Tephritis postica ( Loew 1844 )

Korneyev, Severyn V. & Korneyev, Valery A., 2019, Revision of the Old World species of the genus Tephritis (Diptera, Tephritidae) with a pair of isolated apical spots, Zootaxa 4584 (1), pp. 1-73 : 49-54

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4584.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7ACD7181-C5D9-4C05-8060-6725C3358C56

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/084E1818-FFAF-690D-FF39-8BE3FD6FFE9D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Tephritis postica ( Loew 1844 )
status

 

Tephritis postica ( Loew 1844)

( Figs 1g View FIGURES 1 ; 28–30 View FIGURES 28 View FIGURES 29 View FIGURE 30 )

Musca heraclei Fabricius 1794: 354 (preoccupied name, non Musca heraclei Linnaeus 1758 ); Dacus heraclei: Fabricius 1805: 277 ; Trypeta heraclei: Meigen 1826: 338 , Tab. 50, 1; Trypeta postica Loew 1844: 393 (new replacement name for Musca heraclei Fabricius, 1794 ); Tephritis postica Frauenfeld 1857: 551 ; Schiner 1858: 676; 1864: 159; Loew 1862: 111; Rondani 1871: 8; Becker 1905: 140;

Hendel 1927: 193; Séguy 1934: 162; Hering 1939: 185; 1944: 28; Mihályi 1960: 59, 1969: 199; Zwölfer 1964; Richter

1970: 168; Foote 1984: 132; Merz, 1993: 118; 1994: 74; 2001b: 95; Norrbom et al. 1999: 218. Kütük & Özgür 2003: 248;

Korneyev & Korneyev 2018: 37. Tephritis posis Hering 1939: 186 ; Richter 1970: 167; Foote 1984: 132; Norrbom et al. 1999: 218; new synonym.

Type material: Possible syntype Musca heraclei Fabricius : “ Habitat in Kiliae floribus ”, sex and number unknown, damaged ( ZMUC) ( Fig. 28b View FIGURES 28 ) ( examined) .

Neotype ♀ Musca heraclei : “ Trypeta heraclei ”, “ 2305 ”, “heraclei” (Meigen’s handwriting) ( here designated);

Lectotype T. posis ♀; Spain: Teruel: Albarracin , VI.33, Onopordon ( BMNH) ( Fig. 30a View FIGURE 30 ) (marked by B. Merz in 1991, here designated.

