Curtonotum pauliani Tsacas, 1974

Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H., 2011, A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Schizophora; Curtonotidae). Part III - the Malagasy species of Curtonotum Macquart, with descriptions of six new species, African Invertebrates 52 (2), pp. 391-391 : 425-428

publication ID 10.5733/afin.052.0212

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scientific name

Curtonotum pauliani Tsacas, 1974


Curtonotum pauliani Tsacas, 1974 View in CoL View at ENA

Figs 12 View Figs 9–13 , 25 View Figs 14–26 , 38 View Figs 27–39 , 48, 51, 54 View Figs 46–54 , 90 View Figs 79–91 , 103 View Figs 102–104

Curtonotum pauliani: Tsacas, 1974: 715 View in CoL ; figs 7a–d (p. 716), fig. 8b (p. 718). Type locality: [ Madagascar]

“Nosy Mitsio”.

Differential diagnosis: This species is most closely related to C. cuthbertsoni and to a complex of seven, as yet undescribed species, all occurring in the continental Afrotropical Region.All possess one or more basomedial spines on the dorsal margin of the distiphallus. The Madagascan species, C. sakalava Tsacas , which has a conspicuous basomedial keel on the distiphallus, shares the similarly-shaped hypandrium, with the broad-based, wide and angulate dorsobasal lobe and broad hypandrial arms, and this species is here tentatively ascribed to the same complex, pending a detailed phylogenetic analysis.


Male (primarily based on ex-alcohol N-T).

As redescribed for C. balachowskyi , differing in the following respects: Measurements: Overall length 3.1–4.1 mm (n = 13, N-T); length of head and thorax combined 2.3 mm; length of thorax and scutellum combined 2.15 mm; wing length 3.2 mm (n = 1, N-T).

Head ( Figs 12 View Figs 9–13 , 25 View Figs 14–26 ). Eye height/length ratio: 9:6 (n = 1, N-T); frons ( Fig. 25 View Figs 14–26 ), subparallel-sided, slightly wider than long, frons length/width ratio: 5:7 (n = 1, N-T), ground colour pale dirty yellow, with paler yellow demarcated ventral border, faintly darker towards vertex and between orbital plates, otherwise both vittae inconspicuous, not reaching ventral border; ocelli clear grey (brown in some specimens); orbital plates short, extending from vertex of head to ca 0.7 length of frons; posterior orbital seta moderately strong, marginally longer than outer vertical seta; postocellar setae markedly shorter than outer vertical seta; flagellomere 1 yellow pruinose basally, darker in apical half, slightly silver­grey pruinose, just over ca twice as long as wide, apex bluntly rounded, arista with 3–5 dorsal and 3 or 4 ventral branches in addition to terminal fork; vibrissae weak; gena narrow, eye height/genal height ratio: 9:1 (n = 1, N-T); palpus brown, brown microtrichose.

Thorax ( Fig. 12 View Figs 9–13 ). Mesonotum with 2 conspicuous, broad, reddish brown median vittae and 2 lateral, shorter vittae; posterior dorsocentral setae longer and stronger than medial scutellar seta; presutural seta slightly longer and weaker than posterior notopleural seta; anterior notopleural setae longer than posterior; postpronotum silver-grey pruinose, with 9–12 finer black­brown setulae; anepisternum silver­grey pruinose with yellow­grey patch medially, with 15 fine setulae, some larger and arranged in 2 groups of 4; katepisternum silver-grey to silver-yellow pruinose, with darker macula in anterior half, dorsal katepisternal seta, ca 0.4 length of ventral katepisternal seta, with 12 short, fine setulae at base and along posterior margin.

Scutellum. Silver-grey pruinose, as in mesonotum, with faint medial brown pruinose vitta basally (under some lights); intermediate scutellar setula (if present) inserted equidistant between lateral and medial scutellar setae.

Legs. Fore coxa with 15 brown setulae on anterior surface; fore tibia with 4 strong setae on lateral margin, the second basal seta of similar length to other three, with ctenidium of 13 short, sharp black spinules.

Wing (as in Fig. 38 View Figs 27–39 ). Short, broad basally, tip evenly-rounded, veins chestnut-brown, membrane very faintly infuscate brown throughout, marginally darker in r 1 and anterior half of r 2+3 and in region of dm–cu crossvein; dm–cu crossvein slightly obliquely angled posteriorly, quite straight; cua 1 relatively short and broad; r 2+3 markedly expanded apically; haltere dirty white.

