Ecpyrrhorrhoe damastesalis (Walker, 1859) Xiang & Chen & Chen & Duan & Zhang, 2022
Xiang, Lanbin, Chen, Kai, Chen, Xiaohua, Duan, Yongjiang & Zhang, Dandan, 2022, A revision of the genus Ecpyrrhorrhoe Huebner, 1825 from China based on morphology and molecular data, with descriptions of five new species (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Pyraustinae), ZooKeys 1090, pp. 1-44 : 1
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|Ecpyrrhorrhoe damastesalis (Walker, 1859)|
Ecpyrrhorrhoe damastesalis (Walker, 1859) comb. nov.
Scopula damastesalis Walker, 1859: 1013.
In the male genitalia (Fig. 23 View Figures 22–27 ), E. damastesalis can be characterized by the relatively thick and tapered uncus, the slender and straight sella bearing more strongly sclerotized short spines almost vertically placed on ventral and distal margins, and the three groups of spines present on anellus. The female genitalia (Fig. 38 View Figures 38–43 ) are unique, readily separable by the triangular antrum, the wrinkled corpus bursae, the significantly large and generally subtriangular rhomboid signum with anterior and posterior parts asymmetrical and bearing a slightly curved carina, as well as the longer spines on markedly large second (posterior) signum.
(Figs 4 View Figures 3–12 , 5 View Figures 3–12 ). Head. Frons yellow, or yellowish brown scattered with rosy scales, with white lateral bands. Vertex pale yellow, usually scattered with rosy scales. Labial palpus yellowish brown or brown, usually scattered with rosy scales, contrastingly white at base ventrally. Maxillary palpus yellowish brown or brown, usually scattered with rosy scales, pale yellow terminally. Thorax. Dorsal side yellow, and ventral side white; tegula yellow or mixed with rosy scales sometimes. Wings. Forewing length: 10.0-14.0 mm. Forewing narrow and elongated; pale yellow, usually covered with rosy scales on veins, markings yellowish brown or rosy; antemedial line obliquely from 1/4 of costa to beyond posterior margin of cell, then deeply dentated to basal 1/3 of dorsum; orbicular stigma oval and distinct; reniform stigma comma-shaped, short and thick, sometimes concave; postmedial line bent inwards from 3/4 of costa, then arched and crenulated to basal half of CuA1, finally sharply dentated to 2/3 of posterior margin; subterminal line crenulated, sometimes faint; vein ends sometimes bearing triangular spots; fringe pale yellow, mostly mixed with rosy scales sometimes. Hindwing yellowish white, termen yellowish brown or rosy; fringe pale yellow, sometimes with some pink toward apex. Abdomen. Pale yellow dorsally, white ventrally.
(Fig. 23 View Figures 22–27 ). Uncus relatively thick and tapered, with basal 1/3 nearly triangular and naked. Valva slightly broad, with costa nearly straight or concave and ventral margin curved, basal part weakly narrowed, remainder of even width, apex obtusely rounded; sella thumb-shaped and straight, extending inward, bearing short spines vertically settled on ventral and distal margins; sacculus with dorsal 3/5 inflated into a nearly triangular protrusion. Juxta shield-shaped, medially weakly sclerotized, bifid; anellus with three groups of spines (attached to distal juxta in Fig. 23 View Figures 22–27 ). Saccus narrowly triangular. Phallus long and slender, basal part slightly curved, with a bunch of interlaced spicules on vesica.
(Fig. 38 View Figures 38–43 ). Anterior apophysis ~ 2 × length of posterior apophysis. Antrum subtriangular, strongly sclerotized; colliculum short; ductus bursae ~ 1.5-2 × as long as diameter of corpus bursae, posterior sclerite absent. Corpus bursae globular, strongly wrinkled; rhomboid signum large, nearly triangular, with anterior and posterior parts asymmetrical, bearing slightly curved carina; second (posterior) signum larger than in other species, bearing dense and long spines.
Type material. Type: 1♀, Ceylon (NHMUK) .
Other material examined.
Thailand: 1♂, Chiengma , on eyes of horse, 24.VI.1963 , W.W.G. Buttiker, Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 12700 (NHMUK). India: 1♂, Bombay, 21.2.92, Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 010315440 (NHMUK) . China. Fujian : 1♂ 1♀, Mt. Tianzhushan, Xiamen , 21, 24.VII.2014, Yang Xiaofei leg. , genitalia slide No. ZDD12030 View Materials (♀) (NKU); Guangdong : 5♂ 3♀, Longyuan Ecological Garden, Zhepu Village, Hengli , Huizhou , 23.26°N, 114.60°E, 6.X.2021, Zhang Dandan leg. GoogleMaps ; Hainan: 2♂, Shuiman Village, Wuzhishan , 18.88°N, 109.66°E, alt. 667 m, 14.V.2013, 6.IX.2013, Chen Xiaohua, Li Jinwei leg. GoogleMaps , genitalia slide No. CXH12189 View Materials ; 1♂, Bawangling Natural Reserve , 19.08°N, 109.12°E, alt. 169 m, 10.V.2013, Li Jinwei leg. GoogleMaps , genitalia slide No. CXH12187 View Materials ; 2♂ 3♀, Jianfengling , 1-3.VI.2010, Kang Li leg. ; 1♀, Jianling Natural Reserve , alt. 143 m, 18.52°N, 110.16°E, 8.IX.2013, Xie Weicai leg. GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Jianfeng, Ledong , 18.70°N, 108.80°E, alt. 58 m, 28.IV.2019, Xiang Lanbin leg. GoogleMaps ; 1♀, Yinggeling Natural Reserve , 19.05°N, 109.50°E, alt. 954 m, 4.IX.2013, Chen Xiaohua leg. GoogleMaps , genitalia slide No. SYSU0247, molecular voucher No. LEP0021 ; 1♂, Qijiafang, Limushan Natural Reserve , alt. 681 m, 15.IV.2016, Wei Xueli leg. ; 1♂, Yaxing Village, Nankai, Baisha , 19.02°N, 109.40°E, alt. 321 m, 20.VI.2015, Cong Peixin, Guan Wei, Hu Sha leg. (NKU) GoogleMaps ; 2♂ 1♀, Songtao Reservoir, Lanyang , alt. 194 m, 16-17.IV.2016, Wei Xueli leg. ; Yunnan: 2♂ 5♀, Nabang Village, Yingjiang , 24.75°N, 97.56°E, alt. 239 m, 27.V.2016, Duan Yongjiang leg. GoogleMaps , genitalia slide No. SYSU0926 (♂, molecular voucher No. LEP0163) ; 1♂ 2♀, Longmen Village, Mengla , 23.VII.2011, Li Jinwei leg. , genitalia slide No. SYSU0237 (♂, molecular voucher No. LEP0035) ; 1♂ 3♀, Tuanshan Village, Liming, Ninger , alt. 1162 m, 29.IV.2020, Xiang Lanbin leg.
China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Australia.
The larvae of Ecpyrrhorrhoe damastesalis are leaf skeletonizers of teak ( Tectona grandis ). Severe infestations, causing 90%-100% defoliation, has been recorded from Malaysia and Guangdong, China ( Intachat 1998; Lin et al. 2018). The misidentification of E. damastesalis as Ecpyrrhorrhoe machoeralis (Walker, 1859), comb. nov. is common and has been verified in Java and Thailand ( Intachat 1998) and Hainan, China ( Wu et al. 1977; Wang 1980). We speculate that there are more misidentifications in the literature of this species as E. machoeralis .
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