Coniocarpon fallax (Ach.) Grube

Frisch, Andreas, Moen, Victoria Stornes, Grube, Martin & Bendiksby, Mika, 2020, Integrative taxonomy confirms three species of Coniocarpon (Arthoniaceae) in Norway, MycoKeys 62, pp. 27-51 : 27

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Coniocarpon fallax (Ach.) Grube


Coniocarpon fallax (Ach.) Grube Figs 2 View Figure 2 , 3B View Figure 3 , 4E, F View Figure 4 , 5 View Figure 5 , 6C View Figure 6

Coniocarpon fallax (Ach.) Grube: Frisch et al., Taxon 63: 737 (2014). Spiloma fallax Ach., Methodus qua omnes dectectos lichenes: 10 (1803) [MB 405518]. Type: Germania (H-Ach. 2 a!, lectotype, selected in Frisch et al., Taxon 63: 737, 2014).

= Spiloma elegans Ach., Lichenographia universalis: 135 (1810) [MB 405516]. Coniocarpon elegans (Ach.) Duby, Aug. Pyrami de Candolle Botanicon Gallicum: 675 (1830) [MB 383617]. Lichen elegans (Ach.) Lam. in Lamarck and Poiret, Encyclopédie méthodique, botanique, suppl. 3(1): 352 (1813) [MB 122540]. Arthonia elegans (Ach.) Almq., Kongliga Svenska vetenskaps-akademiens handlingar 17(6): 19 (1880) [MB 118959]. Type: Schleicher, Plantae Cryptogamicae Helvetiae exsiccatae, centuria5 no. 54 (S, lectotype, selected in Van den Broeck et al., Plant Ecology and Evolution 151: 346, 2018).


Thallus pale fawn to gray brown, weakly glossy to matt, smooth, endophloeodal to partly epiphloedal, continuous; prothallus line dark grey to brown, sometimes present when in contact with other lichens; photobiont trentepohlioid, the cells rounded to elliptical, 8-13 × 5-10 µm, forming short chains. Ascomata weakly elongate to irregularly lirellate, with steep flanks, emergent from thallus, 0.2-0.4 mm × 0.1-0.2 mm, 65-110 µm tall, typically forming loose to dense aggregations of 3-15 ascomata, weakly elongated to irregularly lirellate to stellate, 0.2-1.5(-2.3) × 0.1-1.8 mm; disc black to dark purple black, flat to weakly convex, weakly glossy to matt, epruinose or with a thin layer of white pruina; margins level with the disc, orange-red pruinose, sometimes with additional patches of white pruina; proper exciple brown, 7-20 µm wide, composed of compressed and vertically oriented paraphysoidal hyphae, the hyphae 1-2 µm thick, branched and netted, often forming short hairs up to 17 µm long at the outer margin; old bark cells sometimes attached to the exciple; epithecium brown, 10-20 µm tall, conglutinated only in the lower parts, composed of branched tips of the paraphysoidal hyphae extending horizontally above the asci; the tips slightly widened to 3(-4) µm, sometimes extending from the epithecium as sparsely branched anticlinal hairs up to 24 µm long; hymenium hyaline, strongly conglutinated, 35-70 µm tall, paraphysoids densely branched and netted, 1-2 µm thick; hypothecium hyaline, conglutinated, 15-30 µm tall, formed of irregular prosoplectenchymatic hyphae 1-2 µm diam.; crystals common in epithecium and proper exciple, of two types: hyaline, leafy crystals, 1-5(-7) µm, and orange, red or purple granular crystals, 1-2(-4) µm; a weak amorphous, red to purple pigmentation present in exciple, epithecium and patchily distributed in the hymenium. ASCI of the Arthonia -type, long obpyriform to clavate, 50-75 × 20-32 µm (n = 33), 8-spored, the ascospores stacked; tholus 5-8 µm thick, lateral ascospore wall 1-2 µm thick. Ascospores hyaline, (1-)3-4(-5) transversely septate, (15-)17-20(-22) × (6-)7-9(-10) µm (l: mean = 18.5, STD = 1.9; w: mean = 8.2, STD = 0.9; n = 191), obovate, with enlarged apical cell, getting pale brown with granular ornamentation in the epispore at late maturity; development macrocephalic.