Abdomen. Tergite 2 with oblique, subrectangular brown-black pruinose dorsolateral macula on either side only; tergites 3–5 with very narrow, V-shaped concolourous median fascia and well separated and greatly reduced concolourous T-shaped dorsolateral macula, lateral margin of tergites 2–5 with subelliptical concolourous macula in basal third; sternite 4, quadrate with evenly-rounded apical margin; sternite 5 rectangular, subparallel-sided, with straight apical margin, ca one-third longer than sternite 4, both unmodified, with spare, brown setulae arranged in irregular rows, those along lateral margins slightly longer and stronger; sternite 6 ( Fig. 90 View Figs 79–91 ) subquadrate (may appear narrower than Fig. 90 View Figs 79–91 in undissected specimens), subparallel-sided, with shallow, broad, excision apically, with faint brown maculae laterally, clothed in short to long, irregular brown setulae in apical half, laterally and at apical margin longer and more prominent.

Terminalia ( Figs 48, 51, 54 View Figs 46–54 ). Hypandrium ( Fig. 48 View Figs 46–54 , hy) short, with broad-based subangulate-truncate dorsobasal lobe, posterior bridge markedly dorsally and ventrally produced (angulate in profile); hypandrial arms very broad, slightly narrower basally, than apically (viewed laterally), ventrally developed into blunt point apically, with 2 equally strong setulae proximal to postgonite, both ventromedially-directed (obscured by epandrium on Fig. 48 View Figs 46–54 ), sclerotised area of medial lobes (viewed dorsally), straight basally, well­separated for ⅔ of their length, abutting in apical third; postgonite ( Fig. 48 View Figs 46–54 , pg) short and broad in basal ⅔, narrowed to apex; epandrium ( Fig. 48 View Figs 46–54 , ep) slightly broader dorsally than ventrally (viewed laterally), evenly-rounded on dorsal margin, posterior margin slightly angled, ventral margin with extensive row of long regular to irregular, ventrally-directed setae; cercus ( Fig. 48 View Figs 46–54 , ce) slightly prominent, longest setae as long as medium setae on ventral margin of epandrium; surstylus ( Fig. 48 View Figs 46–54 , ss) short, wide and straight; phallus (as in Figs 51 View Figs 46–54 , ph, bp, dp, 54, bp, dp) C-shaped, weakly sclerotised; phallapodeme ( Fig. 51 View Figs 46–54 , ph) fused to basiphallus, subtriangular (viewed laterally), with basal margin developed into two moderately flat, subtriangular projections in basal 0.4, bifurcated at point of connection with hypandrium; ejaculatory apodeme ( Fig. 51 View Figs 46–54 , ea) free, duct inserted at junction of phallapodeme and basiphallus; basiphallus ( Fig. 51 View Figs 46–54 , bp) broad basally and at midlength, otherwise uniform; apical section ( Fig. 54 View Figs 46–54 , bp) fairly broad, right lateral margin evenly rounded with latromedial raised keel, left margin straight, developed into tiny, recurved spine; distiphallus ( Figs 51, 54 View Figs 46–54 , dp) long and narrow, curved in medial and apical regions (viewed laterally), basal section with conspicuous, short dorsomedial spine.

Variation: The external characters of this species are more variable than in other species occurring on Madagascar; especially the relative lengths of the setation. Very slight differences also occur in the degree of development of the small basal spine between the basiphallus and distiphallus, otherwise the male terminalia appear consistent and such variation is here regarded as intraspecific.

Holotype (examined): ♂ MADAGASCAR: “Madagascar Nord­Ouest / Nosy Mitsio / 13–14.I.[19]60 / R. Paulian // INSTITUT / SCIENTIFIQUE / MADAGASCAR [pale grey card] // HOLOTYPE [red card] // CURTONOTUM / pauliani / Holotype ♂ n.sp. / L. TSACAS DET. 1973 [printed & handwritten] // MUSÉUM PARIS // Curtonotum / pauliani ♂ / Tsacas, 1974 / A.H. Kirk­Spriggs vidit 2006” [head missing] ( MNHN). In fair condition, head, right fore leg, left fore tarsus and hind leg missing; re-staged on nu-poly mount; dissected, abdomen and terminalia in micro-vial pinned beneath specimen.

