Astrotischeria trilobata Diškus & Stonis, Diskus & Stonis, 2018

Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Fernando Carvalho Filho & Owen T. Lewis, 2018, American Asteraceae-feeding Astrotischeria species with a highly modified, three-lobed valva in the male genitalia (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae), Zootaxa 4469 (1), pp. 1-69: 14-27

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4469.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:42680994-585D-4230-B574-8DB398341B23

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FF87EA-E343-DA20-FCAC-8F02FDA9FF31

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Astrotischeria trilobata Diškus & Stonis
status

sp. nov.

Astrotischeria trilobata Diškus & Stonis   , sp. nov.

( Figs. 9, 10 View FIGURES 7–10 , 20–69 View FIGURES 20–27 View FIGURES 28–33 View FIGURES 34–37 View FIGURES 38–42 View FIGURES 43–45 View FIGURES 46–50 View FIGURES 51–53 View FIGURES 54–62 View FIGURES 63–69 , 233 View FIGURE 233 , 245–248 View FIGURES 245–248 )

Type material. Holotype: ♂, BOLIVIA, Nor Yungas Province, Coroico , 16°11'54"S, 67°43'13"W, elevation 1650 m, mining larva on Austroeupatorium inulaefolium (Kunth) R. M. King & H. Rob.   ( Asteraceae   ), 26.iv.2014, ex pupa v.2014, field card no. 5166, A. Diškus, genitalia slide no. AD752 ♂ (ZMUC) GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: 4 ♂, 10 ♀, same label data as holotype, genitalia slide nos AD749 ♂, AD751 ♂, AD912♀, AD914♀, head and forewing venation slide no. AD913♀ (ZMUC); 7♂, 7♀, 16°12'24"S, 67°43'54"W, 1680 m, on Austroeupatorium   , 07–16.vi.2018, card no. 5237, A.Diškus, J.R. Stonis, 5 ♂, ECUADOR, Loja Province, Vilcabamba, 4°16'06"S, 79°10'40"W, elevation 1990 m, 22.i.2017, field card no. 5225, A. Diškus, genitalia slide nos AD910♂ (from mature pupa, adult not preserved), AD915♂ (ZMUC).

Diagnosis. The combination of two very wide, apically pointed dorsal lobes of valva and the rather slender but pointed apical lobes of phallus in the male genitalia distinguishes A. trilobata   sp. nov. from all other Astrotischeria   , including other members of the A. trilobata   group. The fact that it feeds on Austroeupatorium   also makes this species distinctive.

Male ( Figs. 28, 32 View FIGURES 28–33 , 34–36 View FIGURES 34–37 ). Forewing length: 2.8–3.5 mm; wingspan: 6.3–7.3 mm. Head: face and palpi pale ochre; frontal tuft comprised of ochre cream and some grey-ochre lamellar scales; antenna with about 42 segments, distinctly longer than half the length of forewing; flagellum metallic grey, annulated with grey-black to black; sensillae very long and fine, cream. Thorax and tegula ochre, speckled with grey-black scales, particularly densely anteriorly. Forewing of the Bolivian specimens ( Figs. 28–33 View FIGURES 28–33 , 37 View FIGURES 34–37 ) densely speckled with black scales (with metallic grey bases) only laterally; a characteristic, very wide but sinuous longitudinal zone left non-speckled, orangeochre; forewing of the Ecuadorian specimens ( Figs. 34–36 View FIGURES 34–37 ) darker: sometimes black scales irrorate almost whole forewing with no ( Fig. 36 View FIGURES 34–37 ) or very little dark ochre longitudinal zone left ( Figs. 34, 35 View FIGURES 34–37 ); fringe black-grey on costal margin and tornus, distinctly greyish ochre on termen; fringe-line distinct, formed by black scales; forewing underside brown-black to grey-black, without spots or androconia. Hindwing very slender, black-grey to black on both upper and underside, without androconia; fringe blackish grey. Legs densely speckled with grey scales with little purple iridescence, distally ochreous cream on upper side. Abdomen dark metallic grey to black-grey with some blue and purple iridescence on upper side and laterally, ochreous cream on underside; anal tufts rather indistinct, grey on upper side; genital plates ochreous cream.

Female ( Figs. 20–27 View FIGURES 20–27 , 29–31, 33 View FIGURES 28–33 , 37 View FIGURES 34–37 ). Similar to male but forewing pattern usually brighter; sometimes thorax without dark scales, purely ochre. Otherwise as male.