Non-type material: Specimen of Trypeta postica : Austria: “ Wien / Schiner ”, 1♀ ( Coll. H. Loew), “posti /ca / Loew” (Loew’s handwriting) (marked as “possible syntype Trypeta postica Loew ♀ det B. Merz, 1991”) ( MNKB) ; Algeria: Algere est., Hauts Plat , 1♂, 1♀ (A. Thery) ( MNKB) ; Algeria , 1919, 1♂, 1♀ (coll. Abeille De Perrin) ( MNHNP) ; Armenia: Khosrov Nature Reserve, Vedi Sector , 40.00°N, 44.91°E, 15.06.1982, 4♂, 4♀ (V. Ermolenko) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Azerbaijan: Kalvjaz, Zuvant , 20.05.1936, 1♀ (Arnoldi) ( ZISP) ; Austria: “ Österreich ”, 1♂, 1♀ (Siebold) ( ZSSM) ; Lower Austria, Guntramsdorf , 48.05°N, 16.31°E, 13.06.1991, 2♂, 2♀ (Merz) ( ZISP) GoogleMaps ; Cyprus: Pano Platres , 1100–1300 m, 21.06.1971, 1♂, 1♀ (M. J. & J. P. Duffels) ( RMNH) ; France: Corsica: “ Korsika, 54955 V.” 1♀, 1♀ (Becker) ( MNKB) ; Corsica, 2♂, 1♀ (Mann) (Coll. H. Loew) ( MNKB) ; Germany: Bavaria, Krs. Kelhein, Pickenbach , 7.10.1976, 1♂ (Necker) ( ZSSM) ; Greece: Athens , 49871, IV., 6♂, 6♀ (Becker) ( MNKB) ; Iran: W Azerbaijan: Qazemloo Valley , 37km S of Urmia, 37.30°N, 45.12° E, 1450m, 15.05.2014, 1♂, 1♀ (S. & V. Korneyev), idem, 19.06.2014, 3♂, 1♀ (Mohamadzade) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; E. Azerbaijan: Road between Meshkin Shahr & Ahar, 38.39°N, 47.33°E, 1085m, 18.05.2014, 2♂, 2♀ (S. & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Dizmar Area, Chichakli valley , 38.68°N, 46.53°E, h= 2213m, 26.06.2014, 1♂, 1♀ (S. & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Arasbaran , h= 1997m, 38.86°N, 46.84°E, 23.06.2014, 2♂, 2♀ (S. & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Kendovan valley , 37.776°N, 46.27°E; 28.06.2014, h= 2400m, 1♂, 1♀ (S. & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Ardebil: Meshqinshahr , 35°52'29"N, 52°06'40"E, h= 1165m, 4.07.2014, 2♂ (S. & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Sabalan Mts., hot springs near Majandeh , 38.265°N 47.740°E, h= 2670m, 18.05.2014, 1♂ (S. & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Qazvin: valley N of Alamut pass, 36.403°N, 50.227°E, h= 1940m, 10.06.2014, 1♂ (S. & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Italy: Piemont, Gribodo 1♀ ( ZSSM) ; Kazakhstan: Alma-Ata, Kopala ( Semirechensk reg.), 29.05.1910, 1♀ (Shnitnikov) ( ZISP) ; Kopala , valley of river, 1907, 1♀ (Shnitnikov) ( ZISP) ; Taldy-Bulak , river, 19.07.1910, 1♀ (Kirichenko) ( ZISP) ; Alma-Ata, Priutsk , ponds, 31.071931, 1♂ (Olsufjev) ( ZISP) ; Almatinka, Asemir , 1.09.1928, 2♂, 2♀ (Shnitnikov) ( ZISP) ; Almatinka, Tashtam 11– 13.07.1928, 2♂, 1♀ (Shnitnikov) ( ZISP) ; Almatinka, Asemir, Ostashkino , 15.07.1928, 1♂, 1♀ (Shnitnikov) ( ZISP) ; Almatinka, Asemir, Priutsk , 4.08.1928, 1♂, 6.08.1928, 1♂; 26.08.1928, 1♂; (Shnitnikov) ( ZISP) ; Alma-Ata , 22.06.1936, 1♂ (A. Birula); idem, “Vernyi” [= Almaty], 6.09.1902, 1♂ (Poyarkov) ( ZISP) ; Talgar , 43.26°N, 77.21°E, swept from Onopordum , 27.09.1986, 1♂ (Kameneva, Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Karatau, Uch-Ayri , 29.07.1910, 1♀ (Trizna) ( ZISP) ; Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, vic.: Chon-Aryk , 42.79°N 74.57°E, h= 1200m, 24.05.1994, 1♂, 5.06.1994, 1♂, 2♀ (V. Korneyev); idem, h= 1180m, ex Onopordum acanthium , 7.07—em. 12.07.2017, 3♂, 1♀, S of Sosnovka, 42.60°N, 73.87°E, 22.06.1999, 6.08.1999, 2♂ (V. Korneyev & Kameneva) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Kashka-Suu Ski Resort , 42.64°N 74.52°E, h= 1745m, 3.08.2017, 4♂, 2♀ (S. & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Takyr- Ter , 20.07.1913, 1♂ (Chernavsky) ( ZISP) ; Jety-Oguz , h= 2100 m, 28.06.1986, 1♀ (V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) ; Kasansay river, 17 km S of Terek-Sai, Chatkal Ridge, Ferghana , 31.05-1.06.1989, 1♂, 1♀ (Dolgovskaya) ( ZISP) , idem, 41.50°N, 70.97°E, 2.07.1998, 1♀ (V. Korneyev & Kameneva) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Alai, Surmetash River valley , 39.84°N, 72.08°E, h= 1900m, 0 5.07.1998, 1♀ (Kameneva & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Moldova: Chişinău, arboretum, 46.97°N, 28.91°E, 15.06.1986, 1♀; idem, 20.06.1987, 1♂, 14.07.1987, 2♂; idem, ex flower heads Onopordum acanthium , 1.08.—em. 7.08.1987, 3♂, 2♀ (Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Morocco: Anti- Atlas, Tizi n` Bachkoun , 1600 m, 1.07.1987, 1♀ (W. Schacht) ( ZSSM) ; Russia: Karachaevo-Cherkessia: Teberda, Jamagat , 43.47°N, 41.76°E, 1600m, 3.07.1988, 1♀ ( Korneyev ), idem, 43.46°N, 41.80°E, 28.03.2013, 1♀ (S. & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Spain: Valencia, Moraira , 16– 30.05.1981, 2♂, 2♀ (B. van Aartsen) ( RMNH) ; Switzerland: N 220 m Guntramsdorf 13.06.1991, 2♂, 2♀ (Merz) ( ZISP) ; Tajikistan: 5km SW Adrasman, Karamaza mt., Kuramin ridge, Fergana , 22.05.1989, 1♂ (Volkovitch) ( ZISP) ; Karategin Mts , 23 km W of Khoit, 39.17°N, 70.62°E, 2220m, 25.06.2015, 1♂, 2♀ (Skrylnik) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; idem, 39.2579°N, 70.7507°E, 1900 m, 1♂ (V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Turkey: Klein-Asien, Ismir , 17.06.1914, 1♀ (W. Ramme); Strand westl. v. Samsun, 30.06.—em. 2.07.1926, 1♂ (Bischoff) ( MNKB) ; Musha , 17.07.1916, 1♂ (Andrievskiy) ( ZISP) ; Turkmenistan: Kara-Kala , 2–15– 28.06.1955, 1♂, 1♀ (Tobias) ( ZISP) ; Chaek, SE slope of Dushak-Eredag mt. , 12 km SW Firuza, 28– 30.04.1989, 1♂, 1♀ (Dolgovskaya) ( ZISP) ; Ukraine: Crimea: Eupatoria , 06– 0 7.1901, 2♀ (Yakovlev) ( ZISP) ; Kerch , 2.05.1902, 1♀ (Kirichenko) ( ZISP) ; Yalta, Semidvorye , 8.09.1910, 1♂ (L. Bianchi) ( ZISP) ; Kharatan , 25.09.1910, 1♀ (L. Bianchi) ( ZISP) ; Karadag, Koktebel , 14.08.1928, 1♂ (Djakonov) ( ZISP) ; Nizhnegorsk, wheat field, 17.05.1951, 1♀; Karadag : 26.09.1964, 1♂ (Falkovitch) ( ZISP) , idem, 30.07.1982, 1♀ (Yu. Budashkin) ( SIZK) . Uzbekistan: Buchara, Bor-Occ, Yargak pr. Khatyrtsha , 22.05.1928, 1♂, 1♀ (L. Zimin) ( ZISP) , idem, 27.05.1928, 1♀ (L. Zimin) ( SIZK) ; Chatkal Nature Reserve, Bashkyzylsai , 41.40°N, 69.90°E, swept from Onopordum acanthium , 10.06.1981, 2♀, 11.06.1981, 2♂, 1♀ (V. Beiko),1.06.1983, 4♂ (L. Volkova) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Kammashy, N of Guzar, Bukh. , 26.05.1931, 2♀ (Gussakovski) ( ZISP) .

