Tephritis ghissarica, Korneyev & Korneyev, 2019

Korneyev, Severyn V. & Korneyev, Valery A., 2019, Revision of the Old World species of the genus Tephritis (Diptera, Tephritidae) with a pair of isolated apical spots, Zootaxa 4584 (1), pp. 1-73 : 30-33

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Tephritis ghissarica

new species

Tephritis ghissarica new species

( Figs 1c View FIGURES 1 , 14–15 View FIGURES 14 View FIGURES 15 )

Type material: Holotype ♀: Turkmenistan: “Kuhitang Ridge” [= Koytendagh or Köitendag, 37.914°N, 66.515°E], h = 1000–1200 m, 18.05.1992 (V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps . Paratypes: Kazakhstan: “Tashkent, Sary- Agach” [= Saryagash NW of Tashkent, 41.46°N, 69.20°E], 22.06.[?1915/16], 1♂, 1♀ (Prinada) ( ZISP) GoogleMaps ; Kyrgyzstan: “Ferghana Region”, near Ak-Tauk [=Ak-Took (?), 41.20°N, 73.10°E], h = 1500 m, 23.08.1928, 1♀ (V. Kuznetsov); Taka Pass [Chirchik Pass (?), 40.25°N, 73.33°E]; Alai Ridge, Ferghana, 6.08.1928, 1♂ (Kuznetsov) ( ZISP) GoogleMaps ; Tajikistan: Ghissar Ridge , Khoja-Obi-Garm, 38.89619°N, 68.75497°E, h= 2436 m a. s. l., ex Cousinia sp., 31.07.2018 —em. 7.08.2018, 2♂ (V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Khobu-Robot Pass , 38.59°N, 70.76°E, h= 2750 m a. s. l., 17.07.2018, 1♂ (V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; “near Stalinabad [= Dushanbe]”, [38.65°N, 68.77°E], 24.05.1934, 1♀ ( Gussakovskiy ); idem, 13.05.1939. 1♂; 16.05.1939, 1♂, 1♀ (Zimin) ( ZISP) GoogleMaps ; Turkmenistan: “ Kuhitang Ridge ” [37.914°N, 66.515°E], h = 1000–1200 m, 18.05.1992, 8♂, 2♀ (Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Kuhitang-Dara valley , h = 1700 m, 14.05.1992, 1♂ (Korneyev) ( SIZK) ; Uzbekistan: Kammashi , N of Guzar [=Kamasi, 38.82°N, 66.45°E], 17.04.1931, 1♂ (Gussakovskiy) ( ZISP) GoogleMaps ; 21.06.1931, 1♂, 1♀ (Rohdendorf) ( ZISP) GoogleMaps ; Khan-Takhta Ravine , NW Ghissar ridge, 22– 27.08.1933, 3♂, 3♀ (Veltishchev) ( ZISP) ; Kzyl-Tam , NW Ghissar ridge, h= 2080 m, 2.07.1933, 1♂; 26.08.1933, 1♂ (Veltishchev) ( ZISP) .

Diagnosis. Tephritis ghissarica new species can be separated from other Tephritis species by the following combination of characters: wing with moderately developed light brown pattern partly extending into anal cell, 2 dark spots at the apices of R 4+5 and M veins isolated from the remaining wing pattern; pterostigma entirely dark without medial yellow spot; dark wing pattern lasting unbroken from the pterostigma to base of anal cell; cell r 1 with 2 or 3 hyaline spots distal of apex of vein R 1, large hyaline spots in r 1 and r 2+3 widely confluent to form bold M- or N-shaped mark, hyaline spot proximally of crossvein r-m in cell r 2+3 present; crossvein r-m in entirely brown field or at most with single hyaline spot in cell br; basal halves of cells dm and cua with brown bars reaching vein A 1 +Cu 2 extending into basal part of anal cell; abdominal tergites partly orange-yellow, white setulose and setose; oviscape orange-yellow and partly white setulose.

