Tsitsikamma (Tsitsikamma) amatholensis Samaai, Kelly, Payne

Samaai, Toufiek, Kelly, Michelle, Ngwakum, Benedicta, Payne, Robyn, Teske, Peter R., Janson, Liesl, Kerwath, Sven, Parker, Denham & Gibbons, Mark J., 2020, New Latrunculiidae (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the Agulhas ecoregion of temperate southern Africa, Zootaxa 4896 (3), pp. 409-442: 424-426

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4896.3.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FD238C7C-E3F8-408B-9711-9A0BFFF69692

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4391112

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0A5787DE-A972-FFDB-FF5C-69B9FF6E93A8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Tsitsikamma (Tsitsikamma) amatholensis Samaai, Kelly, Payne
status

sp. nov.

Tsitsikamma (Tsitsikamma) amatholensis Samaai, Kelly, Payne   and Ngwakum sp. nov.

( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 , Tables 1, 3)

Material examined. Holotype. SAMC-A090878, Amathole region Stn 3872, Eastern Cape, 32.950° S, 28.066° E, 40.5 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 31 Aug 2016 GoogleMaps   . Paratypes. SAMC-A090877, Amathole region Stn 3813, Eastern Cape, 32.681° S, 28.458° E, 52–55 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 26 Aug 2016 GoogleMaps   ; SAMC-A090879, Amathole region Stn 3872, Eastern Cape, 32.950° S, 28.066° E, 40.5 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 31 August 2016 GoogleMaps   ; SAMC-A090880, Amathole region Stn 3807, Eastern Cape, 33.134° S, 27.768° E, 33 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 02 Mar 2016; SAMC-A 090881 GoogleMaps   , Port Alfred , Eastern Cape, 32.933° S, 28.080° E, 40.5 m, dredge sampling, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 31 Aug 2016 GoogleMaps   .

Other material examined. SAMC-A091436, Evans Peak, Algoa Bay, Port Elizabeth , 33.842° S, 25.816° E, 30 m, collected by Rhodes University, May 2010 GoogleMaps   ; SAMC-A091430, SAMC-A091431, SAMC-A091432, SAMC-A 091433, SAMC-A091434, SAMC-A091435, Evans Peak, Algoa Bay, Port Elizabeth , 33.842° S, 25.816° E, 30 m, collected by Rhodes University, May 2010 GoogleMaps   ; SAMC-A091437, Amathole region Stn 3737, Eastern Cape, 32.751° S, 28.415° E, 31 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 23 Feb 2016 GoogleMaps   ; SAMC-A091438, Amathole region Stn 3807, Eastern Cape, 33.134° S, 27.768° E, 33 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 02 Mar 2016 GoogleMaps   ; SAMC-A091439, Amathole region Stn 3831, Eastern Cape, 32.759° S, 28.411° E, 47 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 27 Aug 2016 GoogleMaps   ; SAMC-A091440, Amathole region Stn 3832, Eastern Cape, 32.759° S, 28.410° E, 45 m, RV Ellen Khuzwayo, collected by R. Payne, dredge, 27 Aug 2016 GoogleMaps   .

Type locality. Amathole , Eastern Cape Province, South Africa   .

Description. Thickly encrusting, sometimes hemispherical, 30 mm long × 30 mm wide × 20 mm thick attached by a common base to the surface ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 ). Specimens vary in thickness from 3–30 mm. Surface undulating but smooth and crowded with cylindrical, long lance-shaped oscules similar to those observed in T. scurra   , 5 mm wide, 10 mm high and with pedunculate cauliform areolate porefields, 1 mm wide, 2–3 mm high, with no membrane. Texture tough, firm. Medium to slightly compressible, tears not easily, difficult to break. Thick ectosome visible, 0.5 mm thick. Colour in life dark brown to dark olive green; in preservative dark brown with green exudate, sometimes cream ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 ; Table 1).

Skeleton. The choanosome is divided into honeycomb-like chambers, thick reinforced tracts of anisostyles, forming meshes that are elliptical in shape ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 ). Within and between the chambers and convoluted layers the skeleton consists of an ill-formed, irregular reticulation of small anisostyles; these tracts range in width from 100– 350 μm. Microscleres are isochiadiscorhabds, and these are abundant throughout the choanosome. The ectosome is composed of a thick, dense feltwork of tangential and paratangential anisostyles approximately 100 μm wide. This layer is present in the fistulae, with anisostyles disposed in a compact regular vertical to oblique arrangement supporting the cauliform areolate structures. A single layer (sometimes double layer) of erect isochiadiscorhabds (45 μm wide) lines the surface of the ectosome ( Fig.10 View FIGURE 10 ).

Spicules ( Table 1, 3). Megascleres are anisostyles, in two size categories: (1) straight or slightly sinuous, thickened centrally, fusiform, 721 (681–758) × 19.2 (19.2) μm; (2) straight or slightly sinuous, thickened centrally, fusiform: 584 (509–653) × 19.2 (19.2) μm. Microscleres are isochiadiscorhabds with three whorls of cylindrical-conical tubercles, the apex of each tubercular projection is acanthose: 45 (38–58) × 7 (4 –7) μm ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 ).

