Tephritis hyoscyami ( Linnaeus 1758 )

Korneyev, Severyn V. & Korneyev, Valery A., 2019, Revision of the Old World species of the genus Tephritis (Diptera, Tephritidae) with a pair of isolated apical spots, Zootaxa 4584 (1), pp. 1-73: 36-39

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4584.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7ACD7181-C5D9-4C05-8060-6725C3358C56

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/084E1818-FFBC-691E-FF39-8C88FC03F80C

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Plazi

scientific name

Tephritis hyoscyami ( Linnaeus 1758 )
status

 

Tephritis hyoscyami ( Linnaeus 1758)  

( Figs 1e View FIGURES 1 ; 17–19 View FIGURES 17 View FIGURES 18 View FIGURES 19 )

Musca hyoscyami Linnaeus 1758: 600   ; White 1987: 103;

Trypeta hyoscyami: Meigen 1826: 337   ; Loew 1844: 376;

Tephritis hyoscyami: Fallén 1820: 9   ; Zetterstedt 1838: 745; 1847: 2221; Loew 1862: 110; Schiner 1864: 160; Rondani 1871: 13; Becker 1905: 138; Hendel 1927: 188; Séguy 1934: 160; Mihályi 1960: 60; Persson 1963: 63; Richter 1970: 169; Foote 1984: 130; White 1988: 51; Merz 1994: 70; 2001b: 95; Norrbom et al. 1999: 217; Kütük & Özgür 2003: 247; Baugnée 2006: 87; Smit 2010: 112; Evstigneev & Korneyev 2018: 10.

Synonyms:

Tephritis personatae Loew 1869   : Norrbom et al. 1999: 217; ( Fig. 17a View FIGURES 17 )

Musca leontodontis De Geer 1776   —according to Norrbom et al. 1999: 217, new replacement name for Musca hyoscyami   ;

Musca cinerea Linnaeus 1764—Nomen nudum; Norrbom et al. 1999: 217;

Tephritis hyoscyami Rondani 1871   —missp. hyoscyami   ; Norrbom et al. 1999: 217.

Tephritis heiseri Frauenfeld 1865: 262   ; Séguy 1934: 160; Norrbom et al. 1999: 216, new synonym ( Figs 18 View FIGURES 18 a–b).

Type material: Syntype   ♂ Musca hyoscyami   : [ Sweden:] “92 Hyoscyami” [“Habitat in Hyoscyamis, Carduis”] (LSL) (not examined).

Syntypes 15♂, 11♀ Tephritis personatae   : Germany: [Saxony: “ Altvater ” in the vicinity of Carlsbrunn ], “Initio mensis Augusti 1858, Carduus personatae ” (Coll. H. Loew)   ( MNKB) (examined; Fig. 1 7a View FIGURES 1 View FIGURES 2 View FIGURES 3 View FIGURES 4 View FIGURES 5 View FIGURES 6 View FIGURES 7 )   ;

Lectotype ♀ Tephritis heiseri   : Austria: “ Gaming, C. deflorat   .”, “ heiseri   ” (Frauenfeld) (NHMW) (examined). Lectotype was marked by B. Merz in 1992 (here designated). Paralectotype 1♀: “Gaming” (Frauenfeld) (NHMW) (examined).

