Maier, Chris T., 2018, Larval Hosts of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Parandrinae, Prioninae, Lepturinae, Spondylidinae, Cerambycinae) in Connecticut and Nearby States, The Coleopterists Bulletin 72 (3), pp. 439-456: 441-443

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http://doi.org/ 10.1649/0010-065X-72.3.439

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Anoplodera pubera (Say)   . CT, New Haven Co., North Branford, Site 2, G: 24.iii.2009, E: 7.v.2009 (1), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 15–29 cm), Q. alba   *.

Previously, this species was reared from a single species or genus in four different families, including the Pinaceae (Linsley and Chemsak 1997)   . My record of Q. alba   , the first from the Fagaceae   , increases the total host families to five.

Bellamira scalaris (Say)   . CT, Litchfield Co., Barkhamsted, 41.91767°, -72.94589°, G: 16. iv.2015, E: 8.vi.2015 (1), dead trunk (diam 22–24 cm), Betula papyrifera Marshall   * ( Betulaceae   ).

This reared specimen provides evidence for the second identified host from Betula   L. (Rice and Veal 2006). In all, B. scalaris   has been reared from decaying trees in eight families, including the Pinaceae   ( Davis 1908; Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; Rice and Veal 2006; Saint-Germain et al. 2007).

Brachyleptura champlaini Casey. CT, Hartford Co., Farmington   , 41.75498°, -72.85682°, G: 8. v.2014, E: 9.vi.2014 (1), dead trunk, Pinus rigida Miller   ( Pinaceae   ); Litchfield Co., New Hartford, Nepaug St Forest, G: 30.iv.2003, E: 5.vi.2003 (1), dead trunk (diam 15–18 cm), Tsuga canadensis   (L.) Carrière * ( Pinaceae   ); New Hartford, 41.82608°, -72.96465°, G: 30.iv.2009, E: 25.vi.2009 (1), dead trunk, T. canadensis   *; Windham Co., Putnam, 41.89098°, -71.89256°, G: 20.iii.2015, E: 2.vi.2015 (1), dead trunk (diam 12–15 cm), Pinus resinosa Aiton.  

Adults of this species were reared from one new host and two known hosts in the Pinaceae   (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002). Until Linsley and Chemsak (1976) reestablished this species as valid, some of its host records may have been attributed to Brachyleptura vagans (Olivier)   .

Brachyleptura rubrica (Say)   . CT, New Haven Co., Guilford, 41.32642°, -72.72746°, G: 10. iii.2016, E: 9.vi.2016 (1), trunk (dead>6 years, diam 10–15 cm), Betula lenta   L. *.

This species develops in at least three genera of Betulaceae   , as well as in six other plant families (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; MacRae and Rice 2007; Vlasak 2014). Of the four species of Brachyleptura Casey   in New England, this is the lone one that has not been recorded from coniferous hosts (Linsley and Chemsak 1997). I suspect that Craighead’ s (1923) claim that this species “feeds in great variety of hardwoods and conifers” resulted from the misidentification of congeneric larvae in conifers.

Brachyleptura vagans (Olivier)   . CT, Hartford Co., Farmington, 41.75498°, -72.85682°, G: 8. v.2014, E: 7.vi.2014 (1), dead trunk, P. rigida   ; New London Co., Voluntown, 41.54573°, -71.85347°, G: 7.v.2014, E: 15.vi.2014 (1), trunk (dead>5 years), P. rigida   ; Voluntown, 41.54607°, -71.85366°, G: 18.iii.2010, E: 10.vi.2010 (1), dead wood, P. rigida   ; Windham Co., Sterling, 41.69660°, -71.79747°, G: 7.v.2014, E: 19.vi.2014 (1), trunk (dead>3 years, diam 10–12 cm), P. rigida   . MA, Barnstable Co., Sandwich, G: 5.iv.2006, E: 15.vi.2006 (2), dead wood, P. rigida   .

This lepturine species was reared exclusively from P. rigida   , a host first documented by Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002). Its recorded larval hosts reside in three plant families. Larval hosts in Betulaceae   and Juglandaceae ( Chittenden 1894)   , however, should be verified, especially because larval identification was not documented properly and all species of Brachyleptura   with overlapping ranges were not identified easily or even accepted as valid in the late 1800s. In my view, B. vagans   is restricted to species of Pinaceae   .

Desmocerus palliatus (Förster)   . CT, Litchfield Co., Goshen, 41.86053°, -73.24679°, root crown and surrounding soil removed and placed in outdoor cage in Guilford, New Haven Co. on 23.iv.2010, E: 25.v–4.vi.2010 (12), Sambucus nigra canadensis   (L.) R. Bolli ( Adoxaceae   ).

Larvae of this species develop at the base of Sambucus   L., apparently feeding on mainly the living roots ( Craighead 1923). Solomon (1995) illustrated the larval galleries and frass. In Connecticut, the infested plant of S. nigra canadensis   was identified as a likely host because the foliage was wilting at the time of collection.