Distribution. Southeast Agulhas ecoregion from Port Elizabeth to East London, South Africa.

Substratum, depth range and ecology. Locally common off East London, Amathole region and Port Elizabeth, Evans Peaks, at a depth range of 30 to 55 m in areas with strong current.

DNA sequence data. We sequenced partial COI of collected material from different localities; GenBank accession numbers: COI MK153277 View Materials MK153284 View Materials .

Etymology. The species name reflects the type locality, Amathole, a district in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. “Amathole” means “calves” in the Xhosa language, and refers to the forested mountain range that forms the northern boundary of the district.

Remarks. Tsitsikamma (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov. was first collected in 2010 but identified only as “ Tsitsikamma   sp. undescribed” based on the external morphological characteristics and isochiadiscorhabd structure (TS unpublished data) of the specimens. Matcher et al. (2017) generated partial 28S rRNA sequences for six Tsitsikamma   specimens collected from the same locations as the 2009/2010 collections and confirmed the presence of two unidentified Tsitsikamma   species (see Table 1 and Fig. 3b View FIGURE 3 in Matcher et al. 2017). Parker-Nance et al. (2019) described a new species from these collections (Evans Peak) as T. michaeli   , an observation we confirmed after re-examining all the Walmsley/Matcher specimens (Supplementary Table S1). The other Walmsley et al. (2012) specimens were identified as T. (T.) favus   by TS. The second unidentified Tsitsikamma   sp. is here described as a specimen of Tsitsikamma (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov.

Tsitsikamma (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov. differs from T. (T.) favus   , T. (T.) scurra   and T. (T.) nguni   in the following characteristics: 1) Tsitsikamma (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov. is dark brown to dark olive green in situ, and has large hollow lance-shaped oscules and numerous short stalked cauliform porefields, while T. (T.) favus   is turquoise to dark brown, semispherical and with short surface extensions, T. (T.) scurra   is lime green with a brownish surface in situ, and has long, hollow, strappy oscular fistules and T. (T.) nguni   is dark slate-coloured with small short, blunt rounded knob-shaped or button-like oscula; 2) Tsitsikamma (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov. is thickly encrusting, sometimes hemispherical with a thick ectosome, while Tsitsikamma (T.) scurra   has a folded globular thick encrusting growth structure with thin sandpaper-like ectosome ( Samaai et al. 2006; Parker-Nance et al. 2019), T. (T.) favus   and T. (T.) nguni   has a thickly encrusting, globular to semi-spherical morphology with a dense, thick ectosome; 3) Tsitsikamma (T.) scurra   has larger, thicker anisostyles [thick 829 (774–882) × 24 μm; thin 669 (585–738) × 17 μm] than Tsitsikamma (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov. [thick 721 (681–758) × 19.2 (19.2) μm; thin 584 (509–653) × 19.2 (19.2) μm] while T. (T.) favus   [thick 621 (537–700) × 14 (14) μm; thin 530 (480–566) × 9.6 (9.6) μm] and T. (T.) nguni   [thick 555 (428–672) × 14 (10–19) μm; thin 561 (449–832) × 10 (3–14) μm] are smaller than those of T. (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov. and thinner on average (see Tables 1, 2, 3); 4) the isochiadiscorhabds with long cylindrical, conical tubercles are similar in size found in T. (T.) scurra   [41 (38–45) × 8 μm], but smaller in average than those in T. (T.) favus   [48 (41–60) × 9 (7.2–9.6) μm] and T. (T.) nguni   ( Tables 1, 2, 3; Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 , 9 View FIGURE 9 , 10 View FIGURE 10 ); 5). The number of cylindrical-conical tubercles surrounding the apical whorl and manubrium in T. (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov. is six per group, oppose to three and four to six per group surrounding the manubrium only in T. (T.) favus   in T. (T.) nguni   , respectively (Parker-Nance et al. 2019). Apart from this, the cylindrical-conical tubercles also differ; T. (T.) favus   and T. (T.) nguni   possess two pairs, while T. (T.) scurra   and T. (T.) amatholensis   possess three pairs arranged in a triangle; 6) The distribution of the two species is disparate: Tsitsikamma (T.) scurra   is recorded from Hout Bay in the southern Benguela ecoregion while T. (T.) favus   , T. (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov. and T. (T.) nguni   are recorded from the Agulhas ecoregion.

In Algoa Bay T. (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov. is sympatric with T. (T.) favus   , T. pedunculata   and T. michaeli   and in Amathole the species is sympatric with the other new species (as described below), and can be differentiated on subtle differences in colour, gross morphology and isochiadiscorhabd morphology. The gross morphology of T. pedunculata   and T. michaeli   are, however, quite different from those of T. (T.) favus   and T. (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov., forming the basis for establishment in this work of a new subgenus Tsitsikamma (Clavicaulis)   subgen. nov.

There was no intraspecific genetic diversity for the COI gene sequences for specimens of T. (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov. and no interspecific genetic diversity for T. (T.) amatholensis   sp. nov., T. (T.) favus   and the other specimens.