Pauropsalta notialis incitata, POPPLE, 2013

POPPLE, L. W., 2013, <p class = " HeadingRunIn " align = " left "> <strong> A revision of the <em> Pauropsalta annulata </ em> Goding & amp; Froggatt species group (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) based on morphology, calling songs and ecology, with investigations into calling song structure, molecular phylogenetic relationships and a case of hybridisation between two subspecies </ strong> </ p>, Zootaxa 3730 (1), pp. 1-102: 29-33

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3730.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0C2C146B-FEE4-4150-A6D3-B3A5E5491E8B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FC8964-FFAF-AE7D-FF62-F930D09E4033

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Pauropsalta notialis incitata
status

subsp. nov.

Pauropsalta notialis incitata   subsp. nov.

( Figs 2C View FIGURE 2 , 4D View FIGURE 4 , 5D View FIGURE 5 , 6D View FIGURE 6 , 10C–F View FIGURE 10 , 11 View FIGURE 11 , 14–15 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 )

Pauropsalta sp.   nr annulata   433: Popple and Strange (2002)

Pauropsalta annulata   song type B: Popple et al. (2008); Popple & Walter (2010).

Types: Holotype: ♂ ‘ Baracula [=Barakula] S.F./nr Chinchilla S.Q. ’, ‘virgin brigalow/ 16.xii.1997 ’, ‘ 26°14.42'S 150°48.86'E’, ‘ A. Ewart’, ‘ QM Reg. No. T 156321 ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; Paratypes: AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY   :

