Tephritis hendeliana Hering 1944

Korneyev, Severyn V. & Korneyev, Valery A., 2019, Revision of the Old World species of the genus Tephritis (Diptera, Tephritidae) with a pair of isolated apical spots, Zootaxa 4584 (1), pp. 1-73 : 33-36

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Tephritis hendeliana Hering 1944


Tephritis hendeliana Hering 1944

( Figs 1f View FIGURES 1 ; 16 View FIGURES 16 )

T. hyoscyami: Loew 1869 (part, misidentification), non Linnaeus 1758.

Tephritis heiseri: Hendel 1927 (part, misidentification, see Hering 1944: 16); Richter 1970: 168 (part).

Tephritis hendeliana Hering 1944: 16 ; Richter 1970: 168; Merz 1994: 70; Norrbom et al. 1999: 216; Evstigneev & Korneyev 2018: 10.

Type material: Lectotype ♀ ( here designated): France: “Forges d`Abel / B. Pyren. 1200 m, 12.VII.1934, Lhomme / F: Carduus nutans ”, “Bassos Pyrenees”, “ Carduus nutans L. / Forges d`Abel / B. Pyr. / 12.VII.34 / 5” [Lhomme’s handwriting], “ Tephritis ♀ Type / hendeliana m. / det. Hering 1944 ”, “Type” [red paper square], ( BMNH) ( Fig. 16a View FIGURES 16 ).

Non-type material: Albania: Tomor, Kloster, Abbas ; ALi [40.63°N, 20.17°E], 1800 m, 8– 10.06.1961, 1♀ (Albanien Exp. DEI) ( NHMW) GoogleMaps ; Austria: Wien [48.19°N, 16.25°E], 08.[18]40, 2♂, 1♀ (Coll. H. Loew) GoogleMaps , [idem?:] “2527”, 2♂, 1♀ ( Germar ), idem, 0 7.1847, 1♀ (Coll. H. Loew) ; [Styria:] Obdach , 0 8.1855, 3♂, 2♀ ( MNKB) ; Kazakhstan Aksu-Djabagly Nature Reserve [42.28°N, 70.67°E], 30.10.1964, 1♀ (Fisechko) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Kyrgyzstan: Chu Region : Bishkek, Chon-Aryk , 42.79° N, 74.58° E, h= 1200m, 5.06.1994, 6♂, 5♀ (V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Osh Region: Alai; Artsha-Ata , h= 2500m, 22.06.1969, 1♀ (L. Peck) ( SIZK) ; Moldova: Chişinău [46.97°N, 28.88°E], 7.06.1987, sweeping from Carduus thoermeri , 3♂, ex flower heads of C. thoermeri , 1.08.1987, 1♂, 2♀ (Korneyev & Kameneva) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Russia: Stavropol Kray: Pyatigorsk, Mashuk, 44.03°N, 43.08°E, h= 680 m, 28.06.2013, 1♀, Beshtau , Lermontov , 44.095°N, 43.005°E, h= 810–900 m, 30.06.2013, 1♂, 1♀ GoogleMaps ; Karachay-Cherkessia: Teberda, Jamagat valley, 43.47°N, 41.79°E, h= 1600 m, 3.07.2013, 2♂, 1♀; idem, Nazalykol , 43.46°N, 41.79°E, h= 1600– 1800 m, 9.07.2013, 3♂, 1♀; idem, h= 1600 m, 10.07.2013, 1♀; idem, park, 43.44°N, 41.74°E, h= 1600 m, 19.07.2013, 1♀; idem, Dombay , 43.29°N, 41.65°E, h= 2400 m, 13.07.2013, 1♀; idem, Dombay , Gonachkhir , Severny Priyut , 43.255°N, 41.83°E, h= 2080 m, 15.07.2013, 2♀ (S. & V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; idem, Jamagat, 16.07.1933, 1♀, idem, M. Khatipara , 30.08.1933, 1♀ (N. Konakova) ( MNKB) ; Spain: Palencia, Puerto Piedras, Luengas , [43.04°N, 4.46°W,] 1300 m, 6.08.1968, 67♂, 62♀ (M. C. & G. Kruseman) ( RMNH) GoogleMaps ; Switzerland: Valais: Visperterminen [46.26°N, 7.91°E], 1460 m, ex flower heads of Carduus nutans , 20.07.1992 —em. 29.07.1992, 2♂, 2♀ (Merz) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps ; Turkey: 25 km S Beynam Forest [39.68°N, 32.91°E], 1450 m, 7.05.1993, 1♀ (V. Michelsen) ( ZMUC) GoogleMaps ; Ukraine: Ternopil Region, Chortkivskiy Distr., Bilobozhnytsya [49.06°N, 25.66°E], 11.08.1979, 1♀ (V. Korneyev) ( SIZK) GoogleMaps .

