Pauropsalta granitica, POPPLE, 2013

POPPLE, L. W., 2013, <p class = " HeadingRunIn " align = " left "> <strong> A revision of the <em> Pauropsalta annulata </ em> Goding & amp; Froggatt species group (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) based on morphology, calling songs and ecology, with investigations into calling song structure, molecular phylogenetic relationships and a case of hybridisation between two subspecies </ strong> </ p>, Zootaxa 3730 (1), pp. 1-102: 47-52

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3730.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0C2C146B-FEE4-4150-A6D3-B3A5E5491E8B

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5270952

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FC8964-FF9D-AE6F-FF62-FB78D101428B

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Pauropsalta granitica
status

sp. nov.

Pauropsalta granitica   sp. nov.

( Figs 2H View FIGURE 2 , 4I View FIGURE 4 , 5I View FIGURE 5 , 22C View FIGURE 22 , 27A–B View FIGURE 27 , 28–30 View FIGURE 28 View FIGURE 29 View FIGURE 30 )

Types: Holotype: ♂ ‘ 7km SE. of Mt Carbine /NE. Qld / Mary R. Camp’, ‘ xii.1989 ’, ‘ANZSES Exped [itio]n’, ‘ QM Reg. No. T 156325’ ( QM)   ; Paratypes: QUEENSLAND: 1♂ Mt Carbine , 35km SW. [of] Mossman N. Qld, 9.i.1978, Hiller ( MSM)   ; 2♂ 15.11°S 143.52°E, Hann River Qld, 17.xii.1993, Zborowski, at light ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Chewko Rd, Mareeba , 17°02'52"S 145°22'26"E, 20.xii.2006, Popple & McKinnon, 648-0001 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 2♂ Mount Garnet , 17°40'31"S 145°06'46"E, parkland, 7.i.2008, Popple & Emery, 648-0003 to 648-0004 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ 12km N. of Palmer River x-ing Qld , 16°01S 144°49'E, Daniels & Daniels ( MSM) GoogleMaps   ; 5♂ 2♀ QLD.JNB nr Bob's lookout S. of Palmer R. roadhouse Qld , 16°28.0S 144°52.4'E, 11.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall & Moulds ( MSM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Spear Creek, 8.5km N. of Palmer River [cross]ing Qld , 16°03'S 144°48'E, 26.xii.1984, m. v. lamp, Daniels & Daniels   , genitalia prep. 648-01 [ LWP] ( MSM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ same data as previous ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Chewko Rd, Walkamin , 17°05'33"S 145°22'55"E, woodland, 5.i.2008, Popple & Emery, 648-0002 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; NORTHERN TERRITORY: 4♂ 1♀ 16.34°S 135.41°E, 14km NW. of Cape Crawford N.T., 6.xi.1975, Upton ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Other material: NORTHERN TERRITORY. 4♂ 14.31°S 132.22°E, Tindal N.T., 1–20.xii.1967, Vestjens, at light ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   ; 2♂ 1♀ 14.30°S 132.15°E, 3km SSE. of Katherine N.T., 12.xi.1979, Weir ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   ; 2♂ 2♀ same data as previous, Naumann ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   .

Description. Male ( Figs 4I View FIGURE 4 , 5I View FIGURE 5 , 22C View FIGURE 22 , 27A View FIGURE 27 ). Head. Dorsal surface black with a brown triangular depression between the lateral ocelli, pointing anteriorly, with flat side against posterior margin of head; long silver pubescence behind eyes, with shorter yellow pubescence over remainder. Genae and vertex black, with long silver pubescence; vertex lobes reddish-brown. Mandibular plate black; long silver pubescence. Antennae dark brown to black. Ocelli red. Eyes dull red in live insects, fading to reddish-brown in preserved specimens; distinct furrow between eyes and pronotum. Postclypeus black anteriorly, reddish-brown on margins and on anterior midline, not extending to dorsal surface; short and long silver pubescence along ventral surface except down midline; short yellow pubescence along posterior ventral surface. Anteclypeus black, with long silver pubescence. Rostrum medium brown grading to dark brown apically, with silver pubescence; extending to mid coxae.