Paratypes (all labelled: “ PARATYPE [red card] // CURTONOTUM / pauliani / n.sp. / L. TSACAS DET. 1973 [printed & handwritten] // Curtonotum / pauliani ♂ [or ♀] / Tsacas, 1974 / A.H. Kirk­Spriggs vidit 2006”): MADAGASCAR: 1♀ same labels as holotype, except: “ ALLOTYPE [red card] // CURTONOTUM / pauliani / n.sp. / L. TSACAS DET. 1973 [printed & handwritten]” [wing detached, glued to card]; 2♂ same labels as holotype [1 head missing]; 1♀ same labels as holotype, except: “EXEMP. / DESS. [printed; orange card]”; 1♀ same labels as holotype, except: “ouile gameha / ma tres large / Anomalié ♀ [handwritten]”; 1♂ “ Madagascar Nord­Ouest / dct. Majunga / forêt Ankarafantsitka [= Ankarafantsika] 120m / XII-[19]59 / Raharizonina // INSTITUT / SCIENTIFIQUE / MADAGASCAR [pale grey card] // MUSÉUM PARIS” [head missing]; 1♂ “MUSEUM PARIS / MADAGASCAR / PROV. D’ANALALAVA / MAROMANDIA / R. DECARY 1922 [grey card] // PARATYPE [red card] // Specimen / missing from mount / 2006”; 1♂ 1♀ same labels, except: “Pr A18 / ♂ [handwritten] [head missing]” (all MNHN).

Other material examined (all labelled: “ Curtonotum pauliani Tsacas, 1974 ♂ det. A.H. Kirk­Spriggs 2008 –2011”): MADAGASCAR: Mahajanga Prov.: 2♂ Madagascar , Ankarafantsika (Forest Reserve), near Marovoay, 1 xii.1959, E.S. Ross [1 labelled: “ Curtonotum pauliani Tsacas, L. Tsacas det. 1976”; 1 with right wing detached and glued to point] ; 13♂ Parc National Tsingy de Memaraha , 3.4 km 93 °

E Bekopaka, Tombeau Vazimba, 19°08'31"S: 44°49'41"E, 50 m, 6–10 xi.2001, leg. [B.] Fisher, [C.] Griswold et al., tropical dry forest, Malaise trap (MAD49), BLF4233 [1 with right wing detached and glued to card] (all CAS); 1♂ Besalampy District , Marofototra palm forest 17 km W of Besalampy, 16°43.30'S: 44°25.42'E, 3–10 xii.2007, 35 ft, M.E. Irwin & R. Harin’Hala, Malaise trap, palm trees on sand (MG­42B­11) [in spirit], BMSA(DNA)#0062 GoogleMaps ; 1♂ same except: BMSA(DNA)#0063 (both BMSA) ; 1♂ same except: 10–17.xii.2007 (MG­42B­12); 2♂ same except: 17–24 xii.2007 (MG­42B­13) (all CAS) ; 1♂ Ampijoroa National Park , 160 km N of Maevatanana on RN 04, 16°19.16'S: 46°48.80'E, 30.xi–8. xii.2003, 43 m, M.E. Irwin & R. Harin’Hala, Malaise trap in deciduous forest (MA-25-25) [in spirit], BMSA(DNA)#0043 ( BMSA) GoogleMaps .

Distribution: The only non-endemic species, occurring in Madagascar, Namibia and South Africa (Kirk-Spriggs in prep.) and probably represents a relatively recent introduction onto Madagascar. Its occurrence in the Sambirano bioclimatic zone may indicate recent introduction via the circulation system of the Indian monsoon. In Madagascar ( Fig. 103 View Figs 102–104 ) occurring in the Western Dry Forest and Wooded Grassland-Bushland vegetation types in the Sambirano Rainforest, Dry Deciduous Forest and Evergreen Rainforest biomes. In the Sambirano, North East, North West and West biogeographical zones and Dry and Humid bioclimatic zones ( Figs 105–107 View Figs 105–107 ; Tables 1–3; Appendix II).


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


National Museum Bloemfontein


California Academy of Sciences














Curtonotum pauliani Tsacas, 1974

Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H. 2011

Curtonotum pauliani: Tsacas, 1974: 715

TSACAS, L. 1974: 715
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