Non-type material: Austria GoogleMaps   : Neumarkt   GoogleMaps [47.07°N, 14.43°E], CB 105, ex Carduus personatus   , 7.08.1962—em. 17.08.1962, 1♂, 1♀ (H. Zwolfer) (ZISP); Armenia: Erevan, Zangi, Elenovka , 2.06.1902, 1? (Elachin & Klemant) ( ZISP)   ; Azerbaijan: Shemakha , 2.07.1937, 10♂, 7♀ (Bogachev) ( ZISP)   ; France: St. Augustin, Rives de l’Aubetin , 11.06.1996, 6♂, 3♀ (J. Charbonell, Chr. Daugeron, L. Matile) ( MNHNP)   ; Germany: Baden- Wurtt [emberg], Gruibingen, wegkant, 13.07.1970, 5♂, 7♀ (M. J. Gijswijt) ( RMNH); Südbayern , Gaden bei Freising , 6.08.1966, 1 ♀; Ober-Bayern , FFB, Schongeising , 550m, Goldrute, 20.08.2003, 1♀ (W. Schacht) ( ZSSM)   ; Greece: Makedonia / Thessalia, Olympos , 700–2000 m, 21– 26.05.1990, 1♀ ( ZMUC)   ; Iran: E. Azerbaijan: “Astabad, N. Persia ” (currently under the Araz water reservoir)”, 39.16°N, 45.32°E, 13– 15.03.1904, 2♂ (Filippovich) ( ZISP); Arasbaran, 38.86°N, 46.84°E, h = 1997 m, 23.06.2014, 2♂, 1♀ (S. & V.Korneyev) ( SIZK); Dizmar Protected Area, Chichakli val., 38.68°N, 46.53°E, h = 2215 m, 26.06.2014, 2♂, 1♀ (S. & V.Korneyev) ( SIZK); Ardebil: Sabalan Mts., hot springs near Majandeh, 38.265°N 47.74°E, h= 2670m, 18.05.2014, 1♂, 1♀ (S. & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK); GoogleMaps   Poland: “ Krummhübel ” [=Karpacz, 50.78°N, 15.76°E], 1♂, 1♀ (Coll. Becker) ( MNKB); “ Riesengebirge ” [=Karkonosze, 50.77°N, 15.62°E], 7.08.1909, 1♀; 13.08.1909, 1♂; 14.08.1909. 1♀; 17.08.1909, 3♂. 1♀; 18.08.1909, 4♂, 4♀; 19.08.1909, 1♂; 21.08.1909, 4♂, 1♀; 22.08.1909, 3♂, 2♀ (Duda) ( MNKB); “Schles., Wölfelsgrund” [=Międzygórze, 50.23°N, 16.77°E], 3.06.1912, 2♂; 5.06.1912, 4♂; 9.06.1912, 2♂; 11.06.1912, 2♀; 13.06.1912, 1♀; 16.06.1912, 6♂; 3.05.1923, 1♂; 4.05.1923, 3♂ (Duda), idem, “ Wölfelsfall ”, 8♂, 5♀ (Coll Becker) ( MNKB); GoogleMaps   Portugal: Beira Alta: 8.5 km S. Manteigas [40.33°N, 7.58°W], 1500 m, on Picea   , 16.06.1999, 1♀ (M. J. Gijswijt) ( RMNH); GoogleMaps   Romania: “ Siebenbürgen ” [=Transilvania], 0 7, 1♂, 1♀ (Coll. Becker) ( MNKB);   Russia: Arkhangelsk Region: Onega, 21.07.1929, 1♂ ( Vorobjeva ) ( ZISP); Leningrad Region: Luga, 26.07.1955, 1♀, 26.07.1953, 1♀ (Stackelberg); Moscow Region, Golitsyno, 55.62°N, 37.02°E, 5.08.1986, 3♂, 1♀ (Korneyev & Kameneva) ( SIZK); Krasnodar Kray: Dzhubga mt. 17.06.1911, 1♂ (Volnuhin) ( MNKB); Krasnodar, 26.04.1928, 1♂, 5♀; 8.05.1928, 1♂ (Stepanov) ( MNKB); Karachay-Cherkessia: Teberda, road to Jamagat valley , meadow, 16.07.1937, 1♀ (Onisimova) ( MNKB); idem, M. Khatipara, ex flower heads of Carduus hamulosus   , 16.08.1988 —em. 25.08.1988, 7♂, 9♀ (Korneyev) ( SIZK); Novosibirsk Region: Novosibirsk env., ex Carduus crispus   , coll. 14.07.1974, em. 18.07.1974, 1♂ (T. Runeva) ( ZISP); Altay: Sovetskiy vil., ex Carduus crispus   , coll. 15, 26, 27.27.0 7.1974, 1♂, 1♀; idem, ex Carduus crispus   , coll. 26.07, em. 0 8.1974, 1♀ (T. Runeva) ( ZISP); Kemerovo Region, 97 km NE Novokuznetsk, western Kuznetskiy Alatau, 3.08.1996, 2♀, idem, 119 km NE Novokuznetsk, 13.08.1996, 1♂, idem, 113 km NE Novokuznetsk, 27.08.1997, 1♂, 2♀ (M. Scherbakov) ( ZISP); Amur Region: Klimoutsy, 40 km N of Svobodnyi, 13.09.1956, 1♀ (Zinoviev) ( ZISP); GoogleMaps   Switzerland: Jura: 560 m, Lucelle, Z 177, 15.08—em. 24.08.1989, 1♂; 26.08.1989, 1♀ (Merz); Schaffhausen: 400 m, Wunderklingen, Z182, 21.08—em. 26.08.1989, 1♂ (Merz); Valais: 1900–2200 m, Visperterminen , 24.07.1992, 1♀ (Merz) ( ZISP);   Ukraine: Kyiv Region: Irpin, 50.51°N, 30.26°E, 25.06.1997, 1♂ (V. Korneyev) ( SIZK); idem, 28.07.2007, 4. ♂, 3♀ (S. & V. Korneyev), idem 5.08.2007, 8♂, 7♀ (V. Korneyev), idem, 19.07.2008, 1♂; 2.07.2009, 1♂, 6♀, 11.07.2009, 1♂, 7♀ (V. & S. Korneyev), idem, 8.06.2009, 4♂ (E. Kameneva & V. Korneyev), idem, 11.06.2009, 2♂ (E. Kameneva, S. & V. Korneyev), idem, 15.06.2009, 1♂ (E. Kameneva & S. Korneyev), idem, 18.06.2010, 11♂, 2♀ (V. Korneyev); Kyiv, 3.07.2009, 3♂, 2♀ (V. Korneyev) ( SIZK); Ternopil Region, Kryvche, 48°04.9' N 26°05.9' E, 11.06.2011, 2♂, 2♀ (S. & V. Korneyev); Chortkiv Distr. , Bilobozhnytsia[49.06°N, 25.66°E], 11.08.1979, 1♂; 2♀ (V. Korneyev) ( SIZK); Khmelnitsky Region : Letychiv Distr. , Holoskiv [49.38°N, 27.31°E], 10.08.1979, 14♂, 12♀ (Korneyev) ( SIZK); Kamyanets-Podilskiy, 48.67°N, 26.56°E; 9.06.2011, 1♂ (V. Korneyev) ( SIZK); Vinnytsia Region: Kalynivka Distr. , Southern Buh River , 9.08.1979, 2♂, 2♀; Sumy Region, Sumy distr., near Vakalivshina [51.02°N, 34.93°E], 16.06.2010, 2♂, 1♀ (Guglia) ( SIZK); Odesa Region: Khadzhybey Lagoon, 17.06.1926, 1♀ (L. Zimin) ( ZISP); Crimea: Theodosia, 22.03.2009, 1♂ (S. Konovalov) ( SIZK); Evpatoria, 06–07.1901, 10♂, 10♀ (Yakovlev); Simferopol, 13.06.1911, 1♂ (Pavlovsky); Koktebel, vic., 27.07.1928, 1♀ (Djakonow); “ Crimea ”, 13.07.1926, 1♀ (L. Zimin); Crimean Nature Reserve , 25.08.1929, 1♀ (Bukovsky) ( ZISP). GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis. Grey, medium-sized flies with dark brown variable wing pattern, differing from most known species of the genus Tephritis   by the following combination of characters: cell r 1 with 2 wide hyaline spots, wing apex with 2 isolated spots on the apex of r 2+3 and r 4+5, pterostigma with 1 hyaline spot at its middle, large hyaline spot in cell r 4+5 on the level of dm-cu connected with hyaline spots in cells r 2+3, dm and m, the base of cell cua with dark grey spot connecting veins CuA 1 and CuA2+A 1, and the oviscape entirely black, partly white setulose and shorter than tergites 3–6 combined. Tephritis hyoscyami   is very similar to T. hendeliana   and can be separated from it only by the length of the oviscape (longer than tergites 3–6 in T. hendeliana   ) and aculeus (<8× as long as wide in T. hyosciami   and> 8× as long as wide in T. hendeliana   ). See also the diagnosis of T. hendeliana   for comparison with other similar species of the genus.