Possibly T. hendeliana (♀♀ unavailable): Germany: Baden-Wurtemberg, SW Germany Black Forest Pfotzheim [48.88°N, 8.72°E], CB 342, ex Carduus nutans 31.08.1963 —em. 5.09.1963, 2♂; idem, CB 342, C. nutans 31.08.1963 —em. 13.09.1963, 1♂ (H. Zwolfer) ( ZISP) GoogleMaps .

Diagnosis. Tephritis hendeliana can be easily separated from other Tephritis species by the following combination of characters: wing with grey or brownish grey pattern broken into parts by confluent hyaline spots, of them 2 large hyaline spots in cell r 1; anal lobe hyaline, 2 dark spots at the apices of R 4+5 and M veins isolated, abdomen entirely black and white setulose, and female oviscape conspicuously longer than tergites 3–6 combined.

Tephritis hendeliana is similar to T. ghissarica new species and T. kyrghyzica new species in having similar wing pattern with 2 hyaline spots in cell r 1 and 3 spots posterior of them in cell r 2+3 M-like hyaline mark, basal part of cell r 4+5 with large subrectangular hyaline spot connected with spots in cells r 2+3 and m, wing apex with 2 large isolated grey spots, and base of cell cua with dark area connecting veins CuA 1 and CuA 2 +A 1 and extending into anal cell, but readily differing by having pterostigma with hyaline or yellowich spot in its middle (entirely brown in T. ghissarica and T. kyrghyzica ) and large subrectangular hyaline spot in basal half of cell r 4+5 connected with hyaline areas in cell dm in 95% of specimens, leaving the brown area on crossvein dm-cu isolated from remaining brown pattern (in T. ghissarica and T. kyrghyzica , the large subrectangular hyaline spot in basal half of cell r 4+5 isolated from hyaline areas in cell dm, so the brown area on crossvein dm-cu is connected to remaining brown pattern); in addition, in females of T. hendeliana , oviscape entirely black and longer than tergites 3–6 (in T. ghissarica , oviscape yellow, shorter than tergites 4–6, and in T. kyrghyzica , oviscape brown basally and reddish yellow apically).

Tephritis hendeliana is very similar to T. hyoscyami in its wing pattern, entirely black, grey tomentose and white setulose abdominal tergites and black, partly white setulose oviscape, differing only by the somewhat larger size (wing length 3.8–5.3 mm in T. hendeliana vs. 3.5–4.8 mm in T. hyoscyami ) and conspicuously longer oviscape and aculeus (AL> 1.9 mm (2.0–2.5) in T. hendeliana and <1.9 mm (1.4–1.8) in T. hyoscyami ) and larvae living in the flower heads of Carduus nutans aggr., which are almost twice larger in diameter than those of the T. hyoscyami host plants. Males of both species can be identified with certainty only if reared from known host plants, especially in the southern part of Europe and other regions, where both species often occur together.

Tephritis hendeliana is similar also to T. postica in having wing pattern broken by hyaline areas into brown spots and oviscape longer than 4 posteriormost tergites, clearly differing by the subapical dark spot wide, at most 1.5 × as long as wide (in T. postica narrow, 2–3 × as long as wide) and including 3–7 hyaline dots (in T. postica , uniformly brown with at most 1–2 hyaline dots) and basal half of cell cua wih 2 separated dark patches aligned with vein CuA 1 (in T. postica , with long brown bar along vein CuA 1); in addition, T. hendeliana differs from it by entirely black abdominal tergites and oviscape black dorsally (at least partly yellow to reddish brown in T. postica ).

Head: As described for T. bardanae ; occiput with variously developed black pattern, either reaching eye margins or restricted to the sutures; genal seta brown.

Thorax: Mainly black in ground colour, except postpronotal lobes, notopleuron, dorsal margin of anepisternum and scutellum laterally sometimes yellowish or reddish brown, scutum, scutellum and pleural sclerites grey microtrichose. Scutellum black medially, yellowish laterally and ventro-laterally. Setae brown to black, except posterior notopleural seta white and lanceolate. Apical scutellar seta 0.75 × as long as basal scutellar seta. Calypteres white, with whitish fringe, moderately wide. Halter yellow.

Legs: Entirely yellow. Fore femur with 2 rows of posterodorsal setae, of them apical 3–7 black, and others white, and 1 row of longer posteroventral setae; All brown or black. Mid and hind femur white setulose in anterobasal half annd black setulose in posteroapical half. Hind tibia with parallel rows of yellow to dark brown or black setulae and distinct anterodorsal row of dark brown to black setae on basal 2/3, longest seta about as long as width of tibia; hind femur with black setulae dorsally.