Encyclops caerulea (Say)   . CT, New Haven Co. North Branford, Site 2, G: 20.iii.2008, E: 29.iv.2008 (1), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 16–30 cm), Q. alba   .

The rearing of E. caerulea   from Q. alba   provides the second record for this host ( Craighead 1923). This cerambycid develops in trees in at least six families of non-coniferous plants (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002). Perry’ s (1975) host record of Pinus virginiana Miller   is highly suspicious and needs to be verified. Although this beetle species is noted to bore into the outer bark of living trees ( Craighead 1950), the Connecticut specimen emerged from a dead trunk that still had the bark on it.

Grammoptera exigua (Newman)   . CT, Middlesex Co., Middletown, 41.56704°, -72.66364°, G: 22.iv.2010, E: 28.iv–5.v.2010 (14), wood (cut 31. iii.2009), Tilia americana   L. ( Malvaceae   ). VT, Windham Co., Dummerston, 42.95632°, -72.53348°, G: 27.iii.2009, E: 27.iv–3.vi.2009 (83), wood (cut 22. x.2007), T. americana   .

This species apparently is restricted to species of Tilia   L. based upon the rearing records reported here and by Linsley and Chemsak (1997), Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002), and others. Records of larval development in Populus   L. ( Salicaceae   ) ( Craighead 1923; Fattig 1947) must be discarded because their collecting sites were beyond the distributional range of this cerambycid.

Grammoptera haematites (Newman)   . CT, New Haven Co., Guilford, Site 1, G: 10.iii.2016, E: 14. vi.2016 (1), branch (cut 14.v.2014), Carya tomentosa (Lamarck ex Poiret) Nuttall   * ( Juglandaceae   ); Hamden, nr jct Evergreen and Kenwood Ave, G: 8. iii.2007, E: 20.iv.2007 (1), dead branch, Juglans nigra   L. * ( Juglandaceae   ).

Until Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002) reared this species from three families of hardwoods, the larval hosts of this species were unknown. The two new hosts from Connecticut are the first from the Juglandaceae   .

Grammoptera subargentata (Kirby)   . CT, Litchfield Co., Norfolk, 41.95312°, -73.20054°, G: 20.iii.2015, E: 28.iv.2015 (1), wood (cut 6.v.2014), Populus tremuloides Michaux   *. MA, Berkshire Co., Savoy, 42.61624°, -73.04138°, G: 26.v.2011, E: 29.v-1.vi.2011 (2), wood (cut 29.iv.2010), Sorbus americana Marshall   * ( Rosaceae   ).

With these two new host records, including the first in the family Rosaceae   , and those summarized by Linsley and Chemsak (1997), the number of known host families is now four.

Leptura subhamata Randall. CT, Litchfield Co., Site   1, emergence trap, E: 24–30.vi.2005 (1), trunk (dead>2 years), Pinus strobus L.  

This record confirms the host reported by Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002). This conifer-feeder uses at least three genera of Pinaceae   for larval development ( Connola et al. 1953; Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002).

Rhagium inquisitor (Linnaeus)   . CT, Hartford Co., East Granby, St Rt 20 at Windsor Locks town line, G: 22.iii.2002, E: iv.2002 (1), dead wood, P. rigida   ; Litchfield Co., Barkhamsted, Site 1, emergence trap, E: 6–12.v.2005 (1), trunk (dead>2 years), P. strobus   ; Barkhamsted, Site 1, emergence trap, E: 14–20.iv.2006 (2), trunk (cut iv.2005), P. strobus   ; Barkhamsted, Site 1, G: 27.iii.2007, E: 8. iv.2007 (1), dead trunk (tree girdled 29.iii.2005, diam 24–41 cm), P. strobus   ; New Haven Co., North Branford, 41.37088°, -72.76409°, G: 5.iv.2013, E: 10.iv.2013 (1), dead branch, P. strobus   . MA, Barnstable Co., Yarmouth, nr Willow Str exit on US Hwy 6, G: 5.iv.2006, E: 8–9.iv.2006 (1), dead wood, P. rigida   ; Franklin Co., Montague, 1 km NE jct Old Northfield and Turners Falls Rd, G: 2.iv.2003, E: 5–13.iv.2003 (5), dead wood, P.rigida   . NJ, Burlington Co., Woodland, 1.5 km WNW jct St Hwy 72 and Secondary Rd 563, G: 15.iii.2002, E: iv.2002 (2), dead wood, P. rigida   .

This species, known as the ribbed pine borer, is restricted to Pinaceae   , having larval hosts in at least six genera in North America (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; Majka et al. 2007; Guarnieri 2010). It generally metamorphoses into an adult in fall and spends the winter to early spring in a unique pupal cell that was illustrated by Hess (1920), Craighead (1950), and others.