Pigments A1, A3 and A4 in variable amounts detected by HPTLC. Proper exciple Idil+ blue, I+ dark blue, KI+ dark blue; epithecium Idil+ blue, I+ dark blue, KI+ dark blue; hymenium Idil+ red, I+ red brown, KI+ dark blue; hypothecium Idil+ blue, I+ dark blue, KI+ dark blue. A hemiamyloid ring present in the tholus of the asci. Hyaline, crystals dissolve in K. Orange, red and purple crystals dissolve in K with purplish solution.

Specimens examined.

Norway - Vest-Agder • Lyngdalsfjord; on F. excelsior ; 8. Apr. 1905; A. H. Magnusson leg.; S-F-71115 • ibid.; 1925; A. H. Magnusson leg.; S-F-71114 • ibid.; on F. excelsior ; 25. Jan. 1939; A. H. Magnusson leg.; UPS-L-002899. - Rogaland • Gjesdal, Dirdal NE; on F. excelsior ; 6. Oct. 1984; S. Hultengren leg.; UPS-L-654296 • ibid.; 58°49.810'N, 06°11.970'E; on F. excelsior ; 160 m a.s.l.; 12. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29036, TRH-L-29027. - Hordaland • Askøy; on C. avellana and F. excelsior ; 1909; J. J. Havaas leg.; UPS-L-137313 • Fusa, Tveitane; 13 km S of Mundheim; 60°03'N, 05°52'E; on C. avellana ; 150 m a.s.l.; 18. Aug. 1995; A. Nordin leg.; UPS-L-61739 • ibid.; Øvre Hålandsdalen, W of Orra; 60°15.5065'N, 05°55.137'E; on F. excelsior ; 120 m a.s.l.; 24. Feb. 2015; S. Vatne leg.; TRH-L-16793. • Kvam, Daleelva N; 60°07.453'N, 05°52.721'E; on F. excelsior ; 10. Jun. 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18605 • ibid.; 60°07.668'N, 05°52.898'E; on F. excelsior ; 13. Jun. 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18606 • ibid.; Furhovda; 60°09.243'N, 05°53.910'E; on F. excelsior ; 5. Jun. 2018; G. Gaarder, M. Lorentzen leg.; TRH-L-18604 • ibid.; Hovden; 60°13.735'N, 05°59.633'E; on F. excelsior ; 11. Jun. 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18607. • Lindås, Helltveit W; 60°37.872'N, 05°26.080'E; on F. excelsior ; 24. Jul. 1980; T. Tønsberg leg.; BG-L-26222 • ibid.; Kvalvika-Røyldalane; 60°38.245'N, 05°26.345'E; on F. excelsior ; 35 m a.s.l.; 14. May 2018; A. Frisch, J. Klepsland leg.; TRH-L-29035. • Os, Li; 60°10.38'N, 05°26.45'E; on F. excelsior ; 60-120 m a.s.l.; 22. Jul. 1979; T. Tønsberg leg.; BG-L-26221, BG-L-26221. • Stord, Valavåg, Nes-Åsen; 59°46.116'N, 05°24.660'E; on F. excelsior ; 27. Apr. 2018; G. Gaarder, U. Hanssen leg.; TRH-L-18041. • Tysnes, SE slope of Skardnipa near Teigen; 59°58.360'N, 05°39.008'E; on F. excelsior ; 23 m a.s.l.; 9. May 2018; A. Frisch, J. Klepsland leg.; TRH-L-29031 • ibid.; 59°58.361'N, 05°39.023'E; on F. excelsior ; 19 m a.s.l.; 9. May 2018; A. Frisch, J. Klepsland leg.; TRH-L-29032, TRH-L-29033 • ibid.; 59°58.350'N, 05°38.992'E; on F. excelsior ; 24 m a.s.l.; 9. May 2018; A. Frisch, J. Klepsland leg.; TRH-L-29034 • ibid.; Sunde, Loksund; on F. excelsior ; 27. Aug. 1910; J. J. Havaas leg.; UPS-L-137512. • Tysnes, Tysnesøy, N of Onarheim; 59°58.377'N, 05°39.047'E; on F. excelsior ; 30 m a.s.l.; 21. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29028, TRH-L-29029. - Møre og Romsdal • Fræna, S of Hustad, Lunheim; 62°55.3871'N, 07°06.892'E; on C. avellana ; 60 m a.s.l.; 15. Apr. 2016; H. Holien leg.; TRH-L-17089 • ibid.; Nordmark E; 62°54.998'N, 07°07.068'E; on C. avellana ; 80 m a.s.l.; 26. Apr. 1998; G. Gaarder leg.; BG-L-39619 • ibid.; Tverrfjell; 62°54.872'N, 07°16.243'E; on C. avellana ; 60 m a.s.l.; 5. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29037, TRH-L-29030. • Skodje, Igletjønna; 62°28.6565'N, 06°34.4845'E; on C. avellana ; 20. Apr. 2014; G. Gaarder, P. Larsen leg.; TRH-L-16791. • Tingvoll, Kamsvågtrøa; 63°01.8998'N, 08°08.150'E; on C. avellana ; 16. Feb. 2014; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-15366 • ibid.; Langvatnet NE; 63°02.9460'N, 08°04.3020'E; on C. avellana ; 8. Nov. 2014; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-16792 • ibid.; Skjelberget; 63°03.2040'N, 08°03.8640'E; on C. avellana ; 25. Apr. 2014; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-16789 • ibid.; Årøyvatnet; 63°02.8320'N, 08°02.3940'E; on C. avellana ; 8. Nov. 2014; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-16790. SWEDEN - Gotland • Bunge, Hägur, Mörku, 1 km NE of the church; 57°51.00'N, 19°00.00'E; on F. excelsior ; 15 m a.s.l.; 27. Apr. 1996; A. Nordin leg.; UPS-L-74225 • 600 m from Bunge church; on F. excelsior ; 27. Apr 1996; G. Westling leg.; S L-52399; • Bäl, Gute, 1 km E Bäl church; 57°39.00'N, 18°40.00'E; on F. excelsior ; 25. Nov. 1996; P. Johanson leg.; UPS-L-98398.