Diagnosis. Tephritis postica is a grey microtrichose, moderately large (wing length 4.0– 7.8 mm) fly, readily differing from other Tephritis species by the wing pattern with widely fused hyaline spots and dark pattern reduced to 3 bands: transverse band-like narrow subapical area, discal band crossing wing from pterostigma through crossband dm-cu, narrowly broken by 2 hyaline bars at crossband r-m, and cubital vitta on vein CuA 1 from anal cell to the middle of cell cu length in addition to pair of dark apical spots and isolated streaks in the hyaline fields.

Description. Head, thorax and legs: as described for T. hyoscyami . Coloration of thoracal cuticle underneath dense white microtrichia variable: from widely brown to black (except postpronotal lobe, dorsal margin of anepisternum, notopleuron and sides of scutellum yellow) to widely yellow (except black lyrate pattern on mesonotum, spots on katepisternum and meron, and whole mediotergite); femora usually yellow, rarely brown (in specimens from northern Iran).

Wing ( Fig. 1g View FIGURES 1 ): Cell bc hyaline. Cell c mostly hyaline with brown base and small spot anteromedially. Pterostigma entirely brown. Cell r 1 hyaline at base, brown posterior to pterostigma, with 2 large trapeziform hyaline spots separated by narrow dark interval; apex of r 1 entirely brown. Cell r 2+3 hyaline at base, with narrow dark area posterior to pterostigma; and 3 rectangular hyaline spots posterior of hyaline spots in r 1 divided by 2 narrow dark intervals or entirely fused. Preapical brown area narrow with 1 hyaline spots at apex of R 2+3 vein and vein M. Apical dark spot on vein R 4+5 small and subtriangular.