Thorax. Pronotum black; central fascia brown, longitudinal, tapering at both ends and not extending to proximal or distal margins; conspicuous silver-yellow pubescence; pronotal collar brown, slightly paler laterally. Mesonotum mainly brown to yellow-brown, with contrasting black submedian and lateral sigilla; area surrounding scutal depressions also black; cruciform elevation brown to pinkish-brown, black anteriorly; ridges between wing grooves brown; silver-yellow pubescence, most evident around cruciform elevation.

Legs. Fore coxae pale brown with black longitudinal fasciae; mid and hind coxae dark brown, apex pale brown; fore femora brown with broad, black longitudinal fasciae; mid and hind femora dark brown, pale brown apically; fore tibia medium to dark brown; mid and hind tibiae pale to medium brown, paler at base and apex; tarsi and claws medium brown, pale brown on hind legs; spines dark brown.

Wings. Fore wing venation medium to dark brown, becoming darker towards apical cells and ambient veins; fore wing costal veins pale brown to greenish-brown; slight angulation of fore wings at node; pterostigma brown; hind wing infuscation at the juncture of the anal lobe and wing margin, surrounding the distal termination of vein 2A, distinct.

Timbals. Long ribs 1–3 fused ventrally; long ribs 1–4 fused dorsally to basal spur. Long rib 5 typically extending ventrally in line with adjacent intercalary rib.

Opercula. Roughly sickle-shaped, obliquely elongated; central region domed, black; medial and lateral margins pallid; parallel to body axis.

Abdomen. Tergites mainly black with contrasting yellow posterior margins and with brown longitudinal median dorsolateral areas on tergites 3 to 6; tergite 7 black with brown dorsolateral margin; tergite 8 black with brown yellow-brown margin; silver short pubescence conspicuous laterally. Sternites yellow to yellow-brown with a broad black medial fascia that broadens posteriorly.

Genitalia. Pygofer black anteriorly, grading to yellow or yellow-brown apically; upper lobes prominent, erect, terminally rounded; lower lobes distinct, bulbous, with an inner tooth strongly developed on each lobe; inner lobes enlarged, acute, posteriorly tapering; claspers with a pair of hooked processes; aedeagus with dorsal pseudoparameres that bifurcate and join theca near gonocoxite IX; pseudoparameres apically curved, tapering; theca gradually curved and weakly tapering posteriorly, sclerotized; apex slightly greater in vertical width than posterior shaft, projecting further posteriorly on ventral edge than dorsal edge, with apparent fine ornamentation.

Female ( Fig. 27B View FIGURE 27 ). Similar colouration and patterning to that of male, with greater extent of reddish-brown colouration in most specimens. Head similar in colour to that of male, with conspicuous reddish-brown vertex lobes. Pronotum black; central fascia reddish-brown, forming a smear, often broader than that of male. Mesonotum similar in colour to that of male, with broader areas of reddish-brown colouration surrounding submedian and lateral sigilla. Legs similar in colour to those of male. Abdomen with tergites similar in colour to those of male, with posterior tergite margins typically reddish-brown; abdominal segment 9 reddish-brown with a pair of longitudinal near-dorsal black fasciae that extend to the anterior edge and ventrolaterally to some extent; sternites medium brown with a broad, diffuse dark brown fascia distributed medially along sternites II to VII; ovipositor sheath extending about 1.0 mm beyond termination of abdominal segment 9.

Distinguishing features. Male insects of P. granitica   differ from all other species in the P. annulata   group by the theca apex, which projects further posteriorly on ventral edge than the dorsal edge. Another useful character is the distinct three-step grade in colour of the dorsolateral tergites 3–6, which change from black anteriorly through medium brown to pale brown on the posterior margin. This feature distinguishes P. granitica   from all species in the P. annulata   group apart from some specimens of P. annulata   (from the central highlands region of Queensland), P. subtropica   , P. torrensis   , P. simplex   and P. ayrensis   . Pauropsalta granitica   males differ from P. annulata   specimens that share the same abdominal features by their dull or matte, rather than shiny or glossy, textured head, thorax and abdomen. They differ from P. subtropica   and P. torrensis   in having rounded, rather than slightly hooked, posterior ventral terminations of the upper pygofer lobes. They can also be distinguished from P. simplex   and P. ayrensis   by having pale, rather than dark, upper pygofer lobes. Female insects are less easily distinguished, with the most useful feature being their dull brown colouration. This feature is shared with females of P. simplex   and paler specimens of P. ayrensis   , but these species differ in the length of their ovipositor. In P. granitica   , the ovipositor sheath extends approximately 1.0 mm beyond the apex of the abdomen, whereas in the P. simplex   and P. ayrensis   , it extends only up to 0.5 mm.

