Tsitsikamma (Clavicaulis subgen. nov.) madiba Samaai, Kelly, Payne and Ngwakum sp. nov.

Samaai, Toufiek, Kelly, Michelle, Ngwakum, Benedicta, Payne, Robyn, Teske, Peter R., Janson, Liesl, Kerwath, Sven, Parker, Denham & Gibbons, Mark J., 2020, New Latrunculiidae (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the Agulhas ecoregion of temperate southern Africa, Zootaxa 4896 (3), pp. 409-442: 429-431

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4896.3.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FD238C7C-E3F8-408B-9711-9A0BFFF69692

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4391120

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0A5787DE-A969-FFDC-FF5C-6AA4FA8797DC

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Tsitsikamma (Clavicaulis subgen. nov.) madiba Samaai, Kelly, Payne and Ngwakum sp. nov.
status

sp. nov.

Tsitsikamma (Clavicaulis subgen. nov.) madiba Samaai, Kelly, Payne and Ngwakum sp. nov.  

( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 , Table 4)

Material examined. Holotype SAMC-A090883, Amathole region Stn 3813, East London , Eastern Cape, 32.681° S, 28.458° E, 52–54 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 26 Aug 2016 GoogleMaps   . Paratypes. SAMC-A 090882, Thunderbolt reef, Cape Recife, Port Elizabeth , 34.052° S, 25.689° E, 38–40 m, collected by Patrick L. Colin GoogleMaps   , CRRF, 30 Mar 2000   ; SAMC-A090884, SAMC-A090885, SAMC-A090886, SAMC-A090889, Amathole region Stn 3893, East London , Eastern Cape, 33.163° S, 27.774° E, 36 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 03 Sep 2016 GoogleMaps   ; SAMC-A090887, Amathole region Stn 3832, East London , Eastern Cape, 32.759° S, 28.410° E, 45 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 27 Aug 2016 GoogleMaps   ; SAMC-A090888, Amathole, Stn 3872, East London , Eastern Cape, 32.950° S, 28.066° E, 40.5 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 31 Aug 2016 GoogleMaps   .

Type locality. Amathole , Eastern Cape Province, South Africa   .

Distribution. Algoa Bay, Port Elizabeth and Amathole region off East London.

Description. Sponge wrinkled and purse-like, not stalked, but ovate, attached to a narrow base, 20 mm wide by 45 mm length by 36.5 mm bulb diameter ( Fig. 12A, B View FIGURE 12 ). A very tough leathery purse surrounds a much softer choanosome that pulls away from the outer case upon collection. Surface undulating but smooth, crowded with small, button-shaped oscules, 1–2 mm diameter, 2 mm high and cauliform areolate porefields, 2–3 mm diameter, 6 mm high ( Fig. 12A View FIGURE 12 ).. In preserved specimens the oscules are not visible ( Fig. 12B View FIGURE 12 ). Texture rubbery, leathery and tough. Moderately compressible, breaks easily. No spicules visible. Colour in life is dark green to dark green brown; in preservative, the ectosome is brown, the choanosome is dark brown ( Fig. 12A View FIGURE 12 ). Green/brown exudate present.

Skeleton. The overall architecture is purse-like, consisting of a thick ‘purse’ of tangential megascleres surrounding a much softer choanosome containing an irregular reticulation of wispy tracts of anisostyles. No honeycomb chambers present as in the Tsitsikamma   subgenus. The choanosome detaches and falls away from the ectosomal purse in preservative. The choanosomal tracts range in width from 60–100 μm thick and form meshes that are elliptical in cross section and 350 μm wide. Microscleres are abundant throughout the choanosome and form an irregular palisade of oblique or erect microscleres, below which is a dense feltwork of tangential and paratangential styles approximately 560–960 μm deep ( Fig. 12G, H View FIGURE 12 ).