Strangalepta abbreviata (Germar)   . CT, New Haven Co., North Branford, Site 2, G: 15.v.2014, E: 2.vi.2014 (1), trunk (cut iv.2007, diam 20–26 cm), A. saccharum   *.

This rearing represents the first of the beetle species from a species of Acer   L. that was identified to species. Based upon the age of the dead trunk from which the adult emerged, S. abbreviata   probably develops in wood that has been dead for several years. Larval hosts of this cerambycid occur in at least six families, two of which are coniferous (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002).

Strangalia acuminata (Olivier)   . CT, New Haven Co., Guilford, Site 2, G: 12.iii.2002, E: 29. iv.2002 (1), vine (cut 11.iii.2001), Vitis sp.   * ( Vitaceae   ).

A species of Vitis   L. as the larval host of this cerambycid represents a new host family. With this record and others recorded by Linsley and Chemsak (1997) and Vlasak and Vlasakova (2002), larvae of this species are now known to develop in the dead wood of five plant families.

Strangalia famelica famelica Newman. CT   , New Haven Co., New Haven, 41.33843°, -72.96686°, G: 15.iv.2016, E: 26.v.2016 (1), dead branch (diam 0.5–3.0 cm), Quercus montana Willdenow   *; New Haven, 41.33848°, -72.96653°, G: 15.iv.2016, E: 7. vi.2016 (1), dead branch (diam 0.5–4.1 cm), Q. alba   *.

These two new host records further confirm larval development in Quercus   L., one of three host genera used in the Betulaceae   and Fagaceae (Linsley and Chemsak 1997)   .

Trachysida aspera brevifrons (Howden)   . NH, Carroll Co., Ossipee, 0.6 km NW jct St Hwy 16 and 25, G: 13.iii.2003, E: 14–15.iv.2003 (2), dead wood, P. resinosa   *.

This record provides the first evidence that this cerambycid develops in Pinus L. Larval   hosts apparently are restricted to northern species of Abies Miller, Picea A. Dietrich   , and Pinus   in the Pinaceae   (e.g., Dearborn and Donahue 1994; Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Saint-Germain et al. 2007).

Trachysida mutabilis (Newman)   . CT, Litchfield Co., Norfolk, 41.97314°, -73.15982°, G: 29.iv.2016, E: 19.v.2016 (1), dead branch (diam 4–5 cm), A. saccharum   *; New Haven Co., Guilford, 41.32642°, -72.72746°, G: 10.iii.2016, E: 22.iv–10.v.2016 (14), trunk (dead>6 years, diam 10–15 cm), B. lenta   *; North Branford, 41.33253°, -72.77481°, G: 16. v.2014, E: 23–27.v.2014 (5), trunk (dead>5 years), A. rubrum   *; Tolland Co, Stafford, 41.97463°, -72.40246°, G: 22.iv.2014, E: 10–15.v.2014 (2), dead trunk, B. papyrifera   ; Windham Co., Sterling, 41.69640°, -71.79743°, G: 7.v.2014, E: 20.v.2014 (1), trunk (dead>2 years, diam 3–4 cm), P. tremuloides   .

These records provide three new hosts in Acer   and Betula   . Hosts recorded here were dead for>2 years before adults emerged. Unlike T. aspera brevifrons   that uses conifers, T. mutabilis   develops only in the decaying wood of non-coniferous hosts in 10 families ( Mundinger 1924; Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; Saint- Germain et al. 2007; Vlasak 2014).

Typocerus velutinus velutinus (Olivier)   . CT, New Haven Co., North Branford, 41.33253°, -72.77481°, G: 16.v.2014, E: 5–23.vi.2014 (5), trunk (dead>5 years), A. rubrum   *; North Branford, Site 2, G: 19.iii.2012, E: 23.v–6.vi.2012 (3), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 14–24 cm), A. saccharum   *; North Branford, Site 2, G: 19.iii.2012, E: 28.v.2012 (1), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 14–27 cm), Q. alba   *; North Branford, Site 2, G: 15.v.2014, E: 12–20.vi.2014 (3), trunk (cut 11.iv.2007, diam 20–26 cm), A. saccharum   *; North Branford, Site 2, G: 2.v.2014, E: 7–13.vi.2014 (2), trunk (cut 11. iv.2007, diam 25–27 cm), Carya glabra (Miller) Sweet   *. MA, Franklin Co., Montague, under power lines between Hatchery and Old Northfield Rd, G: 20.iii.2006, E: 28.vi.2006 (1), dead wood, P. rigida   *.

Among the five new hosts listed here are the first in Pinaceae   , with P. rigida   admittedly a very unusual host, and Sapindaceae   . Adults of this beetle emerged from decaying wood that had been dead for five or more years, which agrees with Blackman and Stage’ s (1924) observation of emergence from well-rotted wood. Including the record of P. rigida   , larval hosts of T. velutinus velutinus   reside in seven families of plants (Linsley and Chemsak 1997; Vlasak and Vlasakova 2002; MacRae and Rice 2007; Vlasak 2014).