Cell br hyaline at base, with dark spot posterior to pterostigma, usually with 1 large and 2–3 small hyaline spots; crossvein r-m with hyaline bars at both sides; cell r 4+5 with narrow dark bar between r-m and dm-cu levels, widely hyaline area twice as long as dark subapical area; subapical area 1.5 times as high as long, with or without small round hyaline spot aligned to vein M; cell r 4+5 almost rectangular, apex with dark spot at apex of vein M. Cell m with narrowly dark base and apex; and narrow h-shaped dark band at middle, continuing the subapical crossband. Cell dm with hyaline base, dark apical crossband with small hyaline spot anteroapical corner and 1–3 smaller hyaline dots at middle, and 1–3 brown spots medially. Cell cu hyaline at base, with long arc-shaped brown vitta from anal cell to middle of cell cu length. Anal lobe entirely hyaline.

Abdomen: Tergites 1–4 from mostly black or brown to entirely yellow, densely microtrichose, white setulose and setose; male tergites 4 and 5 usually yellow with pair of brown spots basally; marginal setae on male tergite 5 and female tergite 6 black. Sternites black to yellow, densely grey microtrichose, white setose and setulose, male sternite 5 posteriorly incised. Female sternite 6 with anteromedial apodeme. Abdominal pleura matt grey.

Terminalia: Male. Epandrium as in other Tephritis species, phallus glans narrow and long ( Figs 28 View FIGURES 28 g–h). Female. Oviscape entirely yellow to reddish brown, sometimes black anteroventro and at very apex, at least as long as abdominal tergites 4–6, often longer than abdomen), white setulose anteroventrally and anterodorsally, black setulose posteriorly and mediodorsally. Eversible membrane with 2 pairs of taeniae in anterior 1/4 and moderately enlarged anteroventral scales ( Fig. 29d View FIGURES 29 ). Aculeus long, 7–11 × as long as wide, truncated at apex ( Figs 28 View FIGURES 28 d–e, 29 b–c). 2 moderately short papillose spermathecae, 4 × as long as wide ( Fig. 2 8f View FIGURES 2 View FIGURES 3 View FIGURES 4 View FIGURES 5 View FIGURES 6 View FIGURES 7 View FIGURES 8 ).

Measurements: Female. BL= 6.7–10.1 mm (n=20); WL=5.0–6.8; C2=1.2–2.0; AL=2.0–4.4; AL/ C2=1.48–2.87 (n=60). Male. BL= 4.5–6.5 mm (n=20); WL=4.0– 5.7 mm (n=20).

Host plants. Flower heads of Onopordum acanthium ( Hendel 1927) and O. illyricum ( Mihályi 1969) .

The specimen depicted by Meigen (1826: Tab. 50, 1) certainly corresponds with the currently accepted concept of Tephritis postica : it has the oviscape somewhat shorter than the abdomen; it is believed to have originated from the Baumhauer collection now deposited in MNHNP ( Fig. 28c View FIGURES 28 ). Herewith, we designate this specimen as the neotype of Musca heraclei Fabricius ; automatically, it becomes the neotype of Trypeta postica Loew. Geographically , this specimen apparently originated from Austro-Hungaria, possibly from Vienna or its neighbourhood.

The female specimen with label “ Wien / Schiner” and red label “ Typus ” ( Fig. 28a View FIGURES 28 ) (MNKB) certainly belongs to T. postica , and apparently is a specimen mentioned in Loew’s description, but it is not a type of that nominal species, which is only a replacement name.

A female syntype of T. posis ( Fig. 30a View FIGURE 30 ) marked by Bernhard Merz as lectotype, but never published, is here designated as lectotype; the photograph was kindly provided by Daniel Whitmore (BMNH).

Distribution. Albania ( Merz & Korneyev, 2004), Algeria, Austria ( Schiner 1864), Cyprus ( Merz & Korneyev, 2004), Czech Republic ( Heřman & Kinkorová 2009), France ( Séguy 1934), Germany ( Merz 1999a), Greece, Hungary ( Merz 2001 a), Iran (Zarghani et al. 2010; Mohamadzade Namin, Nozari & Rasoulian 2010; Mohamadzade Namin & Nozari 2011), Israel (Freidberg & Kugler 1989); Italy ( Belcari et al. 1995), Moldova ( Merz & Korneyev, 2004), Morocco (first record), Poland, Romania ( Merz & Korneyev 2004), Russia (first record), Slovakia ( Heřman & Kinkorová 2009), Spain ( Merz 2001 b), Turkey ( Kütük 2006; Koçak & Kemal 2009), Ukraine ( Merz & Korneyev 2004).