3♂ Mt Majura Nature Reserve , 35°14'37"S, 149°10'16"E, 11.xii.2010, Popple, 433-0054 to 433-0056 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Frith St Acton, 35°16'14"S, 149°06'48"E, 6.xii.2010, Popple, 433-0057 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; QUEENSLAND: "Allinga", Chinchilla Q., 26.xii.1985, on fence wire near post, out of wind, Lithgow ( AE)   ; 3♂ " Allinga ", Lithgow Rd Chinchilla S. Qld, i.1994 [Ewart] ( AE)   ; 2♂ 1♀ Allinga Dam, Chinchilla district S. Qld, 7.i.1994, Lithgow ( AE)   ; 1♂ 40.4km N. Augathella SWQ., 25°25.70’S 146°35.80’E, Brigalow , 18.i.2000, Ewart, Recorded ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 4♂ 1♀ 63km N. of Augathella , [25°19'S 146°35'E], 24.xi.2005, Popple & Hando, 433-0025 & 433-0033 to 433-0036 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Baracula [=Barakula] S.F./nr Chinchilla S.Q., virgin brigalow, 16.xii.1997, 26°14.42'S 150°48.86'E, Ewart ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ 1♀ Qld : 26°26’S 150°31’E, Barakula, 330m, 17–18.xii.2001, M. V. light   , Monteith & Wright, 10311 ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ 6km SW. of Binjour SE. Qld , [25°33'S 151°24'E], 25.i.2003, Popple & Popple, 433-0006 ( LWP GoogleMaps   1♂ Blackall [Qld], Exotic shrubs & trees, i.1979, Ewart ( AE)   ; 1♂ Blackall W. Qld, xii.1978, Ewart ( AE)   ; 1♂ Blackall W. Qld, iii.1979, Ewart ( AE)   ; 7♂ 1♀ 4.8km WNW. Blackall SWQ., 24°25.04’S 145°25.07’E, Open woodland, 19.i.2000, Ewart ( AE) GoogleMaps   ;); 2♂ Brigalow Res [earch] Stat [ion] via Theodore C. Qld , [24°50'S 149°48'E], 5–12.xii.1999, Moss & Popple, m. v. lamp   , 433-0001 & 433-0002 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Bringalily S.F., Brigalow plot, 28°12'28"S 151°07'25"E, 26.x.2006, Ewart, m. v. lamp   , 433-0053 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Bringalily S.F. via Inglewood, Brigalow Scientific Area , at light, 28°12.47'S 151°07.58'E, 21.xi.2007, Ewart ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Chinchilla S. Qld, i– ii.1997, Lithgow ( AE)   ; 1♂ Chinchilla SE. Qld , [26°44'S 150°38'E], 17.iii.2002, Popple, 433-0004 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 3♂ 5♀ "Coo-ee yards", Red Hill Rd, Chinchilla S. Qld , 9.i.1994, [Ewart] ( AE)   ; 1♂ Condamine Qld , 11.xii.1992, Lambkin ( ANIC)   ; 3♂ 6.5km SSE. of Condamine Qld , 11.xii.1992, Lambkin ( ANIC)   ; 1♂ near Dogwood [Creek] x-ing, 28km W. of Condamine Qld , 19.xii.1987, Moulds & Moulds, genitalia prep. 433-02 [ LWP] ( MSM)   ; 2♂ 2♀ same data as previous ( MSM)   ; 1♂ SE. Qld, Durah, Barakula State Forest , 26°17.76'S 149°58.06'E, 20.xii.2000, Maywald ( MC) GoogleMaps   ; 4♂ 4♀ Eidsvold Caravan Park , 25°22'06"S 151°07'25"E, 24–25.xi.2006, Popple & McKinnon, m. v. lamp   , 433-0026 to 433-0029 & 433-0049 to 433-0052 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 11♂ 7♀ Eidsvold SE. Qld , 25°22'06"S 151°07'25"E, 27–29.xii.2004, Popple, 433-0014 to 433-0018, 433-0037 to 433-0048 & 432-0048 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Glebe Weir , 30km NE. Taroom S. Qld, 25°27.85’S 150°02.00’E, 2.x.1999, Ewart, P. annulata   (red eyed) ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Glebe Weir via Taroom SE. Qld , [25°27'35"S 150°02'00"E], 4–5.xii.1999, Moss & Popple, m. v. lamp   , 433-0003 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ 40km NNW. of Goondiwindi Qld , 17.xii.1983, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM)   ; 1♀ 6.1km E. of Kaimkillenbun SE. Q., 23.xii.2001, 27°04.33'S 151°29.83'E, Ewart ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Lemon Tree Stn N. of Millmerran Qld, [no date], Key ( ANIC)   ; 1♀ Qld : 22°16’S 147°17’E, Mazeppa NP, site 3, 26.iii.2001, 10166, m. v. light   , gidgee/paddock, 240m, Monteith ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Millmerran to Cecil Plains Qld, x.1936, Key ( ANIC)   ; 1♀ Millmerran Qld , x.1936, Key ( ANIC)   ; 1♂ Mitchell Caravan Park , 26°29'S 147°58'E, 24.xi.2005, Popple & Hando, m. v. lamp   , 433-0024 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ 23km W. Mitchell, SEQ, 26°29.17’S 147°45.09’E, Cassinia   , 12.i.2002, Ewart ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ same data as previous, Recorded Spec. 1 ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ same data as previous, Recorded Spec. 2 ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 2♂ 2♀ 31km W. Mitchell SE. Q., 26°28.74’S 147°40.37’S, Brigalow , Cassinia   , E. mitchellii   , 12.i.2002, Ewart ( AE)   ; 1♂ same data as previous, Recorded Spec. 1 ( AE)   ; 1♂ same data as previous, Recorded Spec 2 ( AE)   ; 1♂ same data as previous, Recorded Spec 3 ( AE)   ; 1♂ 116km S. of Mitchell Qld , 18.xii.1983, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM)   ; 1♂ " Mourangee " near Edungalba C. Qld, 13.xi.1987, Adams ( MSM)   ; 1♀ 3km E. of " Mourangee " H[ome]s[tea]d nr Edungalba Q., 4.x.1983, Adams, genitalia prep. 433-05 [ LWP] ( MSM)   ; 1♂ 2♀ 6km E. of Mourangee H[ome]s[tea]d nr Edungalba C. Qld , 11.xii.1987, Adams & Adams ( MSM)   ; 1♂ 6.5km N. of Mourangee H[ome]s[tea]d nr Edungalba C. Qld, 25.xii.1986, Adams; 1♂ 3.5km E. of Mourangee H [ome]s[tea]d nr Edungalba C. Qld, 7.xi.1986, Adams, genitalia prep. 433-05 [ LWP] ( MSM)   ; 1♀ Mourangee H [ome]s[tea]d, nr Edungalba C.Q., 8.xii.1984, Adams ( MSM)   ; 1♂ 2.5km E. of Mourangee H [ome]s[tea]d, nr Edungalba C. Qld, 19.xii.1986, Adams ( MSM)   ; 2♀ same data as previous, 13.xi.1986 ( MSM)   ; 2km [WNW.] of Mourangee H [ome]s[tea]d, nr Edungalba C.Q., 6.xi.1986, Adams ( MSM)   ; 1♀ 2.5km NW. of Mourangee H [ome]s[tea]d, nr Edungalba C. Qld, 10.xi.1984, Adams ( MSM)   ; 6♂ 1♀ Oakey SE. Qld , [27°26'S 151°43'E], 19.x.2003, Popple, 433-0007 to 433-0013 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ "Possum Park", 20km N. of Miles S.Q., 20.i.2001, Ironbark-Lancewood woodland, 26°30.30'S 150°06.03'E, Ewart ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 4♂ 5♀ ~ 9.5km NNW. of R[obert] Wicks Res [earch] St [atio]n, Bringalily S.F. via Inglewood S.Q., 28°12.54'S 151°07.40'E, light, Brigalow , 14.xii.2007, Ewart ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ same data as previous, Recorded spec. 1 ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ same data as previous, Recorded spec. 2; same data as previous, Recorded spec. 3 ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 2♂ 5♀ ~ 9.6km NNW. of R[obert] Wicks Res [earch St [atio]n, Bringalily S.F. via Inglewood S.Q., 28°12.55'S 151°07.39'E, light, Brigalow , 15.xii.2007, Ewart ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ same data as previous, Recorded open net, field ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 2♂ Brigalow forest, 9.5km NNW. of R[obert] Wicks R[esearch] S[tation], Bringalily S.F. via Inglewood S.Q., 28°12.47'S 151°07.58'E, 21.xi.2007, Ewart ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ same data as previous, Recorded , open net, field, spec. 1 ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ same data as previous, Recorded , open net, field, spec. 2 ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 2♀ 6.4km SW. of R[obert] Wicks Res [earch] St [atio]n, Bringalily S.F. via Inglewood S.Q., 28°18.23'S 151°05.31'E, 20.xi.2007, Ewart ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ 6km NE. of Rolleston Qld , 24.xi.1986, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM)   ; 1♂ 1♀ Roma SC. Qld [Eumamurrin Camping & Water Reserve — tennis courts], 26°12'30"S 148°52'55"E, 14.ii.2004, Eddie & Eddie, at light, 433-0022 & 433-0023 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Roma district SC. Qld , "Six Mile" homestead, 26°12'41"S, 148°42'02"E, 9.xii.2000, Eddie, at light, 433-0021 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ 2♀ [Carnarvon Highway] 6km NE St George SC. Qld , 28°00'22"S 148°37'59"E, 9.i.2005, Popple & MacSloy, 433-0019 & 433-0020 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ 82km NNE. of St George SC. Qld , [27°22'S 148°50'E], 30.xii.2001, Popple & Strange, m. v. lamp   , 433-0005 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ SE. Q.: 25°33’S 150°08’E, Taroom district, Bottle tree scrub, 14.i.1997, Burwell, Cook & Janetzki, 210 ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ 6km N. Taroom S.Q., 25°36.33’S 149°46.15’E, Brigalow , 19.i.2001, Ewart, Red-eyed, Recorded ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Womalilla Ck (third xing), 17.7km W. of Mitchell [Qld], 26°29.31’S 147°47.18’E, Brigalow , E. mitchellii   , 26.x.1998, Ewart, Recorded ( AE) GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis ( Figs 4D View FIGURE 4 , 5D View FIGURE 5 , 6D View FIGURE 6 , 10C–E View FIGURE 10 ). Matches the description given for P. annulata   , with a few exceptions, as follows. Dorsal surface of head shiny (or glossy) black, not matte or dull; eyes red, fading to brown, never white. Thorax mainly shiny black, rather than matte black; mesonotum black, sometimes with dark to medium brown, dorsolateral triangular fasciae between submedian and lateral sigilla, and additional, narrow fascia on lateral margins. Abdominal tergites mostly shiny black, with sharp transition in colour to pale brown on posterior edges; sternites never entirely black and always with some degree of brown to yellow-brown colouration on the lateral margins. Females always with a greater degree of medium brown colouration by comparison with males; never with an entirely black pronotum.

