrounding posterior mesonotum; ridges between wing grooves orange-brown; silver-yellow pubescence, most evident around cruciform elevation.

Legs. Coxae black with yellow-brown apex; fore femora black with broad, dark yellow-brown longitudinal fasciae; mid and hind femora dark brown to black, yellow-brown apically; fore and mid tibiae medium to dark brown; hind tibiae pale to medium brown; tarsi and claws medium brown, pale brown on hind legs; spines dark brown.

Wings. Fore wing venation pale to dark brown, becoming darker towards apical cells and ambient veins; fore wing costal veins pale brown; slight angulation of fore wings at node; pterostigma pale yellow-brown; hind wing infuscation at the juncture of the anal lobe and wing margin, surrounding the distal termination of vein 2A, distinct.

Timbals. Long ribs 1–3 fused ventrally; long ribs 1–4 fused dorsally to basal spur. Long rib 5 typically extending ventrally in line with dorsal half of adjacent intercalary rib.

Opercula. Roughly sickle-shaped, obliquely elongated; central region domed, black; medial and lateral margins dark yellow-brown to black; parallel to body axis.

Abdomen. Tergites mainly black with contrasting yellow-brown posterior margins on tergites 3 to 8; silver short pubescence conspicuous laterally. Sternites yellow to yellow-brown with discontinuous black medial fascia (weakly expressed or almost absent in some specimens).

Genitalia. Pygofer black anteriorly, grading to yellow-brown posteriorly; upper lobes prominent, erect, roughly terminally rounded with a slightly hooked appearance; lower lobes weakly distinct, bulbous, with an inner tooth strongly developed on inside of each lobe; inner lobes enlarged, acute, posteriorly tapering; claspers with a pair of hooked processes; aedeagus with dorsal pseudoparameres that bifurcate and join theca near gonocoxite IX; pseudoparameres apically curved, tapering; theca gradually curved posteriorly, sclerotized; apex greater in vertical width than shaft, with slight projections dorsally and ventrally, covered in small spine ornamentation.

Female ( Fig. 35B View FIGURE 35 ). Similar colouration and patterning to that of male. Head similar in colour to that of male. Pronotum black; central fascia orange-brown, often broader than that of male and reaching anterior margin, also produced slightly further posteriorly and dorsolaterally to form a pair of narrow, outward-pointing, wedge-shaped patterns. Mesonotum similar in colour to that of male. Legs similar in colour to those of male. Abdomen with tergites similar in colour to those of male; abdominal segment 9 medium orange-brown with a pair of longitudinal near-dorsal black fasciae that extend to the anterior edge and ventrolaterally to some extent; sternites medium brown to orange-brown with a broad, discontinuous brown fascia distributed medially along sternites II to VII; ovipositor sheath extending approximately to apex of abdomen or <0.5 mm beyond it.

Distinguishing features. Males of P. decora   have distinctive black opercula, sometimes with a narrow area of lighter colouration at the edge of the medial margin, which renders them distinct from all other taxa in the P. annulata   group, except for P. kobongoides   and P. corymbiae   . They are easily distinguished from P. kobongoides   in having five functional timbal ribs, with long rib 5 free from the anterior cuticle at the edge of the timbal. Males differ from P. corymbiae   in being yellow and black in colouration rather than orange and black. Females can be distinguished from all other taxa in the P. annulata   complex, apart from P. tremula   and P. kobongoides   , by a combination of their yellow and black colouration and their ovipositor sheath, which does not extend beyond the termination of the abdomen. They differ from P. tremula   and P. kobongoides   by the abdominal sternites being yellow to yellow-brown with a relatively narrow median fascia, as opposed to mostly black.

Measurements. N= 30 ♂ 30 ♀. Ranges and means (in parentheses), mm; BL: ♂ 11.4–13.8 (12.6); ♀ 11.1–13.8 (12.6); FWL: ♂ 14.7–17.1 (15.9); ♀ 15.0–17.8 (16.5); FWB: ♂ 4.7–6.3 (5.5); ♀ 4.8–6.2 (5.7); HW: ♂ 3.8–4.5 (4.1); ♀ 4.0–4.6 (4.3); PW: ♂ 3.1–3.5 (3.3); ♀ 3.0–3.8 (3.3); AW: ♂ 3.3–4.0 (3.7); ♀ 3.2–4.0 (3.5); OL: ♀ 3.6–4.1 (3.8).

Etymology. From Latin, meaning fine, beautiful, handsome, referring to the neat and aesthetically pleasing morphological appearance of this species.

Distribution and Ecology ( Figure 36 View FIGURE 36 ). Widespread throughout sub-humid and semi-arid Queensland into northern New South Wales, extending from east of Hughenden and Snake Creek north of Charters Towers in northern Queensland south to Charleville and Cunnamulla in the west, east to Biggenden and near Gayndah in south-eastern Queensland, and further south to the Boggabilla district in the far north of inland New South Wales. Populations occur in association primarily with box eucalypts (section Adnataria), including E. populnea   , E. microcarpa   and E. pilligaensis   and also other eucalypt species. It is an especially common species in the central highlands of Queensland and along the eastern edge of the mulga bioregion (dominated by Acacia aneura   ), although it does not penetrate the mulga lands west of Charleville and Cunnamulla. Adults are present from November to February.

Geological and Pedological Associations. Adults generally found associated with trees on sand plains and alluvial areas where soils are derived from weathered sandstone or siltstone.

Calling Song ( Figs 2K View FIGURE 2 , 37–38 View FIGURE 37 View FIGURE 38 ). Pauropsalta decora   produces a more complex calling song than most other members of the species complex. The lilting component phrases begin with a rattle (0.218 –1.670 s) that comprises a long train of two-syllable echemes (0.017 –0.024 s), each of which is punctuated by a brief silence (0.018 –0.026 s). The last echeme is always followed by a longer silence (0.068 –0.263 s) (all statistics, n=28 individuals). The ending of each phrase is comparatively abrupt, with a short echeme (0.021 –0.044 s) that is followed by another silence (0.062 –0.091 s). The calling song is largely dominated by a monotonous buzzing component that involves an extended version of the rattle at the start of the lilting component. This gives the call a distinct, fluttering quality. It has a pulse repetition rate of 0.370 –1.196 s, syllable repetition rate of 100–120 Hz and highest amplitude dominant frequency of 8.9–11.5 kHz, with a broad plateau between 8.0–15.5 kHz. One instance of male–female duetting behaviour has been recorded for this species. Females respond with a soft wing-flick during the silence at the end of each lilting component phrase ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ), 0.016 –0.040 s after production of the short echeme.


Queensland Museum


Australian National Insect Collection


Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.