Toxomerus vertebratus ( Rondani, 1863 ),

Barahona-Segovia, Rodrigo M., Riera, Pamela, Pañinao-Monsálvez, Laura, Guzmán, Vicente Valdés & Henríquez-Piskulich, Patricia, 2021, Updating the knowledge of the flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) from Chile: Illustrated catalog, extinction risk and biological notes, Zootaxa 4959 (1), pp. 1-178: 156-158

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4959.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3BAB6920-30AC-410A-995B-BBDA9E2A105D

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4705606

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FD4340-FF21-18C5-FF27-0CF8FA8FFE78

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Toxomerus vertebratus ( Rondani, 1863 )
status

 

Toxomerus vertebratus ( Rondani, 1863) 

Figs 218–219View FIGURES 216–219

Syrphus vertebratus Rondani, 1863: 10 

Syrphus interruptus Philippi, 1865: 747 

Syrphus octoguttatus Jaennicke, 1867: 398 

Mesogramma philippi Shannon, 1927: 24 

Toxomerus philippi Shannon & Aubertin, 1933: 138  *

Mesograpta philippi Fluke, 1956: 227  *

Type locality and data. “ Chile ” (T, ♂, ♀, MZUN)  .

Material examined. Coquimbo: 3♂, 1♀, El Naranjo, Tilama , III.1968, Leg. J. Molina ( MEUC)  ; Valparaíso: 1♂, Los Molles , 11.VIII.1966, Leg. M. E. Irwin ( MEUC)  ; 12♂, 45♀, Valle Piquenes, Rio Blanco , 24.XI.1958, Leg. L.E. Peña ( CNC)  ; 1♂, Tranque Las Palmas, Villa Alemana , 9.IV.1965, Leg. L. Marnef ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♀, Limache , 11.X.1966, Leg. C. Vivar ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♂, Bosque relicto Quintero , 9.IV.1966, Leg. C. Vivar ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♂, Playa Ancha , 4.IX.1965, Leg. D. Lanfranco ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♂, Quebrada verde, 19.X.1963, Leg. N. Hichins ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♂, 7♀, Hijuelas, 11.X.1960, Leg. N. Hichins ( MEUC)  ; 1♂, Parque Peñuelas, 23.IV.1965, Leg. N. Hichins ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♀, ConCon , 6.V.1964, Leg. N. Hichins ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♀, Valle Alegre , 26.VIII.1966, Leg. C. Vivar ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♂, Quillota , 19.XI.1965, Leg. NN ( MNHNCL)  ; Metropolitana: 2♂, Caleu, TilTil , 7.XI.1998, Leg. M. Cerda ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♂, Rungue , 22.XI.1982, Leg. M. Elgueta ( MNHNCL)  ; 11♂, 16♀, Rinconada de Maipú, 10.V.1966, Leg. N. Hichins ( MEUC)  ; 1♂, Cerro Renca , 19.X.1952, Leg  . Orellana ( MNHNCL); 1♂  , Santiago, 10.V.1979, Leg. NN ( SAG)  ; 1♀, La Castrina, 30.X.1969, Leg. L. Alfaro ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♀, Ñuñoa 5.XI.1982, Leg. M. Cerda ( MNHNCL)  ; 2♂, Barrancas , 10.X.1970, Leg. L. Álvarez ( MEUC)  ; Maule: 4♂, Río Teno, Curicó , 8–26.I.1968, Leg. L.E. Peña ( MEUC)  ; Ñuble : 2♂, 13♀, Liucura, 1959, Leg. L.E. Peña ( CNC)  ; 8♂, 3♀, Nogeche, 17.XII.1953 ( CNC)  ; Biobío: 3♀, Desembocadura Rio  Biobío, 22.XI.1970, Leg. J.W. Boyes ( CNC)  ; 1♂, 13♀, Caramavida, Arauco, 11.I.1954, Leg. L.E. Peña ( CNC)  ; La   Araucanía: 2♂, 1♀, El Manzano, 30km W to Angol , 8–9.XII.1972, Leg. L.E. Peña ( MEUC)  ; 1♀, Angol , 15.VIII.1951, Leg. S. Huenchunao ( MNHNCL)  ; 3♀, Cordillera Las Raíces, Lonquimay , 25–28.XII.1967, Leg. L.E. Peña ( MEUC)  ; 1♂, 15♀, Cerro Adencul, 20–231. XII.1976, Leg. L.E. Peña ( CNC)  ; 1♂, Lican ray, 17.XI.1986, Leg. M. Cerda ( MNHNCL)  ; Los Ríos: 1♂, Liquiñe, Valdivia , 19.I.1982, Leg. T. Cerda ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♂, Pemehue , 9.I. 1946, 700m, Leg. Kuschel ( MNHNCL)  ; 3♂, Punta Curiñanco , 11.II.2008, Leg. NN ( UACH)  ; 1♂, 14♀, Paillaco, 19.XI.1970, Leg. J.W. Boyes ( CNC)  ; 2♂, 2♀, Maullín, Puerto Toledo , 17.XII.1972, Leg. L.E. Peña ( MEUC)  ; Los Lagos: 1♂, Anticura, Puyehue , 5.II.1978, Leg. G. Arriagada ( MNHNCL)  ; 1♂, 5♀, Pucatrihue, III.1969, Leg. Salgado ( MEUC)  ; 1♀, Lago Chapo , 28.II.1983, Leg. G. Arriagada ( MNHNCL)  ; Magallanes: 1♂, Punta Arenas , 22.VII.1968, Leg. V. Pérez ( MNHNCL)  .

