Cithaerias bandusia Staudinger

Penz, Carla M., 2021, Revised species definitions and nomenclature of the blue and purple / rose Cithaerias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), Zootaxa 4963 (2), pp. 293-316: 302-303

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Cithaerias bandusia Staudinger


Cithaerias bandusia Staudinger   STAT. REV.

( Figs 3d–g View FIGURE 3 , 7b View FIGURE 7 , 9c View FIGURE 9 , 10 View FIGURE 10 )

Cithaerias esmeralda variety bandusia Staudinger, 1884   ; I. Theil. Exotische Tagfalter in systematischer Reihenfolge mit Berücksichtigung neuer Arten. In: Staudinger, O. & E. Schatz, 1884–1892, Exotische Schmetterlinge. Fürth, G. Löwensohn.

Type locality: Brazil, (Amazonas)   .

Type material: The male lectotype designated by Lamas (1998) is deposited in the Museum Für Naturkunde , Berlin, Germany   .

Distribution. Brazil, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará. See map ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 ) for localities of examined specimens.

Diagnosis. This species is defined based on the following combination of characters (numbered in Fig. 3d–g View FIGURE 3 ): (1) male HW submarginal and marginal bands amalgamated and thin; (2) male HW postmedial band proximal to the ocellus below M 1 thin, fragmented, often limited to cell Rs; (3) male HW postmedial band quite broad around tornus, may be absent from cell M 3; (4) male HW scale cover blue, glossy, dense and limited to the tornus, covering the postmedial band and enclosing medium-small pink spots; (5) female similar to male but with wider HW brown bands, a continuous postmedial band including the portion outlining the ocellus below M 1, (6) less dense midnightblue scaling at tornus enclosing larger pale pink or white spots. Male genitalia ( Fig. 7b View FIGURE 7 ): in lateral view, uncus bent near base; in dorsal view, the uncus and short tegument form a shallowly sinuous outline. In ventral view, valva relatively thin, sinuous. Saccus broad, triangular-shaped, longer than in esmeralda   . Phallus long and sharply bent at approximately 2/3 the length from the base; phallus bend narrower than adjacent points of the shaft. Sub-anal plate somewhat rectangular posteriorly and narrowing anteriorly, adjacent area mildly sclerotized with larger microtrichia than esmeralda   . Female genitalia ( Fig. 9c View FIGURE 9 ): sterigma short, somewhat rectangular; ostium bursae wide. Post-sterigmal area weakly sclerotized, rounded, bearing minute microtrichia. Antrum long, slightly sclerotized only near the ostium bursae, ductus bursae bulging anteriorly (unique to this species); the bulge in the ductus bursae and length of the antrum plus ductus bursae seem to correspond to the morphology of the male phallus (bend and length). Corpus bursae lacks signa.

Variation in wing pattern ( Fig. 3d–g View FIGURE 3 ). Males and females show some variation in the size of the HW pale pink spots enclosed within the blue scaling at tornus. The brown bands in the HW membrane can be markedly reduced in some male specimens.

Subspecies. None.

Remarks. Both male and female C. bandusia   show remarkable differences in color pattern and genitalia morphology from C. andromeda   where they had been placed by Lamas (1998) These differences include: dense hind wing scaling, elongate and bent phallus, bent uncus, and a short and delicate sterigma (compare Fig. 3d–g View FIGURE 3 to Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 , Fig. 7b View FIGURE 7 to Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 , Fig. 9c View FIGURE 9 to 9a). Moreover, C. bandusia   has been collected at the same locality with C. esmeralda   ; i.e., Brazil, Pará, Santarém. This species differs from C. esmeralda   by having blue hind wing color (compare Fig. 3d–g View FIGURE 3 to 3a–c) and a sharply bent phallus, which is evenly arched in C. esmeralda   , (compare Fig. 7b View FIGURE 7 to 7a). Although pairs have not been examined in copula, the bend in the phallus ( Fig. 7b View FIGURE 7 ) correlates with a bulge in the female ductus bursae ( Fig. 9c View FIGURE 9 ), suggesting the concerted evolution of male and female genitalia morphology. These characters are absent in C. esmeralda   ( Fig. 7a View FIGURE 7 , 9b View FIGURE 9 ). Thus, the species status for C. bandusia   proposed here is justified by wing color and genitalia characters plus putative sympatry with C. esmeralda   . Note that Santarém is the easternmost locality for C. bandusia   recorded in the collections examined here, and that this species has also been apparently collected in Óbidos (Pará, Brazil), which is located on the northern bank of the Amazon River.