Additional examined specimens.

Austria - Upper Austria • Totes Gebirge, Lake Almsee SSE; 47°44.600'N, 13°57.400'E; on F. excelsior ; 600 m a.s.l.; 31. May 1998; T. Tønsberg leg.; BG-L-66299. Turkey - Trabazon • Trabazon Vilayet, Uzungöl c. 14 km SSE of Caykara; 40°36.8700'N, 40°18.8500'E; on P. orientalis ; 24. Jun. 2001; C. Printzen, B. Kanz leg.; BG-L-77481.


Coniocarpon fallax resembles C. cinnabarinum by ascomata that are covered in an orange-red and white pruina. However, the white pruina is less pronounced in C. fallax and may be absent. The ascomata of C. fallax further are elongate to clearly lirellate and the ascospores are distinctly smaller with less septa: (15-)17-20(-22) × (6-)7-9(-10) µm, (1-)3-4(-5) transversely septate vs (19-)23-28(-30) × (8-)10-11(-12) µm, (3-)4-5(-8) transversely septate in C. cinnabarinum . Mature, apparently well-developed elliptical ascospores with only a single septum were found in one specimen (TRH-L-17089) of C. fallax . Coniocarpon cuspidans has ascospores of similar size which, however, are predominantly 3-septate. The elongate to lirellate ascomata of that species lack an orange-red pruina, and proper exciple and epithecium react Idil/I+ red in iodine.