Tephritis ghissarica is very similar to T. kyrghyzica in its wing pattern, differing by the dark brown pattern (paler in T. kyrghyzica ), abdominal tergites 1–3 largely yellow (all tergites entirely brown or black in T. kyrghyzica ), oviscape yellow to orange-yellow (darker, yellowish brown to brown in T. kyrghyzica ), and oviscape and aculeus shorter than 1.3 mm, and at most as long as costal cell length (conspicuously longer than 1.4 mm, and 1.2 of costal cell length in T. kyrghyzica ); in addition, aculeus of T. ghissarica is narrower pointed to apex ( Figs 15 View FIGURES 15 a–b), whereas in T. kyrghyzica , it is more gradually pointed ( Figs 27a – b View FIGURES 27 ).

Tephritis ghissarica is similar to T. bardanae in having dark brown wing pattern with the hyaline spots in cells r 1 and r 2+3 confluent forming M-like mark with small hyaline spot proximal of r-m, but clearly differing by having brown bars in basal half of cell dm extending into anal cell (basal parts of cells dm, cua 1 and a with isolated pale brown spots in T. bardanae ), pterostigma medially brown (with hyaline or yellowish spot medially in T. bardanae ) and oviscape as long as 3 posteriormost tergites (oviscape not longer than 2 posteriormost tergites in T. bardanae ).

Tephritis ghissarica is similar to the dark specimens of T. hyoscyami and T. hendeliana in having wing pattern with the hyaline spots in cells r 1 and r 2+3 confluent forming M-like mark with small hyaline spot proximal of r-m and dark bars in basal half of cell dm extending into anal cell, differing by having pterostigma medially brown (in the compared species, with hyaline or yellowish spot medially) and r-m either in entirely brown field or at most with 1 spot basally of it (in T. hyoscyami and T. hendeliana , with 2 or 4 hyaline spots surrounding it) and oviscape yellow to orange-yellow (black in T. hyoscyami and T. hendeliana ).

Description. Head, thorax and legs: as described for T. bardanae .

Wing: Pattern brown, with 2 large spots at apices of veins R 4+5 and M isolated from remaining dark pattern ( Figs 14c – d View FIGURES 14 ). Basal cells bc, bm and bcu hyaline; cell c with pale brown or hyaline base and small pale brown spot at middle, in 30% of specimens inconspicuous. Pterostigma dark brown with narrow triangular yellowish area at very anteroapical corner, but without medial or pale brown subapical spot. Cell r 1 hyaline at base, posterior of pterostigma entirely brown, at middle with 2 large trapeziform hyaline spots separated by narrow brown bar and often (in 40% of examined specimens) with third, narrow hyaline spot at apex on one or both wings. Cell r 2+3 hyaline at base, posterior to pterostigma brown, apically of R 1 apex with 3 (large, transverse trapeziform hyaline spot distal of r-m level 2–4 × as wide as 2 oval spots on both its sides narrowly separated from it and partly fused to hyaline spots in r 1, forming hyaline M-like mark in anteromedial part of wing. Preapical brown area (posterior to cell r 1 apex) with 1–4 hyaline dots. Apex hyaline with small triangular dark spot on vein R 4+5. Cell br hyaline basally and brown from vein Sc apex level to crossvein r-m, with 2–3 small round hyaline spots. Crossvein r-m either in entirely dark field or surrounded by 1–4 small yellowish, rarely hyaline dots in cells br and r 4+5. Cell r 4+5 at level of dm-cu with onelarge trapezoid (often big pear-like spot partly fused with smaller round hyaline spot), usually subquadrate, widely fused to largest hyaline spot in cell r 2+3 and connected to hyaline spots in cell m; medial third of cell r 4+5 brown, with 2–5 small round hyaline spots; dark spot on apices of veins R 4+5 and M subequal. Cell dm with basal 1/5 or 1/6 hyaline, apically dark brown, with 8–10 partly merged hyaline spots of various size and shape. Cell m usually with brown proximal margin and 2 brown bars, partly connected anteriorly to form inverted V or H-shaped mark; cell cua with 3 partly fused or isolated subquadrate areas each with smaller hyaline spot inside, either closed or opened; basal dark area connedting dark pattern in cell dm with fusion of veins Cu 2 and A l; otherwise posterior half of cell cu 1 almost entirely hyaline. Anal cell hyaline with dark C-shaped area subbasally, otherwise hyaline as well as anal lobe.