Behavior. The following field observations were provided by Phil DeVries (pers. comm., written by him and included here with permission). “During June 2009 (dry season) I found that C. bandusia   was moderately abundant in the flood plane forest at Cristalino Lodge ( Brazil, Mato Grosso, Alta Floresta; 9.8672 o S, 56.0870 o W). Based on my experience with other Cithaerias species   , individuals of C. bandusia   behaved as I had anticipated; throughout the day they glided just above the forest floor through the understory, along trails and in light gaps, perching on low vegetation ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ) and sometimes interacting as pairs. What was interesting and noticeably different to me was their behavior in the late afternoon about one hour before sunset. When the sunlight was streaming nearly horizontally through the forest I noticed that individual butterflies were, by and large, facing west, slowly and repeatedly elevating and dropping their open hind wings into the light. At certain angles of observation this behavior produced small iridescent blue flashes. This was most evident when lying down on the forest floor on my stomach approximating the level of the butterflies themselves, and looking at a slightly WNW direction down a wide central trail. At times there were multiple individuals producing these flashes. This suggested to me that perhaps C. bandusia   individuals were signaling to each other in a call and answer fashion like ships at sea using signal lamps to communicate. I observed this phenomenon over the course of about a week, always late in the day when the sun was on the horizon. Although I never saw courtship or mating, these simple field observations suggest that some potentially important behaviors of Cithaerias   are confined to very short periods of the day.”

Material examined: MALE: 2M, Brazil, Amazonas, Maués , Nov 1988 ( FMNH)   ; 1M, Brazil, Mato Grosso, Alta Floresta , 23 May 2009 ( PJD)   ; 1M, Brazil, Luré , Mar 1987 ( FMNH)   ; 1M, Brazil, Pará, Itaituba, R. Tapajós, Jul ( FMNH); 3M, Brazil, Pará, Óbidos , Feb–Mar 1989, Jan 1988 ( FMNH)   ; 1M, Brazil, Pará, Óbidos , Mar 1984 ( LACM)   ; 1♂, Brazil, Pará, Rio Tapajós , 8 Aug 1983, 19-08 Dissected by   CM Penz ( USNM); 1M, Brazil, Pará, Rio Tocantins, Alcobaça (sic) ( ETHZ)   ; 2M, Brazil, Pará, Santarém , Feb 1984, 10 Oct 1984 ( FMNH)   ; 2M, Brazil, Pará, Santarém , 14 Feb 1984, 11 Feb 1984 ( FMNH)   ; 1♂, Brazil, Pará, Santarém , Nov 1988, 14-10 Dissected by   CM Penz ( LACM); 1M, Brazil, Pará , Jul 1984 ( FMNH)   ; 1M, French Guiana, Commune de Roura , Jan 1998 (likely mislabeled, FMNH)   ; 1M, French Guiana, Commune de Roura , Mar 1991 (likely mislabeled, FMNH)   ; 1M, Brazil, Joinville , 14 Dec 1986 (clearly mislabeled, FMNH)   ; 1M, no locality ( CMNH). FEMALE: 1F, Brazil, Amazonas, Maués , Dec 1922 ( FMNH)   ; 5F, Brazil, Pará, Óbidos , Feb–Mar 1989, 9 Jun 1985 ( FMNH)   ; 1F, Brazil, Pará, Rio Tapajós , 8 Aug 1983 ( USNM)   ; 1F, Brazil, Pará, Rio Tocantins, Alcobaça (sic) ( ETHZ)   ; 1F, Brazil, Pará, Santarém , 28 May 1987 ( FMNH)   ; 1♀, Brazil, Pará, Santarém , 14 Oct 1984, 14-11 Dissected by   CM Penz ( LACM); 1F, Brazil, Pará , 1885 ( CMNH)   ; 1F, French Guiana, Commune de Roura , Mar 1996 (likely mislabeled, FMNH)   .


Field Museum of Natural History


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County


Chongqing Museum


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zentrum


The Cleveland Museum of Natural History














Cithaerias bandusia Staudinger

Penz, Carla M. 2021

Cithaerias esmeralda variety bandusia

Staudinger 1884