Simulium (Hearlea) carolinae De León,

Coscarón, S., Esquivel, D. R. Miranda, Moulton, J. K., Arias, C. L. Coscarón- & Bernal, S. Ibañez, 2004, Simulium (Hearlea) Vargas, Martínez Palacios, & Díaz Nájera (Diptera: Simuliidae): Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis, Zootaxa 396, pp. 1-52: 25-26

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Simulium (Hearlea) carolinae De León


Simulium (Hearlea) carolinae De León 

Simulium carolinae De León, 1944:73–75  , Figs. 12–13.

Simulium (Hearlea) carolinae De León  : Vargas, Martínez Palacios & Díaz Nájera, 1946: 122–124, 182, Figs. 29–34, 137; Dalmat, 1955: 72, 76, 82, 86, 249–253, Figs. 100–102, 220–222, 253, 310, 350, 388, 425; Díaz Nájera & Vulcano, 1962: 93, 112, Figs. 11 –14.

Female: Wing length, 3.7–3.9 mm. Coloration blackish brown grayish with vittae not joining to 1+1 anterior subquadrate silvery spots, pilosity adpressed, abundant, tin colored; pleurae light grayish, silvery pollinose; legs yellowish greyish with concolorous hairs, with apices of femora, tibiae, and tarsomeres blackish. Cibarium smooth, concave medially, with 1+1 sublateral ovoidal prominences. Sc haired. Hind basitarsus 4.8 times longer than broad. Genitalia similar to those of S. larvispinosum  .

Male: Wing length, 3.2–3.6 mm. Scutum velvety black, sometimes with light area on anterior 1/5, clothed with abundant tin to golden pilosity. Legs generally darkened. Hind basitarsus 2.8 times longer than broad. Genitalia similar to those of S. larvispinosum  . Basistylus scarcely elevated laterally; ventral plate with large median carina.

Pupa: Cocoon slipper shaped, reinforced along anterior margin. Length (basal), 3 mm. Thorax with numerous granules. Gill rigid, similar to that of S. larvispinosum  , except main medial branch thicker, more blunt apically, with shorter secondary branches and ventral branch more strongly curved.

Larva: Length, 7.8 mm. General coloration light grayish brown. Cephalic apotome slightly darkened along midline basally. Labral fan with 42–44 primary rays. Mandible with preapical teeth well developed, 5–6 internal teeth arranged in two rows; marginal teeth with 2 denticles well developed and one accesory at half of internal teeth position. Ratio of antennal articles = 1:1.6–1.8:1.1–1.2 (proximal, medial, and distal). Hypostoma with prominent median tooth and 11–15 lateral setae per side. Postgenal cleft dome shaped, without deep anteromedian incision. Lateral sclerite of prothoracic proleg with 24 teeth. Anal sclerite with ventral struts encircling posterior circlet. Posterior portion of abdomen with dorsolateral 2+2 subconical, heavily sclerotized plates covered by accuminate tubercles and few spines. Posterior circlet with 190–200 rows of 25–27 hooks. Rectal papillae trilobed, with 8–11 lobules per lobe (24–33).

Material examined: Guatemala: (Dalmat collection, USNM) Sololá: río Catarata, Sta Alicia, Atitlan , Fca. Monte de Oro , 1 male (in slide), 24 March 1951, H. Dalmat; 11 female, 6 male, 29 March 1951; 4 female, 1 male, 15 June 1951; Panajachel, río Catarata , 1 female, 4 male, 2 February 1948, H. Dalmat; 1 female, 8 February 1948; 1 female (in slide), 7 August 1949; 7 females, 7 males, 11 August 1951; río Catarata , campamento A n° 1, 1 female, 9 February 1949, H. Dalmat; campamento R. IV n° 1, F. D. R. Km 24–25, 1 male, 9 December 1949, H Dalmat; Chimaltenango, Pochuta, río Chorrera , Fca. La Torre , 1 female, 18 March 1948, H. Dalmat; río Cocoya , Fca. El Carmen, 1 female, 19 May 1950, H. Dalmat; without locality N° 331–24, 6 larvae (1 slide)  .

Distribution: México: Chiapas, Oaxaca and Veracruz; Guatemala: Alta Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Quezaltenango, Sololá, Suchitepequez.

Discussion: The form of the pupal gill and absence of 1+1 ventrolateral papillae on the eighth segment of the larva is shared with S. larvispinosum  , but the latter has 1+1 accessory ventrolateral accessory plates on the anal sclerite.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile














Simulium (Hearlea) carolinae De León

Coscarón, S., Esquivel, D. R. Miranda, Moulton, J. K., Arias, C. L. Coscarón- & Bernal, S. Ibañez 2004

Simulium carolinae De León, 1944:73–75

De Leon, J. R. 1944: 75