Spicules ( Tables 1, 4; Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 C-F). Megascleres anisostyles, in two size categories: (1) Large, thick, straight or slightly sinuous, thickened centrally, hastate, 737 (681–758) × 19 (19) μm, sometime strongylote modification present; (2) straight or slightly sinuous, thickened centrally, hastate: 612 (576–672) × 19 (19) μm ( Tables 1, 4). Microscleres are small isochiadiscorhabds ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 C-F) with two whorls of cylindrical, conical tubercles, medium whorl absent, the apex of each tubercular projection is acanthose. Some isochiadiscorhabds (15%) shows signs of a small developing rudimentary spine centrally ( Fig. 12F View FIGURE 12 ): 32 (28–36) × 5 (5) μm ( Table 4).

Substratum, depth range and ecology. Rocky reef with 1 m relief rocky bottom with areas of sand, 38–40 m depth.

DNA sequence data. We sequenced partial COI of collected material from different localities; GenBank accession numbers: COI MK153272 View Materials   MK153275 View Materials   ; MK016477 View Materials   .

Etymology. Named in honour of the great South African president Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, also known by his clan name “Madiba”, liberation struggle hero and Nobel Peace Prize laureate, who passed away on 5 December 2013 at the age of 95.

Remarks. The anisodiscorhabds of Tsitsikamma (C.) madiba   subgen. et sp. nov. and T. (C. subgen. nov.) pedunculata   have two whorls of cylindrical conical spines, the median and subsidiary conical spines are absent. In about 20% of isochiadiscorhabds in all specimens of T. (C.) madiba   subgen. et sp. nov., there is a small medium rudimentary conical-cylindrical spine protruding from the shaft ( Fig. 12F View FIGURE 12 ). This character is absent in the isochiadiscorhabds of T. (C. subgen. nov.) pedunculata   , which are stouter, shorter and have a wide manubrium. The shaft length in T. (C.) madiba   subgen. et sp. nov. is longer than in T. (C. subgen. nov.) pedunculata   . Tsitsikamma (C.) madiba   subgen. et sp. nov. has larger, thicker anisostyles [thick 737 (681–758) × 19 (19) μm; thin 612 (576–672) × 19 (19) μm] than T. (C. subgen. nov.) pedunculata   (thick 684 (591–728) × 16 μm; thin 536 (500–555) µm), but the isochiadiscorhabds are smaller than those found in T. (C. subgen. nov.) pedunculata   [29 (27–30) × 7 µm]; T. (C.) Madiba   subgen. et sp. nov. [32 (28–36) × 5 (5) μm] (see Table 1, 4).

Tsitsikamma   (C. subgen. nov.) michaeli   differs from T. (C.) madiba   subgen. et sp. nov. in the following characteristics: 1) Tsitsikamma   (C. subgen. nov.) michaeli   is a small light olive-green sponge with a short stalk and surface dominated by small short tube-shaped oscula and large stalked cauliform porefields, while T. (C.) madiba   subgen. et sp. nov. is dark green, oval shaped with small button-like oscules and large cauliform porefields (see Table 1); 2) Tsitsikamma   (C. subgen. nov.) michaeli   have smaller isochiadiscorhabd ( Table 4), and large anisostyles similar in average size to that found in T. (C. subgen. nov.) madiba   sp. nov.; 3) The isochiadiscorhabds of T. (C. subgen. nov.) michaeli   differ in the number of the conical-cylindrical tubercles having four or more groups, as opposed to two to three per group in T. (C.) madiba   subgen. et sp. nov.; 4) the anisodiscorhabds of T. (C.) madiba   subgen. et sp. nov. have two whorls of cylindrical-conical spines, the median and subsidiary conical spines are absent, as opposed to T. (C. subgen. nov.) michaeli   having three to four whorls of cylindrical conical spines ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ; Table 1).

Tsitsikamma (C.) madiba   subgen. et sp. nov. is distinguishable from other Tsitsikamma   species in the form of the sponge, being wrinkled and purse-like, no stalk, oval shaped, but attached to a narrow base, and in the microornamentation and structure of the isochiadiscorhabd. The Tsitsikamma (C.) madiba   subgen. et sp. nov. is also encrusted by a grey/white encrusting didemnid ascidian ( Fig. 12A View FIGURE 12 ).

There was no intraspecific genetic diversity for the COI gene sequences for specimens of T. (C. subgen. nov.) michaeli   and no interspecific genetic diversity for T. (C. subgen. nov.) michaeli   and the other specimens.