Distinguishing features. This subspecies is distinguished from P. n. notialis   by being predominantly shiny black on the thorax and head (often also apparent on the abdominal tergites). Pauropsalta notialis notialis   is always dull black on the upper surface. This feature also distinguishes P. n. incitata from all other species in the P. annulata   group, with the exception P. annulata   s. str. from the central highlands of Queensland (see Figs 3C–D View FIGURE 3 & 7 View FIGURE 7 ), P. inversa   from central western New South Wales and P. ayrensis   . Distinguishing specimens of P. n. incitata from P. inversa   in Queensland is relatively simple, as the latter species appears matte black on the thorax rather than shiny black. Pauropsalta notialis incitata   has never been recorded in central western New South Wales between Mount Hope and Goolgowi, which may also assist in identification. Other distinguishing features are listed under the description of P. inversa   . Male specimens of P. n. incitata differ from P. ayrensis   by their pale and rounded, rather than dark and hooked, upper pygofer lobes. They can be distinguished most easily from P. annulata   through examination of abdominal tergite colouration. In P. annulata   specimens from the central highlands, the lateral sides of male tergites have a three-step grade in colouration from black (anteriorly) to medium brown to yellow-brown posteriorly. By contrast, in P. n. incitata, the lateral tergites are black anteriorly to medially and pale brown or yellow-brown on posterior margins, without conspicuous grade in colouration. Another helpful feature is the inner tooth of the pygofer lobe, which is prominent in the central highlands population of P. annulata   ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ), but vestigial or absent in P. n. incitata ( Fig. 6D View FIGURE 6 ). Females of P. n. incitata may be difficult to distinguish from P. ayrensis   and P. annulata   in the Central Highlands region. Pauropsalta notialis incitata   females are generally medium brown in overall colouration, whereas shiny/glossy P. annulata   females in the Central Highlands region are typically a lighter brown and P. ayrensis   females in the same region are mostly black.