Remarks on nomenclatural types. Trypeta postica was proposed by Loew (1844) as a new replacement name for “ Trypeta heraclei ” as described and depicted by Meigen (1826: 338, Tab. 50, 1); Meigen (1826: 339) referred his description and figure to the specimens “im Fabricischen und Baumhauerischen Museum [=collections]”. According to Zimsen (1964), there are 2 wings extant from a syntype in the Kiel collection (ZMUC) ( Fig. 28b View FIGURES 28 ). This specimen, however, is doubtfully the original specimen provided to Fabricius for description of Musca heraclei or, if it is, doubtfully originated from Kiel. The woolly thistle ( Onopordum ), host of this species, is a predominantly southern plant, which does not occur in northern Germany or Denmark; thus, the specimen deposited in the Kiel collection of Fabricius (ZMUC) certainly is neither from Kiel, as was originally stated by Fabricius, and probably was mislabelled by Fabricius himself, nor replaced the lost type. We therefore consider the type(s) of Musca heraclei Fabricius to be lost. This allows further neotype designation for the purposes of nomenclatural stability should the nominal species considered to be synonyms now found to belong to different biological species.

Remarks on variability and synonymy. Tephritis postica has a very distinct and only slightly variable wing pattern, but shows highly variable length of ovipositor, both absolute and relative; the amplitude of its variability is comparable with and even exceeds the 1 between some pairs of taxa considered in this paper to be subspecies or even sibling species ( T. dilacerata dilacerata / T. dilacerata kaszabi , T. ghissarica / T. kyrghyzica , T. hyosciami / T. hendeliana ). We have measured available collection samples and have found that all the specimens are clearly grouped into 2 classes or subsamples with distinctly different lengths of ovipositor, the “short-ovipositor” (AL=2.0–3.0 mm, AL/C2=1.48–2.22) and “long-ovipositor” (AL= 3.5–4.4 mm, AL/C2=2.41–2.87) morphs, both characters non-overlapping in mean+double square deviation test (2.59+2 × 0.27 and 1.90+2 × 0.18 vs. 3.99–2 × 0.22 and 2.66+2 × 0.13) and main components ( Korneyev & Korneyev 2018). We hypothesized that they might represent a) geographically isolated populations (vicariant species or subspecies); b) different host plant races or parapatric species; c) different generations of the same species, which have adaptations for ovipositing into flower heads of different size (young and small in the spring and mature and large in the summer). Mapping of distribution of both morphs shows that they are almost evenly distributed throughout the general area and strongly overlap in their distributions; they often occur in neighbouring sites, and in northern Iran were collected in the same stands of Onopordum acanthium , so the hypothesis of geographically isolated populations is false. As they were collected on the same host plants in the same stands of Onopordum acanthium in the absence of any other proper hosts around, we also abandoned the hypotheses of host plant races and consider them to be conspecific ( Korneyev & Korneyev 2018). The last hypothesis can be neither proven nor abandoned and needs additional observations on the same plants at the same site throughout several seasons.

Nevertheless, these data support the hypothesis about conspecificity of all examined specimens, including the neotype of Trypeta postica Loew / Musca heraclei Fabricius (which belongs to the “short-ovipositor” morph) and lectotype Tephritis posis Hering (which belongs to the “long-ovipositor” morph) and to propose the following synonymy: Musca heraclei Fabricius 1793 (invalid, preoccupied name, non Musca heraclei Linnaeus 1758 ) = Trypeta postica Loew 1844 (replacement name for Musca heraclei Fabricius 1793 ) = Tephritis postica ( Loew 1844) , = Tephritis posis Hering 1939 , new synonym.

ZMUC

Denmark, Kobenhavn [= Copenhagen], University of Copenhagen, Zoological Museum

BMNH

United Kingdom, London, The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]

MNKB

MNKB

MNHNP

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay

SIZK

Schmaulhausen Institute of Zoology

ZISP

Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Tephritidae

Genus

Tephritis

Loc

Tephritis postica ( Loew 1844 )

Korneyev, Severyn V. & Korneyev, Valery A. 2019
2019
Loc

heraclei

Becker, T. 1905: 140
Rondani C. 1871: 8
Loew, H. 1862: 111
Loew, H. 1844: 393
Meigen, J. W. 1826: 338
1826