References. Rondani, 1863: 10 (desc.); Williston, 1886: 312 (cat.); Shannon & Aubertin, 1933: 138, fig. 26b (abdomen female) (desc.); Etcheverry, 1963: 110 (cat.); Rojas, 1966: 175 (cat. of predators of aphids); Etcheverry, 1970: 95 (cat.); Thompson et al., 1976: 40 (cat.); Zúñiga et al., 1986: 480 (predators of aphids); González & Coscarón, 2005: 347 (distr.); Smith-Ramírez et al., 2005: 412 (pollinator study); Thompson & Thompson, 2007: 325 (desc. & cat.); López et al., 2012: 6 (key); Smith-Ramírez et al., 2014: 6 (ecological study, supplementary material).

World distribution. Chile.

Chilean distribution. From Coquimbo to Magallanes regions ( Fig. 220View FIGURE 220).

Altitudinal range. From coastal to precordillera ecosystems (0–1000 m.a.s.l.).

Biology and notes. Toxomerus vertebratus  is widely distributed and associated with several native herbaceous and tree species (see Smith-Ramírez et al., 2005, 2016). In central and southern Chile, it has shown a melanic form, probably a strategy to raise its temperature in the temperate forest and crops ( Fig. 64View FIGURES 62–64). This flower fly species has been observed visiting flowers of Anemone decapetala  Ard. (Joaquín Sepúlveda, CSP record); B. rapa  (Vinicio Aguilera, CSP record); Capsella bursa-pastoris  (L.) Medik. (Fernanda Gatalina, CSP record); Myoporum  sp. (Gabriela Germain, CSP record); Oxalis  sp. (Asiel Olivares, CSP record); R. raphanistrum  (Famelica Hedonista, CSP records); Stachis grandidentata Lindl.  (César Martínez, CSP record); T. officinale  (Fernando Tellez and Janet Aguilera, CSP record) and Tussilago  sp. (Ani Mari, CSP record). Toxomerus vertebratus  was treated as an ‘unplaced’ species by Thompson et al. (1976) due to the unknown location of the Rondani type collection. The syntypes placed in the Naples collection were probably destroyed during World War II. Thompson & Thompson (2006) searched the Philippi material in 1997 without finding any specimens that could be considered type material of Syrphidae  , and give a complete explanation for this category in T. vertebratus  .

Conservation status. LC; EOO = 668,567 km 2, AOO = 136 km 2, 36 subpopulations and 43 localities.

MZUN

Museo Zoologico di Universita degli Studi

MEUC

Universidad de Chile

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

SAG

Sammlung von Algenkulturen at Universitat Gottingen

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Syrphidae

Genus

Toxomerus

Loc

Toxomerus vertebratus ( Rondani, 1863 )

Barahona-Segovia, Rodrigo M., Riera, Pamela, Pañinao-Monsálvez, Laura, Guzmán, Vicente Valdés & Henríquez-Piskulich, Patricia 2021
2021
Loc

Toxomerus philippi

Shannon, R. C. & Aubertin, D. 1933: 138
1933
Loc

Mesogramma philippi

Shannon, R. C. 1927: 24
1927
Loc

Syrphus octoguttatus

Jaennicke, F. 1867: 398
1867
Loc

Syrphus interruptus

Philippi, P. I. 1865: 747
1865
Loc

Syrphus vertebratus

Rondani, C. 1863: 10
1863