Orobothriurus compagnuccii, Ochoa & Ojanguren Affilastro & Mattoni & Prendini, 2011

Ochoa, José A., Ojanguren Affilastro, Andres A., Mattoni, Camilo I. & Prendini, Lorenzo, 2011, Systematic Revision Of The Andean Scorpion Genus Orobothriurus Maury, 1976 (Bothriuridae), With Discussion Of The Altitude Record For Scorpions, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2011 (359), pp. 1-90 : 41-48

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https://doi.org/ 10.1206/359.1



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scientific name

Orobothriurus compagnuccii

n. sp.

Orobothriurus compagnuccii , n. sp. Figures 14B View Fig , 18E, F View Fig , 20B View Fig , 21C View Fig , 24B View Fig , 32C, D View Fig , 33–35 View Fig View Fig View Fig , 36 View Fig A–C, 54; table 3


Province: General Lamadrid Department: Holotype ♂ (MACN-Ar), Laguna Brava Provincial Park, road to Laguna Brava, El Peñón refuge, 28 ° 32918.60 S 68 ° 45911.90W, 3200 m, i.2003, A. Ojanguren Affilastro and P. Korob (MACN-Ar). Paratypes: Laguna Brava Provincial Park, road to Laguna Brava, 28 ° 279 17.20 S 68 ° 50939.90W, 3835 m, 4.iii.2002, A. Ojanguren Affilastro and P. Korob, 2 ♀ (MACN-Ar), 28 ° 30926.50S 68947957.00W, 3600 m, 23.i.2007, A. Ojanguren Affilastro, L. Compagnucci, and J.J. Martínez, 2 ♂ (MACN-Ar), 28 ° 25954.10 S 68 ° 50934.70W,

3900 m, 27.i.2006, A. Ojanguren Affilastro, L. Compagnucci, and L. Piacentini, 2 ♀ (MACN-Ar), 28 ° 25950.30 S 68 ° 50931.30W, 3900 m, 27.i.2006, A. Ojanguren Affilastro, L. Compagnucci, and L. Piacentini, 1 juv. ♂ ( AMNH [LP 5847]).

ETYMOLOGY: This species is named after Argentine entomologist Luis Compagnucci (MACN), who participated in several expeditions and collected part of the type material of this species.

DIAGNOSIS: Orobothriurus compagnuccii is similar to O. calchaqui and O. famatina . The three species can be separated by the shape of the lamina of the hemispermatophore, which has a more developed apex in O. calchaqui and O. famatina : the apex comprises 52.17 % – 54.54 % (n 5 3; mean 5 52.98 %) of the lamina in O. compagnuccii (fig. 36A–C), 66.6 % –68.48 % (n 5 3, mean 5 67.02 %) in O. famatina (fig. 36F–H), and 69.0 % –71.56 % (n 5 6; mean 5 70.43 %) in O. calchaqui (fig. 36K–O). Orobothriurus compagnuccii can be separated from O. alticola and O. grismadoi by means of the same characters: the apex comprises 40.87 %% –46.08 % (n 5 20; mean 5 43.88 %) of the lamina in O. alticola and 42.70–45.69 % (n 5 7; mean 5 44.17 %) in O. grismadoi . Orobothriurus compagnuccii can be distinguished from other Argentine species of the genus, in which the VL and VSM carinae of sternite VII and metasomal segment I are well developed (fig. 18B, D), by the weak development or absence of these carinae, which are less developed in males (fig. 18E, F).

DESCRIPTION: Based on holotype ♂ and paratypes. Measurements of holotype ♂ and paratype ♀ recorded in table 3.

Total length: ♂, 23.91–25.6 mm (n 5 3, mean 5 24.86 mm); ♀, 24.5–30 mm (n 5 4, mean 5 27.75 mm).