Description. Head, t horax and legs: as described for T. hendeliana   .

Wing ( Figs 17b – h View FIGURES 17 ): as described for T. hendeliana   . Cell r 1 very rarely (single female from Ukraine: Holoskiv) with additional, third hyaline spot in its dark apex. Hyaline and dark grey pattern rather variable. Dark field surrounding crossvein r-m either entirely separated from remaining dark pattern and including 4–6 hyaline dots, often confluent and forming hyaline bars aligned to r-m (many syntypes of T. personatae   from Germany, most specimens from Ukraine); in the types of T. heiseri   and half of specimens from Northern Iran the dark area around r-m connecting to dark pattern posterior of pterostigma; lectotype and paralectotyle of T. heiseri   with 2 modelately large spots in this dark field. Apical dark area in cell dm usually P-shaped, with 1 hyaline spot inside, in 30% of specimens from Caucasus, Moscow, Northern Iran, as well as in types of T. heiseri   , B-shaped, with 2 hyaline spots included in dark area. Cell cua with dark base and 3–4 dark bars either entirely separated or confluent, sometimes forming longitudinal grey bar along medial fold partly confluent with brown bars in anterior half; in posterior half of cua hyaline. Anal cell with dark spot fused to spot at base of cell cu. Anal lobe entirely hyaline.