Wing ( Fig. 1f View FIGURES 1 ): Cell bc hyaline, slightly brownish at base. Cell c hyaline, base and middle of cell with narrow pale brown spots. Pterostigma dark brown, medially with small hyaline area. Cell r 1 hyaline at base, brown posterior of pterostigma, with 2 large trapeziform hyaline spots separated by narrow dark grey bar; apex of r 1 entirely dark, without additional hyaline spot. Cell r 2+3 hyaline at base, dark posterior to pterostigma with 1–2 hyaline dots; 3 wide rectangular hyaline spots in the middle of cell divided by narrow dark grey bars (rarely reduced or lacking), preapical brown area, posterior to cell r 1 apex) usually with 1–2 hyaline spots. Preapical hyaline spot small, of rectangular shape. Vein R 4+5 with 5–8 setulae ventrally between node and crossvein r-m; apical dark spot on vein R 4+5 large, triangular or rectangular. Cell br hyaline in basal half, dark in apical half, usually with 4–8 partly fused hyaline spots and dots. Crossvein r-m in dark grey field, with 4–6 hyaline dots in it (2–3 on both sides of r-m), sometimes partly touching or fused to bordering hyaline areas, very rarely forming 2 hyaline bars at sides of r-m. Cell r 4+5 at dm-cu level with large subrectangular hyaline spot as wide as cell usually longer than wide and touching or fused with hyaline spots in cells r 2+3, dm, and m. Preapical dark area with 4–8 hyaline dots or small spots; subapical hyaline spot in cell r 4+5 almost rectangular, apex with large triangular or rectangular dark spot on M vein. Middle of dm cell usually hyaline with 3–4 dark grey transverse bars or spots, apex with dark area usually including 1 round hyaline spot. Cell m with dark base and apex; Almost hyaline and with 2–3 fused or separate dark grey bars or spots. Cell cu with dark base, with 4 hyaline spots separated by 3 partly confluent brown bars in anterior half, and mostly hyaline in posterior part. Anal cell with dark spot fused to spot at base of cell cu. Anal lobe entirely hyaline.

Abdomen: Tergites black, densely grey microtrichose, white setulose and setose, marginal setae on tergite 5 of male and 6 of female black. Sternites black to yellow, densely grey microtrichose, white setose and setulose, male sternite 5 posteriorly incised. Female sternite 6 with anteromedial apodeme. Abdominal pleura matt grey.

Terminalia: Male. Epandrium and glans similar to other Tephritis species ( Figs 16e – f View FIGURES 16 ). Female. Oviscape black, in 40% of specimens reddish yellow or brown anteroventrally and anterolaterally, longer than 4 posteriormost tergites or abdomen, white setulose anteroventrally and anterolaterally, black setulose posteriorly. Aculeus 9–10 × as long as wide, 2.1–2.5 mm long, with acute apex ( Figs 16b – c View FIGURES 16 ). 2 short, papillose spermathecae, with extended top, 3.5 × as long as wide ( Fig. 16d View FIGURES 16 ).

Measurements. Female. BL= 5.8–6.8 mm (n=10); WL=3.9–5.3 (n=5), C2= 1.3 mm; AL= 2.0– 2.5 mm; AL/ C2= 1.43–1.92 (n=5). Male. BL= 4.2–5.0 mm (n=5); WL= 3.8–4.8 mm (n=5).

Host plants. Flower heads of Carduus nutans ( Merz 1994) (including C. thoermeri Weinm. )

Distribution. Albania (first record), Austria, Belgium (Baugnée 2 006), France, Germany ( Merz 1999a), Greece, Hungary ( Merz 2001 a), Italy ( Belcari et al. 1995), Kazakhstan (first record), Moldova (first record), Romania, South of European Russia, Spain ( Merz 2001 b), Switzerland ( Merz 1994), Turkey (first record), and Ukraine (first record).

Remarks. Loew (1869) recognized the specimens reared in Austria from C. nutans by Frauenfeld (1856) as a separate species, but misinterpreted them as T. hyoscyami . Later, Hendel (1927) also erroneously treated all Frauenfeld’s specimens identified as “ T. hyoscyami ”, including those from Carduus nutans to be T. heiseri . However, Frauenfeld (1865) clearly restricted the type series of the last species to the specimens from C. defloratus (see above), and such a concept was based on an erroneous interpretation. It was clearly stated by Hering (1944), who named this species with long ovipositor as T. hendeliana .

This species is common in Southern Europe, Asia Minor, Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, occurring sometimes together with T. hyoscyami , but apparently not in Northern Europe (where its host plant grows). The photograph of T. hendeliana lectotype ( Fig. 16a View FIGURES 16 ), was kindly provided by Daniel Whitmore from BMNH. COI analysis of several specimens (S. Korneyev unpublished data) showed insignificant (2 bp) difference between T. hendeliana and T. hyoscyami . A detailed molecular analysis based on the reared specimens is required.


United Kingdom, London, The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]


Schmaulhausen Institute of Zoology


National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis


Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen


Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences














Tephritis hendeliana Hering 1944

Korneyev, Severyn V. & Korneyev, Valery A. 2019

Tephritis heiseri: Hendel 1927

Richter, V. A. 1970: 168
Hering, E. M. 1944: 16

Tephritis hendeliana

Evstigneev, D. A. & Korneyev, S. V. 2018: 10
Norrbom, A. L. & Carroll, L. E. & Thompson, F. C. & White, I. M. & Freidberg, A. 1999: 216
Merz, B. 1994: 70
Richter, V. A. 1970: 168
Hering, E. M. 1944: 16