Measurements (mm). N= 30 ♂ 30 ♀. Ranges and means (in parentheses), mm; BL: ♂ 11.6–13.9 (12.8); ♀ 11.6–16.1 (13.8); FWL: ♂ 13.6–16.2 (15.0); 14.6–18.0 (16.3); FWB: ♂ 4.8–6.0 (5.4); ♀ 5.1–6.3 (5.7); HW: ♂ 3.9– 4.6 (4.2); ♀ 4.2–4.8 (4.5); PW: ♂ 3.0–3.5 (3.3); ♀ 3.4–3.8 (3.6); ♀ 3.4–4.3 (3.8); AW: ♂ 3.1–4.1 (3.8); OL: ♀ 3.6– 5.1 (4.5).

Etymology. Latin incitatus meaning 'short, precise', referring to the rapidly emitted yet clearly enunciated lilting component of the calling song of this species.

Distribution and Ecology ( Figure 11 View FIGURE 11 ). Throughout the Brigalow Belt in inland southern and central Queensland and northern New South Wales bordered by Mazeppa National Park north of Clermont in the north, Augathella and Mitchell in the west, St George, Bellata and Inglewood in the south and Gayndah and Oakey in the east. Apparently disjunct populations also occur in the Canberra area (Australian Capital Territory) and near Diggers Rest north-west of Melbourne in Victoria. The subspecies has yet to be encountered in New South Wales between Bellata and the borders of the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria, despite multiple searches; nevertheless it is expected to occur patchily through these inland areas. In Queensland, adults occur primarily in association with Brigalow ( Acacia harpophylla   ; Mimosaceae   ); particularly where it occurs as regrowth or in mixed woodland. They also occur on Melaleuca bracteata   along floodplains and on other Myrtaceae   such as Eucalyptus tereticornis   , E. cambageana   , E. coolabah   , E. intertexta   and E. populnea   , and other Mimosaceae   such as A. aneura   , usually where A. harpophylla   and M. bracteata   are not present or where natural vegetation has been disrupted by human activities. In Canberra, adults occur on eucalypts and occasionally in planted shrubs. Adults are wary and generally sit on the upper branches and within foliage.

Geological and Pedological Associations. It is generally found in association with alluvial soils, including silt loams and clay loams lying over sediments. Occasionally populations are also found associated with deeper, clay dominated soils, and sometimes even the edges of heavy clay soils with gilgai (microrelief) formation.

Calling Song ( Figs 2C View FIGURE 2 , 14–15 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 ). In general, the calling song of P. n. incitata is similar to that of P. n. notialis   , but with a more rapid emission of phrases in the lilting component. The lilting component comprises a long echeme (6–12 (rarely 4 or 5) syllables, 0.045 – 0.129 s) followed by a brief silence (0.009 – 0.038 s), a short echeme (1–2 syllables, 0.008 – 0.020 s) and a long silence (0.026 – 0.126 s) (all statistics, n=111 individuals). phrase repetition rates vary between 0.115 – 0.310 s, and typically fall within the range of 0.125 – 0.230 s. As in P. n. notialis   , the buzzing component consists entirely of a drawn-out long echeme (~1.000–> 60.000 s), which often serves simply as a longer variation of the long echeme of the lilting component within the structure of the calling song. The calling song often begins with the buzzing component (often a particularly long bout of buzzing) as an introductory stage, but sometimes commences with the lilting component. During acoustic duets the female responds only during the silence at the end of each lilting component phrase, 0.0440.062 s after production of the short echeme. The calling song has a frequency plateau between 8.5–13.0 kHz, with a highest amplitude dominant frequency between 8.9– 11.8 kHz and a syllable repetition rate of approximately 100–120 Hz.

Some individuals at Eidsvold, Binjour and Gayndah (south-east Queensland) produce an erratic stuttering call with randomly emitted echemes of various durations as part of the buzzing component. This call structure is also a typical feature in most hybrid populations of P. n. notialis   x incitata (below; see Fig. 16 View FIGURE 16 ), but these also show variation in the lilting component (see below) that is not exhibited by P. n. incitata individuals at the above localities. This feature is explored in more detail in Popple (2009).

QM

Queensland Museum

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

MSM

Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.

MC

Museo de Cipolleti

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Cicadidae

Genus

Pauropsalta

Loc

Pauropsalta notialis incitata

POPPLE, L. W. 2013
2013
Loc

Pauropsalta annulata

Goding and Froggatt, Eidsvold 1904
1904