Color: General color yellowish with dark brown spots. Carapace, anterior margin faintly pigmented (fig. 33A, C); lateral margins with two large spots medially and posteriorly, intermediate area with reticulate pigmentation; lateral margins with two large spots laterally and posterolaterally, remaining area with reticulate pigmentation; median ocular tubercle and lateral ocelli dark brown to black; posterior half of anteromedian longitudinal sulcus, median ocular tubercle, and anterior half of postocular furrow pigmented. Chelicerae, distal margin of movable finger with reticulate pigmentation. Pedipalp femur and patella, dorsal margin densely pigmented; chela manus with seven complete longitudinal stripes along carinae, contiguous at base of movable finger; fingers and articulation of fingers pigmented. Legs, especially femur, with reticulate pigmentation near articulations and along dorsal margins. Tergites I–VI each with two dark spots sublaterally along almost entire margin and pretergites, broader near anterior margin, delimiting broad, unpigmented median stripe (fig. 33A, C); VII with four dark spots, two spots posterolaterally, occupying area between dorsolateral carinae and external margins of sclerite, and two small dark triangular spots submedially, extending along submedian carinae, delimiting unpigmented median stripe. Sternum, genital opercula, and pectines unpigmented. Sternites III–VI usually unpigmented, but lateral margins of segments V and VI faintly pigmented in some specimens; VII with two dark narrow stripes sublaterally (fig. 33B, D). Metasomal segment I, dorsal surface with two small, faint spots medially, separated by narrow unpigmented median stripe; lateral surfaces densely pigmented between ML and LIM carinae (fig. 33B, D); ventral surface with three narrow stripes, two VL and one VM, becoming slightly broader, but not contiguous, in posterior half. Segment II similar to segment I, but with dorsal spots joining in some specimens. Segments III and IV similar to segment I but with dorsal spots contiguous, and DL carinae faintly pigmented. Segment V, dorsal surface with two dark stripes, contiguous in posterior third, faint or absent in some specimens; lateral surfaces each with faint narrow stripe in anterior half; ventral surface as for segments I–IV. Telson vesicle with three broad dark stripes (one VM and two VL), separated by two narrow unpigmented stripes; dorsal surface slightly pigmented on lateral margins; aculeus sclerotized, dark reddish brown.

Chelicerae: Movable finger with two subdistal teeth.

Carapace: Surfaces finely granular (♂) or smooth (♀). Anterior margin sublinear, with very shallow median notch (fig. 14B), more developed in ♀. Anteromedian longitudinal sulcus incomplete, absent at anterior margin and weakly developed toward median ocular tubercle; median ocular sulcus well developed; posteromedian longitudinal and posterolateral sulci obsolete (fig. 14B). Median ocular tubercle shallow, situated anteromedially; median ocelli two ocular diameters apart.

Pedipalps: Femur, DI and VI carinae complete, granular; DE carina granular, restricted to proximal three-quarters of segment (fig. 34A); internal surface finely and sparsely granular. Patella, DI and VI carinae complete, granular (♂) or obsolete (♀) (fig. 34B–D); DPP comprising small granules proximally; VPP vestigial, reduced to one or two small granules medially (♂) or absent (♀); internal surface with prominent granule adjacent to trichobothrium i near DI carina; other intercarinal surfaces smooth. Chela manus slender, fingers relatively elongated (fig. 35); length/width ratio: ♂, 3.81–4.47 (n 5 3, mean 5 4.17), ♀, 3.75–4.19 (n 5 4, mean 5 3.97); length/height ratio: ♂, 3.31–3.47 (n 5 3, mean 5 3.39), ♀, 3.17–3.40 (n 5 4, mean 5 3.26); DMA, DI, and VM carinae obsolete; intercarinal surfaces smooth; internal surface with acuminate apophysis (♂) or low bulge (♀) near articulation of movable finger (fig. 35A, D); fingers, dentate margins each with median denticle row and 4–5 pairs of internal and external accessory denticles.

Trichobothria: Femur with 3 trichobothria, patella with 19, chela with 27 (fig. 34, 35). Chela trichobothrium Et 3 situated in same axis as, or slightly proximal to Est (fig. 35C).

Tergites: Tergites I–VI, surfaces smooth (♀) or finely granular (♂), more coarsely so near lateral margins. Tergite VII tetracarinate, paired DL carinae restricted to posterior two-thirds of segment, paired DSM carinae to posterior third; intercarinal surfaces coarsely granular, other surfaces finely granular.

Legs: Femur and patella, prolateral surfaces finely granular (♂), retrolateral surfaces smooth. Femur, ventral carinae weakly developed; other carinae absent. Patella acarinate. Telotarsi, pro- and retroventral rows of spiniform macrosetae with following counts on leg I, 1/1; II, 2/2; III and IV, 3/3.