Male genitalia ( Figs. 9, 10 View FIGURES 7–10 , 38–50 View FIGURES 38–42 View FIGURES 43–45 View FIGURES 46–50 ). Capsule 505–560 µm long, 240–280 µm wide. Uncus ( Figs. 42 View FIGURES 38–42 , 44–47 View FIGURES 43–45 View FIGURES 46–50 ) consisting of two long lateral lobes and two short, rounded median lobes ( Figs. 42 View FIGURES 38–42 ). Valva divided ( Figs. 9, 10 View FIGURES 7–10 , 39 View FIGURES 38–42 , 45–47 View FIGURES 43–45 View FIGURES 46–50 ): ventral lobe slender, 50–85 µm wide, 305–340 µm long (excluding basal process); dorsal lobes consisting of two lobes: an inwardly curved, distally pointed, 160 µm long lobe ( Figs. 11, 12 View FIGURES 11–15 , 38 View FIGURES 38–42 , 43, 45–47 View FIGURES 43–45 View FIGURES 46–50 ) and longer, slightly dentate ( Figs. 44 View FIGURES 43–45 , 48 View FIGURES 46–50 ), distally pointed lobe ( Figs. 9, 10 View FIGURES 7–10 , 38 View FIGURES 38–42 , 45 View FIGURES 43–45 , 48 View FIGURES 46–50 ); transtilla absent; basal process of valva long ( Figs. 38 View FIGURES 38–42 , 43 View FIGURES 43–45 , 47 View FIGURES 46–50 ). Anellus thickened, with 3–4 setae laterally ( Figs. 38 View FIGURES 38–42 , 47 View FIGURES 46–50 ), and two rounded apical lobes ( Figs. 41 View FIGURES 38–42 , 43 View FIGURES 43–45 ). Phallus 400–435 µm long, distally deeply bifurcated, without spines ( Figs. 40 View FIGURES 38–42 , 49, 50 View FIGURES 46–50 ).

Female genitalia ( Figs. 51–53 View FIGURES 51–53 ). Total length 1135–1200 mm. Ovipositor small, clothed with short, stout and darker, modified setae (‘peg setae’) ( Figs. 51, 53 View FIGURES 51–53 ); area between ovipositor lobes triangularly shaped ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 51–53 ), with tiny papillae and some setae. Second pair of lobes, lateral and anterior to the ovipositor lobes, significantly smaller, bearing very long slender setae. Anterior and posterior apophyses very long and stout, particularly the posterior ones ( Figs. 51, 53 View FIGURES 51–53 ); remaining three apophysis pairs ( Figs. 51, 52 View FIGURES 51–53 ) formed as slender rod-like and wide lobe-like projections (prela, Fig. 53 View FIGURES 51–53 ). Tips of one pair of rod-like prela articulating with anterior apophyses in a groove in half of their length ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 51–53 ). Vestibulum without antrum, however vestibulum may look thickened laterally because of prela ( Fig. 52 View FIGURES 51–53 ). Ductus bursae widened posteriorly, with pectinations (numerous indistict, blunt spines). Corpus bursae round ( Fig. 53 View FIGURES 51–53 ), without spines or signum. Ductus spermathaecae very narrow, with about 4.5 coils ( Fig. 53 View FIGURES 51–53 ), utriculus very small, oval-shaped ( Fig. 53 View FIGURES 51–53 ).

Bionomics ( Figs. 54–69 View FIGURES 54–62 View FIGURES 63–69 ). Host plant: Austroeupatorium inulaefolium (Kunth) R. M. King & H. Rob.   , Asteraceae   , a plant species native to South America, from Panama to Argentina and possessing some antimicrobial activity against intracellular and extracellular organisms (Bua et al. 2017). Mining larvae recorded from January (in southern Ecuador) and April, June (in Bolivia). Blotch mine (at early stage triangular, afterwards irregular, Figs. 57–69 View FIGURES 54–62 View FIGURES 63–69 ) either without frass or usually with little black or brown-black loose or compact granules of frass irregularly deposited predominantly in the narrow corner of the mine ( Figs. 58, 60, 61 View FIGURES 54–62 , 69 View FIGURES 63–69 ); the initial, slender part of leaf mine sometimes looks pale green because the unconsumed upper tissue of plant ( Figs. 57–61 View FIGURES 54–62 , 69 View FIGURES 63–69 ); old leaf mine usually looks pale brown or whitish brown. Silk-lined nidus inside of the mine usually rather indistinct. Larva pale yellowish green, with dark green intestine and blackish brown head ( Figs. 62–65 View FIGURES 54–62 View FIGURES 63–69 ). Mining larva better visible from underside of the leaf than upper side; sometimes larva can hardly be seen, particularly in early stages of development because the larva can hide itself in the narrow part of the leaf. Pupation inside of leaf mine, in a silklined nidus, without cocoon; pupa brown. Exit slit on usually on upper side, only sometimes on underside of the leaf. Adults known from February and May, July.

Distribution ( Fig. 233 View FIGURE 233 ). Known from the south Ecuadorian ( Figs. 245–247 View FIGURES 245–248 ) and Bolivian ( Fig. 248 View FIGURES 245–248 ) Andes at the elevation of about 1600–2000 m.

Etymology. The species name is derived from Latin tris (three) and lobatus (lobed) in reference to the threelobed valva in the male genitalia.