Abdomen: Tergites black (sometimes tergite 6 of female or tergite 5 of male narrowly yellow posteriorly), densely grey microtrichose, white setulose and setose, marginal setae on tergite 5 of male and 6 of female black. Sternites black, densely grey microtrichose, white setose and setulose, male sternite 5 posteriorly incised. Female sternite 6 with anteromedial apodeme. Abdominal pleura matt grey.

Terminalia: Male. Epandrium similar to those of other Tephritis   species ( Fig. 19g View FIGURES 19 ); phallus glans as on ( Fig. 19f View FIGURES 19 ). Female. Oviscape black (in 20% of females reddish or brownish yellow anteroventrally and laterally), longer than 3 but shorter than 4 posteriormost abdominal tergites, white setulose anteroventrally and anterolaterally, black setulose in the posterior and anterodorsal parts. Eversible membrane with taeniae 0.3 × as long as membrane itself; membrane with enlarged sharp scales medioventrally between taeniae posterior ends ( Figs 19c,d View FIGURES 19 ). Aculeus moderately short, 1.4-1.8 mm long, 7.6 × as long as wide, with acute apex ( Figs 19a – b View FIGURES 19 ). 2 moderately short, papillose, apically widened spermathecae 3.5 × as long as wide. ( Fig. 19e View FIGURES 19 ).

Measurements: Female. BL= 4.0- 4.8 mm (n=10); WL= 4.0– 4.8 mm (n=5), C2= 1.1 mm; AL= 1.4-1.8 mm; C2/AL = 0.6–0.8 (n=5). Male. BL= 4.2–5.0 mm (n=5); WL= 3.8–4.4 mm (n=5).

Host plants. Flower heads of Carduus crispus   , C. defloratus   , and C. personata ( Merz 1994)   , C. hamulosus   (this paper) and also C. acanthoides ( Merz 1994)   .

Distribution. Albania ( Merz & Korneyev 2004), Austria ( Schiner 1864), Armenia, Azerbaijan (first records), Belgium ( Baugnée 2006), Czech Republic ( Heřman & Kinkorová 2009), Denmark ( Zetterstedt 1847), Finland ( Kahanpää & Winqvist 2014), France ( Séguy 1934), Germany ( Merz 1999a), Greece, Hungary ( Merz 2001 a), Iran (Zarghani et al. 2010; Mohamadzade & Korneyev 2018), Ireland ( Merz & Korneyev 2004), Italy ( Belcari et al. 1995), Latvia ( Karpa 2008), Lithuania ( Pakalniškis et al. 2006), the Netherlands ( Smit 2010); Norway ( Merz & Korneyev 2004), Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia (European Territory, West Siberia, Far East) (Korneyev 1995; Merz & Korneyev 2004), Slovakia ( Heřman & Kinkorová 2009), Sweden ( Merz & Korneyev 2004), Switzerland ( Merz 1994), Turkey ( Koçak & Kemal 2009), Ukraine (Jaroschewski 1880), United Kingdom ( White 1988).

Remarks. Musca hyoscyami   was briefly described by Linnaeus (1758): “M[usca] antennis setariis aliis unguiculatis albis fusco maculatis. Fn. Svec. [Fauna Sveciae] 1058. Habitat in Hyoscyamis, Carduis”, thus, this is the species with white and brown spotted wings living in “ Hyoscyamus   ” and Carduus   in Sweden. Later, Fallén (1814; 1820) recognized it as the species, associated with “ Carduus   et Arctium   ”, but added that it does not infest Hyoscyamus   . Later, this concept was used by Zetterstedt (1847). The material from Zetterstedt collection still exists ( Persson 1958: 112). Persson (1963: 63) also reared T. hyoscyami   from Carduus crispus   collected in Lund ( Sweden: Scania) noted that this is the only species of Carduus   infested by these flies in Sweden, and described egg, larvae and puparium. Janzon (1985) described larvae of several Swedish Tephritis   species, including T. hyoscyami   , and found larvae only in C. crispus   . Also he notified that adults of T. hyoscyami   observed flower heads of a “big flower-headed” Carduus nutans   also occurring in Sweden, but did not infest this species.