Pectines: Pectinal tooth count: ♂, 21–23 (n 5 3); ♀, 16–18 (n 5 4, mode 5 17).

Sternites: Sternites III–VI, surfaces smooth (♀) or densely granular medially (♂); spiracles small, narrow. Sternite VII, surface with six ventral macrosetae, smooth in anterior half, densely granular in posterior half (♂); VL and VSM carinae obsolete (indistinct from granulation) or absent (fig. 18E, F).

Metasoma: Segment I, DL and ML carinae complete, moderately granular; one pair of ML macrosetae; LIM carinae restricted to posterior two-thirds, moderately granular; VL and VSM carinae complete but indistinct, sparsely and finely (♂) or coarsely (♀) granular (fig. 18E, F) ; two pairs of VL and VSM macrosetae. Segment II, DL and ML carinae complete, granular; one pair of DL and ML macrosetae (DL macrosetae absent in some specimens); LIM carinae restricted to posterior quarter; VL and VSM carinae absent (♂, some ♀) or obsolete (some ♀) ; two pairs of VL and three pairs of VSM macrosetae (fig. 18E, F). Segment III as for segment II, but ventral intercarinal surfaces smooth and carinae less developed. Segment IV, DL carinae complete, granular; one pair of DL macrosetae; ML carinae obsolete, restricted to posterior margin; one pair of ML macrosetae; LIM carinae absent; VSM and VL carinae absent; three pairs of VSM and VL macrosetae. Segment V, length/width ratio: ♂, 2.92–3.17 (n 5 3, mean 5 3.10), ♀, 2.03–2.14, (n 5 4, mean 5 2.09) ; DL carinae granular, complete (♀) or restricted to anterior half (♂) ; DL macrosetae absent; ML carinae absent; four pairs of ML macrosetae; lateral margin smooth; VL carinae complete (♂) or restricted to posterior three-quarters (♀) ; VL and VSM carinae situated close together, fused in anterior and posterior thirds; four pairs of VL and VSM macrosetae; two pairs of macrosetae along posterior margin; VM carina complete, obscured by surface granulation in posterior half (fig. 20B).

Telson: Length/height ratio: ♂, 3.57–4.12 (n 5 3, mean 5 3.76); ♀, 2.81–2.97 (n 5 4, mean 5 2.90). Vesicle elongated (♂, fig. 23C) or globose (♀, fig. 24B); dorsal surface flat, gland not apparent (♂); ventral surface smooth (♂) or granular (♀). Aculeus short and curved, more so in ♀.

Hemispermatophore: Apex well developed, slightly longer than frontal crest, comprising 52.17–54.54 % (n 5 3; mean 5 52.98 %) of lamina; distal crest curved like ventral margin. Frontal crest divided into two parts, basal part oblique, distal part parallel to ventral margin of lamina; lateral projections slightly undulated and larger than basal part. Basal lobe, terminal process extending to median part of frontal crest (fig. 32C, D).

DISTRIBUTION: Orobothriurus compagnuccii is known only from the type locality, Laguna Brava Provincial Park, in the western Andres of La Rioja Province, northwestern Argentina (fig. 54). All specimens were collected on the ascent to Pircas Negras international pass, on the border between Argentina and Chile, at 3200–3900 m.

ECOLOGY: The habitat at the type locality is intermediate between Puna and high Andean habitats ( Cabrera and Willink, 1980), with very sparse vegetation. All specimens were collected in areas with very pronounced slopes, on high rocks or spiny shrubs. We conducted several expeditions to the type locality of this species, in different years and at different times during the summer, when Orobothriurus are presumed to be most active at this latitude. However, despite considerable effort, only a few specimens were collected each time. Most were very difficult to find, hiding in inaccessible places, e.g., in vertical rocks more than two or three meters above ground level. In the same area, we collected many Brachistosternus montanus , a bothriurid species more than twice the size of O. compagnuccii . The scarcity of O. compagnuccii during summer expeditions, and its habitat preference for places inaccessible to larger scorpions adapted to sandy soils like Brachistosternus , may be explained by the abundance of B. montanus . It is possible that the active period of O. compagnuccii starts in early spring, before that of B. montanus , to avoid competition and predation by the larger species.


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