Brontostoma doughertyae Gil-Santana, Lopes, Marques & Jurberg, 2005, Gil-Santana, Lopes, Marques & Jurberg, 2005

Gil-Santana, Hélcio R. & Baena, Manuel, 2009, Two new species of Brontostoma Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae) from Bolivia, with description of the male genitalia of two other species of the genus, and description of the female of B. doughertyae Gil-Santana, Lopes, Marques & Jurberg, Zootaxa 1979, pp. 41-52: 48-52

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Brontostoma doughertyae Gil-Santana, Lopes, Marques & Jurberg, 2005


Brontostoma doughertyae Gil-Santana, Lopes, Marques & Jurberg, 2005  

B. doughertyae   was described based on eight male specimens from the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. The female of the species is now described based on two specimens from Espírito Santo (Figs. 47–48); one of them was collected from the same place where the holotype was found (Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, RNVRD, 19 ° 23 ´S 40 ° 04´W) (Fig. 47). This female presents atrophy of the antennal segments, which seems to be derived from a congenital problem without taxonomical significance. Therefore, the description of the antenna will be based on the other specimen only. While describing B. doughertyae   , Gil- Santana et al. (2005) recorded the color variation in the femora, which were black in the specimens from Espírito Santo and yellowish with dark spots in the ones collected in Bahia. The type series presented the corium of hemelytra yellow-whitish with reddish markings at the basal and distal corial margins (Fig. 49); the basal markings were absent in the specimens from Bahia. The connexivum was described as uniformly yellowish on its external margin (Fig. 49). Another male from RNVRD presented here shows brownish markings on the corium and darkened proximal segments of the connexivum (Fig. 50). Although the male genitalia of this species have already been described ( Gil-Santana et al. 2005), some details are reviewed following reexamination of the structures.

Description. Female (Figs. 47–48; 51–55). Dimensions (in mm) – Total length: 25.0–26.0; Head length: 3.6–4.2; head width: 3.0– 3.2; interocular distance: 1.7–1.8; antennal segments: I: 3.1; II: 3.4; III: 1.7; IV: 1.0; V: 1.0; VI: 0.5; VII: 0.5; rostrum segments: I: 1.9–2.3; II: 1.3–1.7; III: 0.7. Thorax: pronotum: anterior lobe: length: 2.1–2.3; width: 4.8–5.3; posterior lobe: length: 2.6–2.7; width: 6.3–6.9. Fore legs: femur: 4.5–5.4; tibia: 4.8–5.6; tarsus: 1.6; middle legs: femur: 4.4 –5.0; tibia: 5.0– 5.5; tarsus: 1.8; hind legs: femur: 7.2–7.5; tibia: 7.9–8.5; tarsus: 2.1–2.3. Abdomen: length: 14.5–16.5; width: 9.5–10.3. Head, thorax, coxae, femora, and sternites black to brownish black; corium of hemelytra whitish to yellow whitish with red markings in basal and distal corial margins, or as large reddish lateral fasciae; apical portion of corium blackish as adjoining membrane; basal portion of veins in membrane yellowish (Figs. 47–48). Antennal segments I and II blackish; III brownish with yellowish apex; IV yellowish, apex brown; V and VI yellowish and VII brownish. Tibiae yellowish; fore pair with basal and half of distal portion blackish; middle pair with basal and one-third distal portion blackish; hind pair almost entirely yellowish, with only basal and distal portions blackish. Tarsal segments I and II brighter; III brownish. Connexivum partly yellowish in external portion or almost entirely darkened (Figs. 47–48). Integument almost complete glabrous and shiny. Antennal segments I and basal third of II glabrous; remainder with yellowish to brownish long and short fine hairs. Lateral portions of stridulatory sulcus, mesosternum, internal face, and apices of tibiae and tarsi with yellowish, fine, long and short hairs. First and third segments of rostrum with very sparse erect hairs. Head with short neck; interocular space somewhat prominent (Fig. 51); rostrum thick; antenna seven-segmented. Pronotum surface smooth; longitudinal sulcus well marked in the distal and proximal middle portions in anterior and posterior lobes respectively; interlobar sulcus well marked, sinuous, interrupted in central portion Scutellum triangular, prongs short. Anterior and median trochanters and femora with patches of short stiff hairs; anterior and median femora incrassate, armed with almost imperceptible tubercles (Figs. 52–53). Fore and mid tibiae dilated and pilose in apical portion with spongy fossae occupying little more than one-third of their length; hind tibiae with slight preapical dilation (Figs. 52–53). Hind leg simple, with tuft of hairs and setae at apex (Fig. 54). All tarsi well developed, hairy. Terminal segments as represented in Figure 55.

