Tsitsikamma (Clavicaulis subgen. nov.) pedunculata Samaai & Kelly, 2003, Samaai, Gibbons, Kelly and Davies-Coleman, 2003

Samaai, Toufiek, Kelly, Michelle, Ngwakum, Benedicta, Payne, Robyn, Teske, Peter R., Janson, Liesl, Kerwath, Sven, Parker, Denham & Gibbons, Mark J., 2020, New Latrunculiidae (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the Agulhas ecoregion of temperate southern Africa, Zootaxa 4896 (3), pp. 409-442: 426-427

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4896.3.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FD238C7C-E3F8-408B-9711-9A0BFFF69692

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4391116

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0A5787DE-A96C-FFD9-FF5C-6E78FBD896A4

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Tsitsikamma (Clavicaulis subgen. nov.) pedunculata Samaai & Kelly, 2003
status

 

Tsitsikamma (Clavicaulis subgen. nov.) pedunculata Samaai & Kelly, 2003  

( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 , Table 1, 4)

Tsitsikamma pedunculata, Samaai, Gibbons, Kelly and Davies-Coleman, 2003: 19–20   View Cited Treatment , fig. 3G, 4F, 6B.

Tsitsikamma pedunculata, Parker-Nance et al. 2019: 109–112   , figure 2a–l; table 2.

Material examined. Holotype — NHMUK 2003.1 View Materials .10.2, Thunderbolt Reef, Cape Recife, St. Francis Bay , 34.053° S, 25.689° E, 40 m, collected by Patrick L. Colin, CRRF, 25 Feb 1999. GoogleMaps  

Type locality. St. Francis Bay , Algoa Bay, Agulhas ecoregion, South Africa   .

Distribution. Algoa Bay, Agulhas ecoregion, South Africa.

Diagnosis. Sponge pedunculate, body 5 cm diameter, up to 8 cm high, stalk 3–4 cm long, surface smooth and crowded with small, button-shaped oscules, 0.5–2 mm wide, 3 mm high and with numerous circular fungiform areolate porefields, 4–5 mm wide, 6 mm high, without membrane ( Fig. 11A View FIGURE 11 ). A very tough leathery purse surrounds a much softer choanosome that pulls away from the outer case upon collection. Sponge is extremely resilient, leathery and compressible; colour in life is salmon pink to pinkish brown; between the oscules and areolate porefields the colour is dark pink ( Fig. 11A View FIGURE 11 ); some specimens might appear as turquoise to dark purple in situ under low light conditions (see Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 in Parker-Nance et al. 2019); In alcohol, the ectosome is either brown, olive green, cream to tan colour and the choanosome is dark brown or tan. In preservative the ectosome is brown, the choanosome is dark brown ( Fig. 11A View FIGURE 11 ). The choanosome consists of a thick ‘purse’ of tangential megascleres (the ectosome) surrounding a much softer choanosome containing an irregular reticulation of wispy tracts of smaller styles; the choanosome detaches and falls away from the ectosomal purse when bought from the water ( Fig. 11D View FIGURE 11 ). The ectosome is composed of a thick, dense feltwork of tangential and paratangential anisostyles. A single layer of erect isochiadiscorhabds lines the surface of the ectosome. Megascleres ( Tables 1, 4) are styles, in two sizes: (1) slightly curved, thickened centrally 684 (591–728) × 16 μm; (2) thinner slightly curved centrally 536 (500–555) × 11 μm. Microscleres ( Tables 1, 4) are isochiadiscorhabd ( Fig. 11B, C View FIGURE 11 ) with two whorls of cylindrical-conical tubercles, median whorl absent, the apex of each tubercular projection is acanthose: 29 (27–30) × 7 μm. Sponge is found in an exposed coastal bay (Algoa Bay) rooted in sandy substrata, abundant between 34– 40 m. The sponge contains biologically active pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids, discorhabdin V and discorhabdin derivatives +14-Bromo-3-dihydrodiscorhabdin C that may have pharmacological potential [Cytotoxicity against Human Colon Tumour cell line (HCT 116)] ( Antunes et al. 2004, 2005).

Remarks. Tsitsikamma   (C. subgen. nov.) pedunculata   was described from a single specimen, the holotype, and was considered rare. Currently, the species is found to be abundant on deep reef systems between 34–40 m (Parker-Nance et al. 2019). Note that the in-situ photographs of turquoise to dark purple specimens, observed by Parker-Nance et al. (2019), are due to low light conditions during the survey period.

Tsitsikamma (T.) favus   , T. (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov., T. (C. subgen. nov.) pedunculata   and T. (C. subgen. nov.) michaeli   are sympatric in Algoa Bay, but distinguishable in the field based on colouration and external morphology (see Table 1; Figs 8 View FIGURE 8 , 10E View FIGURE 10 , 11A View FIGURE 11 ): T. (C. subgen. nov.) pedunculata   is either salmon pink and stalked; T. (T.) favus   is semispherical and dark brown; T. (C. subgen. nov.) michaeli   is small olive green purse-like with short stalk-like structure (due to thickening of the ectosome) or sessile (see fig. 4 in Parker-Nance et al. 2019). Tsitsikamma   (C. subgen. nov.) pedunculata   also have a purse-like ectosome, being very leathery, forming a single chamber as opposed to the numerous honeycomb chambers typical of T. (T.) favus   . The key taxonomic differences are the morphology and size of the isochiadiscorhabd; in T. (C. subgen. nov.) pedunculata   it is much smaller, has only two cylindrical conical tubercules which is arranged in groups of three and the primary megascleres are slightly smaller and thinner in comparison to T. (C. subgen. nov.) michaeli   and T. (T.) favus   (see Tables 1, 2 and 4).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Porifera

Class

Demospongiae

Order

Poecilosclerida

Family

Latrunculiidae

Genus

Tsitsikamma

Loc

Tsitsikamma (Clavicaulis subgen. nov.) pedunculata Samaai & Kelly, 2003

Samaai, Toufiek, Kelly, Michelle, Ngwakum, Benedicta, Payne, Robyn, Teske, Peter R., Janson, Liesl, Kerwath, Sven, Parker, Denham & Gibbons, Mark J. 2020
2020
Loc

Tsitsikamma pedunculata, Samaai, Gibbons, Kelly and Davies-Coleman, 2003: 19–20

Samaai, T. & Gibbons, M. J. & Kelly, M. J. & Davies-Coleman, M. 2003: 20
2003