Measurements. N= 12 ♂ 5 ♀. Ranges and means (in parentheses), mm; BL: ♂ 10.1–12.0 (11.3); ♀ 12.0–13.5 (13.0); FWL: ♂ 12.2–14.6 (13.9); ♀ 15.2–16.1 (15.6); FWB: ♂ 4.6–5.7 (5.2); ♀ 5.4–5.5 (5.5); HW: ♂ 3.7–5.0 (4.4); ♀ 3.9–4.1 (4.2); PW: ♂ 2.6–3.2 (3.0); ♀ 3.2–3.4 (3.3); AW: ♂ 3.1–3.7 (3.4); ♀ 3.2–3.7 (3.5); OL: ♀ 3.7–4.6 (4.4).

Etymology. This species has a strong association with both granitic soils and the ironbark E. graniticus   , at least in the area of the type locality and Latin granitica   therefore seems appropriate.

Notes on Geographical Variation. Specimens with a similar calling song structure and morphology to P. granitica   have recently been collected from the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Preliminary information suggests that this series of specimens may belong to an additional undescribed species or subspecies; however further song recordings from the Kimberley region and adjacent parts of the Northern Territory would be required to make an informed judgment on their taxonomic status. As a consequence, these specimens are not treated further in this paper.

Distribution and Ecology ( Figure 28 View FIGURE 28 ). This species occurs in northern Queensland the Northern Territory, from near Laura in Cape York Peninsular south through the Wet Tropics, from The Palmer River district (including Spear Creek) south to Mount Garnet, and west through the Mount Surprise and Georgetown districts subcoastally along the southern edge of the southern edge of the Gulf of Carpentaria extending at least as far as Cape Crawford. A series of specimens from the central northern area of the Northern Territory from near Katherine and Tindal are also considered likely to represent this species; however, a calling song recording has not been obtained from this area. Populations occur in rocky areas and on flats, typically in association with ironbarks, such as E. graniticus   in north-eastern Queensland. Adults typically occur on the upper branches and in foliage of medium-sized trees. They are present in December and January, with peak numbers between mid-December and New Year.

Geological and Pedological Associations. In north-eastern Queensland this species most commonly occurs in sandy loams derived from granite.

Calling Song ( Fig. 2H View FIGURE 2 , 29–30 View FIGURE 29 View FIGURE 30 ). Pauropsalta granitica   produces a distinctive song with a two-part introductory component and a lilting component. The introductory component is usually produced at the onset of calling, or after a calling male is disturbed during production of the lilting component. The first part of this component is relatively simple, comprising a brief bout of short echemes (5–8 syllables, 0.046 –0.092 s), punctuated by silences (0.051 –0.095 s) (all statistics, n=11 individuals). The second part of the introductory component comprises a sustained buzz of variable duration (0.778 –4.870 s). Typically, this second part is produced in-between bouts of the lilting component. The lilting component comprises a long echeme (15–47 syllables, 0.143 –0.499 s, n=8) followed by a silence (0.051 –0.074 s), a short echeme (3–5 syllables, 0.034 –0.062 s) and another silence (0.058 –0.104 s). Occasionally, during extending bouts of lilting, an additional short echeme (4–5 syllables, 0.043 –0.065 s) is added after the second silence. Phrases with this additional echeme are apparent in a single recording from near Mount Garnet and in one (of eight) recordings from Mount Carbine only. The calling song has a phrase repetition rate of 0.290 –0.739 s, syllable repetition rate of 80–100 Hz, a frequency plateau extending from 10.0–16.0 kHz and a highest amplitude dominant frequency between 11.4–13.2 kHz. No instances of male–female duetting have been recorded from this species thus far.

QM

Queensland Museum

MSM

Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Cicadidae

Genus

Pauropsalta