Male (Figs. 49–50; 56–64). There are few differences between the male and female of this species. The objective ones are the absence of hairs in the first and basal part of the second antennal segments in the female, better developed eyes in the male (Fig. 56), and an abdomen that is somewhat larger in the female as observed in both other Ectrichodiinae   and in particular Brontostoma   spp. ( Dougherty 1995). Male genitalia remarks: Pygophore sub-pentagonal (Figs. 57–58). Parameres almost imperceptible in situ; apices close in resting position (Figs. 57–58). Median portion of posterior process of pygophore short and subtriangular (Fig. 59). Parameres curved; apices truncate with tooth in inferior margin of rounded and somewhat dilated appearance (Figs. 60–61). Phallus simple (Figs. 62–63); phallosoma well sclerotized, specially in the margins; sinuous in anterior margin (Fig. 62); endosoma process united in median portion, subrectangular with middle third thinner (Fig. 62); support for phallosoma and gonopore process as in Figure 64.

Material examined: BRAZIL, Espírito Santo, Córrego do Itá, one female, XI –XII. 1956, W. Zikán leg. [ MZSP]; Linhares, Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce ( RNVRD, 19 ° 06’ S, 40 ° 19 ’ W), one male paratype, 26.II.1993, 2 males, 12.I. 1993 and 26.II.1993, 1 female, 12.XI. 2002, J. S. Santos leg. [ MNRJ].


B. deferreri   sp. nov. can be separated from all the known species by its color pattern. It is the only species with three colors in the pronotum. The hemispherical tubercle on the ventro-posterior side of the head is unique in the genus, and the narrow connexivum is also distinctive.

PLATE 5. Figs. 52–55. Brontostoma doughertyae   , female, 52–54, legs, lateral view, 52, fore leg, 53, mid leg, 54, hind leg, 55, external genitalia, posterior view.

B. diringshofeni   sp. nov. can be distinguished from the other species in the genus by its uniform brownish black color and orange connexivum. Because the coloration shown by the new species is very peculiar, it is not possible to state which species might be most proximate to B. diringshofeni   sp. nov. On the other hand, because the coloration patterns in Ectrichodiinae   seem to be aposematic, with apparent Müllerian mimicry PLATE 6. Figs. 56–64. Brontostoma doughertyae   , male, 56, head, dorsal view, 57, last abdominal segment with pygophore in situ, ventral view, 58, pygophore, ventral view, 59, process of pygophore, dorsal view, 60–61, right paramere, 60, dorsal view, 61, ventral, view, 62–63, phallus, 62, dorsal view, 63, lateral view, 64, phallosoma support and gonopore process.

between many species ( Dougherty 1995; Gil-Santana et al. 2005), the coloration may be not useful for ascertaining the relationship among some species within each genus. A future revision and phylogenetic analysis of Brontostoma   might help to understand the species limits, reveal potential synonyms among species, and provide an improved set of characters from which the phylogenetic relationships of the species can be hypothesized.

Although male genitalic characters have been considered to be not important in the taxonomy of Neotropical Ectrichodiinae   (e. g., Dougherty 1995; Carpintero & Maldonado 1996), Gil-Santana et al. (2005) and the present study on four species of Brontostoma   showed differences among the male genitalic characters. The structures that seem to be more useful for taxonomical purposes are: 1 - the parameres, particularly in the apical region and its tooth; 2 - the median portion of the posterior process of the pygophore; and 3 – the endosoma processes. Although the phallosoma, phallosoma support, and gonopore process showed differences too, it was noticed that in old specimens, it is not easy to observe the shape and boundaries of these structures. Because the species studied probably are not closely related to each other, only further study of more species of Brontostoma   will clarify the value of the male genitalia in the taxonomy of this genus.


Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


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