The concept of T. hyoscyami   as a “species with spotted, strongly broken wing pattern occurring in Sweden and associated with smaller flower heads of C. crispus   ” is universally accepted, except in the paper by Loew (1869), who misinterpreted this name with another species with long ovipositor, now known as Tephritis hendeliana Hering 1944   . He described T. personatae Loew 1869   based on the numerous specimens reared in Silesia from flower heads of “ Carduus personata   ” and some specimens from Sweden examined on his request by Zetterstedt. Loew’s description and existing syntypes clearly correspond to the original concept of Tephritis hyoscyami   , so these 2 names were synonymized by Hendel (1927).

T. hyoscyami   is a common species in Northern and Central Europe north of Alps and Carpathians, from Great Britain to Ural Mountains, and also in West Siberia, where it occurs solely, whereas in the southern parts of Europe it often occurs together with the closely related T. hendeliana   (see above). Reliable identification of both species is possible only based on females or males reared from the host plants. We therefore did not consider numerous males collected by sweeping in the regions, where both species can occur.

Another nominal species, T. heiseri   , was described by Frauenfeld (1865) from Austria as associated with Carduus defloratus   , a species with small flower heads occurring in Alps, Pyrenees and Northern Balcan Mountains. Study of the 2 syntype females showed that they share the short ovipositor with other specimens of T. hyoscyami   , differing from them only by a slightly darker and wider wing pattern ( Figs 18 View FIGURES 18 a-b). The specimens of another tephritid species, Urophora solstitialis ( Linnaeus, 1758)   reared from C. defloratus   in the Swiss Alps, show considerably melanistic coloration of the legs ( Merz 1994), so darker wing pattern also can be associated with the higher altitude and colder or more humid climatic factors. Merz (1994) considered the Swiss specimens reared from C. defloratus   to be T. hyoscyami   , but has neither formally synonymized T. heiseri   , nor designated the lectotype (which he has labelled). Here we designate the female with the dark red label “ Lectotype / Tephritis   / heiseri Frauenfeld   / det. B. Merz 1992 ” as the lectotype and establish the following synonymy: Musca hyoscyami Linnaeus 1758   = Tephritis heiseri Frauenfeld 1865   , new synonym.

ZISP

Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences

MNHNP

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

SIZK

Schmaulhausen Institute of Zoology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Tephritidae

Genus

Tephritis

Loc

Tephritis hyoscyami ( Linnaeus 1758 )

Korneyev, Severyn V. & Korneyev, Valery A. 2019
2019
Loc

Tephritis personatae

Norrbom, A. L. & Carroll, L. E. & Thompson, F. C. & White, I. M. & Freidberg, A. 1999: 217
1999
Loc

leontodontis

Norrbom, A. L. & Carroll, L. E. & Thompson, F. C. & White, I. M. & Freidberg, A. 1999: 217
1999
Loc

Tephritis hyoscyami

Norrbom, A. L. & Carroll, L. E. & Thompson, F. C. & White, I. M. & Freidberg, A. 1999: 217
1999
Loc

Tephritis heiseri

Norrbom, A. L. & Carroll, L. E. & Thompson, F. C. & White, I. M. & Freidberg, A. 1999: 216
Seguy, E. 1934: 160
1934
Loc

Tephritis hyoscyami: Fallén 1820: 9

Evstigneev, D. A. & Korneyev, S. V. 2018: 10
Smit, J. T. 2010: 112
Baugnee, J. - Y. 2006: 87
Norrbom, A. L. & Carroll, L. E. & Thompson, F. C. & White, I. M. & Freidberg, A. 1999: 217
Merz, B. 1994: 70
White, I. M. 1988: 51
Foote, R. H. 1984: 130
Richter, V. A. 1970: 169
Mihalyi, F. 1960: 60
Seguy, E. 1934: 160
Hendel, F. 1927: 188
Becker, T. 1905: 138
Rondani C. 1871: 13
Schiner, J. R. 1864: 160
Loew, H. 1862: 110
1862
Loc

Trypeta hyoscyami:

Loew, H. 1844: 376
Meigen, J. W. 1826: 337
1826
Loc

hyoscyami

Linnaeus, C. 1758: 600
1758