Abdomen ( Fig. 14b View FIGURES 14 ): as described for T. bardanae . Tergites widely black (except for tergites 1–3 of male and 1–2 of female laterally and sometimes posteriorly yellow), densely grey microtrichose, white setulose and setose, marginal setae on tergite 5 of male and 6 of female black. Sternites usually yellow. Abdominal pleura mostly yellow.

Terminalia: Male. Epandrium and glans similar to other Tephritis species ( Figs 15e – f View FIGURES 15 ); preglans nonspinulose. ejaculatory apodeme similar to other Tephritis species ( Fig. 15g View FIGURES 15 ) Female. Oviscape yellow to reddish yellow (except very apex dark brown), longer than tergites 5–6, but slightly shorter than 3 posteriormost tergites, white setulose ventrally and anterolaterally, otherwise black setulose ( Fig. 14b View FIGURES 14 ). Eversible membrane with 2 pairs of taeniae 0.35 × as long as membrane itself; basiventral part with moderately large dentate scales ( Fig. 15c View FIGURES 15 ). Aculeus moderately short, 4 × as long as wide, with elongate and pointed apex ( Figs 15a – b View FIGURES 15 ). 2 moderately short, papillose spermathecae, 4.5 × as long as wide ( Fig. 15d View FIGURES 15 ).

Measurements. Female. BL=5.5–6.0 mm (n=10); WL=4.5–5.3 (n=10), C2= 1.15–1.3 mm; AL=1.0– 1.25 mm; AL/C2=0.77–1.0 (n=10). Male. BL= 4.0– 4.8 mm (n=5); WL= 4.2–4.8 mm (n=5).

Host plants. Cousinia sp. indet. ( Fig. 15h View FIGURES 15 ); possibly Cousinia umbrosa , from which the specimens were swept in Kuhitang Mountains, or also other species of the genus Cousinia (V. Korneyev personal observations).

Etymology. This species is named for the Ghissar Ridge in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, where the first specimens were collected in 1930s. Its actual distribution is wider, but the holotype and topotypic specimens are clearly conspecific with the specimens from the Ghissar.

Distribution. SE Kazakhstan, S Tajikistan, E Turkmenistan, E Uzbekistan.

Remarks. Tephritis ghissarica new species is very similar to T. kyrghyzica new species, apparently a closely related species associated also with the flower heads of Cousinia species. We believe that the huge diversity of Cousinia in the Near East (c. 500 recognized species) might possess much higher diversity of associated specialized phytophagous tephritids. Further study of Cousinia- associated tephritids (incl. Urophora, Terellia and Tephritis ) requires precise knowledge of their host plants in association with analysis of their phylogenetic distances based on numerous molecular markers. At present, the numerous individual specimens (mostly males) similar to Tephritis ghissarica and T. kyrghizica new species but having conspicuous deviations from the described wing pattern (e.g., with the hyaline spot in R 2+3 proximally of r-m lacking) are temporarily excluded from consideration as we cannot tell if they represent new species or demonstrate higher individual variability of specimens. At the same time, large series from different locations have a range of variability not covering these forms; additional material is needed to evaluate and gauge their variability rank. Although Tephritis ghissarica new species and T. kyrghyzica new species are believed to be allopatric, separated by the deserts in Syrdaria River valley, we do not give them a subspecies rank as there is a possibility that they occur sympatrically in the East of Ferghana valley (specimens from Kyrgyzstan: Ak-Tauk and Taka pass) being specialized for different hosts (V. Korneyev unpublished data). Further study involving mass rearings from hosts along with molecular analysis of populations is needed.


Schmaulhausen Institute of Zoology


Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences