Chileria pamparum (Berg)

Forero, Dimitri, 2009, Description of One New Species of Chileria and Three New Species of Orthotylus, with Nomenclatural and Distributional Notes on Neotropical Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylini), American Museum Novitates 3642, pp. 1-50: 21-25

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1206/611.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0C4D87FC-8C0F-6A73-5CA2-26A9FED415EC

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Chileria pamparum (Berg)
status

new combination

Chileria pamparum (Berg)   , new combination

Figures 1 View Fig , 8 View Fig , 9 View Fig

Conostethus   ? pamparum Berg, 1883: 76   [n. sp.].

Lygus (Lygus) aeruginosus Berg, 1892: 92   [n. sp.]; Carvalho and Carpintero, 1992: 88 [synonym].

Orthotylus pamparum: Carvalho and Drake, 1943: 523   [list, n. comb.]; Carvalho, 1958: 106 [catalog]; Carvalho and Fontes, 1973: 499 [redescription, male genitalia]; Schuh, 1995: 166 [catalog].

Saileria chilena Carvalho and Carpintero, 1991: 778   [n. sp.]. NEW SYNONYM.

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by its relatively small size (fig. 1); green-spotted dorsum (fig. 1); anteriorly directed ramus of vesica with a median dorsal flap, apex with two portions of subequal length (fig. 8); left (medial) ramus of posteriorly directed rami of vesica with a median, dorsally serrate flap, apex curved dorsally; right (lateral) ramus of posteriorly directed rami apically bifid, with medial portion expanded toward the apex; apical ramus of vesica with dorsal portion small and rounded, ventral portion simple, not serrate, about twice as long as dorsal portion; genital capsule with a single anterior tergal process on the right margin of aperture, close to dorsal margin, transversely elongate and strongly serrate; tergal processes on left side of genital capsule small, anterior one strongly curved laterally, hooklike, posterior one shorter and slightly curved laterally.

Chileria pamparum   is easily distinguished from other species of Chileria   by its relatively small size (fig. 1) and particular structure of the vesica. Chileria pamparum   is similar to Ch. araucana   in having only one tergal process on the right margin of the aperture of the genital capsule (figs. 7, 8). In Ch. pamparum   the process is transversely elongate and located anteriorly (fig. 8), whereas in Ch. araucana   it is knoblike and located posteriorly (fig. 7). The right tergal process of Ch. pamparum   is similar to the anterior tergal process on the right margin of the aperture of Ch. andina   (fig. 6), but in the latter the process is less heavily sclerotized and not strongly serrated as in Ch. pamparum   (fig. 6). In addition, the right margin of the aperture of the genital capsule of Ch. andina   has two processes (fig. 6), not one as in Ch. pamparum   (fig. 8).

DISTRIBUTION: Ch. pamparum   , widespread in Argentina ( Carpintero and Carvalho, 1993; Melo et al., 2004), is also present in Chile, and here newly recorded from Bolivia (fig. 9). Carvalho and Fontes (1973) recorded Ch. pamparum   from Paraguay. I have not examined specimens from that country.

HOSTS: Solanum tuberosum   L. ( Solanaceae   ), Medicago sativa   L. ( Fabaceae   ) ( Carpintero and Carvalho, 1993), and an unidentified Malvaceae   . Both records given by Carpintero and Carvalho (1993) —potato and alfalfa—are not likely to be natural hosts of Ch. pamparum   . Accurate host-plant documentation is needed for Ch. pamparum   .

DISCUSSION: Saileria chilena   was described from two females from Coquimbo, Chile, without discussing its generic placement ( Carvalho and Carpintero 1991). I was able to associate males and females that agree in size, color pattern, and shape of head and pronotum with the figure provided by Carvalho and Carpintero (1991: 778, fig. 46), and from the same area where S. chilena   was described, allowing for examination of male genitalic structures. Male genitalia indicate that what Carvalho and Carpintero (1991) designated as ‘‘ S. chilena   ’’ is, in fact, the same as Ch. pamparum   (e.g., Carvalho and Fontes, 1973: 500 [as Orthotylus pamparum   ], their figs. 15–17). Saileria bella ( Van Duzee, 1916)   , the type species of Saileria   , has a simple sclerotized vesical spicule (fig. 20). Other Saileria species   also have simple vesical spicules (e.g., S. irrorata   , S. mexicana   , S. compsus, Carvalho, 1985   ; Henry, 1980, 1985). In the examined males of ‘‘ S. chilena   ’’, the vesica is heavily sclerotized ( Ch. pamparum   , fig. 8). Furthermore, Saileria   includes species with delicate hemelytra and eyes removed from the anterior margin of the pronotum ( Hsiao, 1945) (see Saileria bella   below, fig. 2), which is not the situation in ‘‘ S. chilena   ’’ ( Ch. pamparum   , fig. 1). The hemelytral coloration of Ch. pamparum   may vary from nearly uniform bright or pale green, to green-spotted. All species of Saileria   also have a greenspotted dorsum (e.g., S. bella   , fig. 2), which is probably why Carvalho and Carpintero (1991) described their species in Saileria   . The habitus illustration of the female holotype of S. chilena ( Carvalho and Carpintero, 1991: 778)   is consistent with the hemelytral color pattern of males and females of Ch. pamparum   from Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile. After examining large series of specimens across the distributional range of this species, I consider S. chilena   a junior synonym of Ch. pamparum   . Saileria   includes 12 species ( Schuh, 1995; Carvalho and Costa, 1994). Some of these species may well not be in Saileria   (e.g., S. fluminensis Carvalho, 1990   , probably in the Orthotylus species   group; and S. sulina 

Carvalho, 1989, in the Zanchius species   group, but not congeneric with Saileria   ) following the concept of Hsiao (1945), but this issue needs further study.

Conostethus pamparum   was transferred to Orthotylus   by Carvalho and Drake (1943). Carvalho and Fontes (1973) provided drawings of the parameres and vesica for O. pamparum   , but some of the structures were misinterpreted (e.g., the vesica) or not illustrated (e.g., the genital capsule). Detailed drawings of the male genitalia (fig. 8) are provided in this paper to facilitate its recognition and for future analysis of additional Neotropical Orthotylini   . The shape of the left and right parameres, the presence of a dorsal left protuberance on the genital capsule, and the particular structure of the vesica, are also shared with other species of Chileria   (figs. 5– 7). Therefore, I regard Co. pamparum   as belonging to Chileria   , with the consequent new combination Chileria pamparum ( Berg, 1883)   .

HOLOTYPE ( MALE): [ ARGENTINA]: Buenos Aires: Chascomús [35.5667 ° S 58.0167 ° W], Spegazzini col., ‘‘ Typus’ ’ male, MLP No. 1615, 13 ( MLP). GoogleMaps  

HOLOTYPE OF SYNONYM: [ CHILE]: Coquimbo [– Region IV: Elqui Province ]: S. Vicuña, Oct 1983, L. E. Peña   , Holotypus Saileria chilena   det. Carvalho, MLP   No. 2637, Col. Carv. no. 238 ( MLP)   .

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: ARGEN- TINA: Buenos Aires: La Colina , 37.33333 ° S 61.53333 ° W, 12 Sep 1938, C. J. Drake, 13 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190677 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 1♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190682 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . Catamarca: Arroyo El Pintado , 28.05 ° S 65.58333 ° W, 1968, L. E. Peña, 2♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190680 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190681 View Materials ) ( USNM) GoogleMaps   . Chaco: Pa [mpa] d’[el] Infierno , 26.51911 ° S 61.16075 ° W, 27 Aug 1988, L. E. Peña, 63 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190666 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190671 View Materials ) ( USNM) GoogleMaps   . La Rioja: Guandacol , 42 km SW of Villa Union, 29.5674 ° S 68.5071 ° W, 28 Nov 1993, J. G. Rozen, 2♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00180623 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00180624 View Materials ) ( AMNH) GoogleMaps   . Los Robles, 28.41666 ° S 67.11667 ° W, 30 Nov 1983, L. E. Peña, 163 ( AMNH _ PBI 00191008 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00191023 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 38♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00191024 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00191061 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . San Blas , 28.4 ° S 67.08333 ° W, 12 Nov 1991, L. E. Peña, 13 ( AMNH _ PBI 00107591 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 2♀ ( AMNH _PBI  

00107592, AMNH _ PBI 00107593 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . Santa Clara , 29.55 ° S 68.5167 ° W, 07 Nov 1991, L. E. Peña, 63 ( AMNH _ PBI 00107586 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00107590 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190674 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 2♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00107594 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00107595 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . Mendoza: Cochico , 37.26666 ° S 67.38333 ° W, 09 Sep 1987, L. E. Peña, 23 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190675 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190676 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 2♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190678 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190679 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . N of San Rafael , 34.49031 ° S 68.55632 ° W, 06 Dec 1983, L. E. Peña, 13 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190967 View Materials ) ( USNM) GoogleMaps   . San Rafael , 34.6 ° S 68.3333 ° W, 06 Dec 1983, L. E. Peña, 13 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190672 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 1♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190673 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . Neuquen: EL Huecu , 37.6167 ° S 70.6 ° W, 04 Feb 1991, L. E. Peña, 123 ( AMNH _ PBI 00106739 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00106750 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 7♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00106751 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00106757 View Materials ) ( USNM)   ; 16 Feb 1995 – 17 Feb 1995, L. E. Peña, 63 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190698 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190703 View Materials )   , 10♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190704 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190713 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . Rio Agrio , N of Zapala, 38.5208 ° S 70.19227 ° W, 09 Dec 1983, L. E. Peña, 33 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190968 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190970 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 2♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190993 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190994 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . Salta : 6 km SW of Pichanal, 23.3549 ° S 64.2584 ° W, 09 Nov 1993, J. G. and B. L. Rozen, 13 ( AMNH _ PBI 00180627 View Materials ) ( AMNH) GoogleMaps   . San Juan: El Huaco , 30.15 ° S 68.51667 ° W, 22 Jan 1995, L. E. Peña, 23 ( AMNH _ PBI 00107605 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00107606 View Materials ) ( USNM) GoogleMaps   . Santiago del Estero: Beltran , 28.58333 ° S 64.41667 ° W, 28 Feb 1992, L. E. Peña, 1♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190488 View Materials ) ( USNM) GoogleMaps   . Tucuman : 35 km SE of Quilmes, 26.68 ° S 65.81348 ° W, 2958 m, 01 Mar 2006, T. Henry and D. Forero, Malvaceae   , 93 ( AMNH _ PBI 00195176 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00195184 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 10♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00195185 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00195194 View Materials ) ( AMNH)   . Cadillal , 26.6833 ° S 65.2666 ° W, 07 Nov 1991, L. E. Peña, 63 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190683 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190688 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 9♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190689 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190697 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz: Comarapa , 17.9 ° S 64.48333 ° W, 1800 m, 14 Dec 1984, L. E. Peña, 23 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190648 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190649 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 6♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00107628 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00107629 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190650 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190653 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . CHILE: Antofagasta – Region   II: Antofagasta: N of Paposo , 24.964 ° S 70.451 ° W, 30 Oct 1983, L. E. Peña, 2♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190995 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190996 View Materials ) ( USNM) GoogleMaps   . Atacama – Region   III: Pinte, W [sic] of Vallenar , 28.98335 ° S 70.27644 ° W, 25 Oct 1980, L. E. Peña, 13 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190962 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 1♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190976 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . Bio-Bio – Region VIII: Nuble: Las Trancas , Chillan , 36.92136 ° S 71.49416 ° W, 17 Mar 1983 – 20 Mar 1983, L. E. Peña, 23 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190965 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190966 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 1♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190979 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . Shangri-La, 36.98099 ° S 71.50932 ° W, Mar 1984, D. Veas, 13 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190963 View Materials ) ( USNM) GoogleMaps   . Coquimbo – Region   IV: Choapa Province: N of los Vilos , 31.89036 ° S 71.48757 ° W, 24 Sep 1982, N.Z.E., 13 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190964 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 2♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190977 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190978 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . Elqui Province : 36 km S of Coquimbo, 30.24979 ° S 71.3877 ° W, 04 Oct 1994, Rozen, Quinter, Ascher, 23 ( AMNH _ PBI 00180625 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00180626 View Materials ) ( AMNH) GoogleMaps   . El Pangue , 30.2 ° S 70.65 ° W, 1900 m, 20 Oct 1991, L. E. Peña, 1♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190980 View Materials ) ( USNM) GoogleMaps   . NE of Choros Bajos , 29.24628 ° S 71.2382 ° W, 20 Oct 1983, L. E. Peña, 53 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190971 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190975 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   , 11♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190997 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00191007 View Materials ) ( USNM)   . Vicuña , 30.03194 ° S 70.70806 ° W, 17 Oct 1991, L. E. Peña, 12♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190981 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190992 View Materials ) ( USNM) GoogleMaps   . 14 km N of Los Vilos , 31.7801 ° S 71.48934 ° W, 150 m, 06 Nov 1981, R. T. Schuh and N GoogleMaps   . I. Platnick , 2♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00180628 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00180629 View Materials ) ( AMNH)   .

Hadronemella argentina (Carvalho and Wallerstein)  

Figures 1 View Fig , 10 View Fig

Hadronemisca argentina Carvalho and Wallerstein, 1978: 523   [n. sp.]; Schuh, 1995: 117 [catalog].

Hadronemella argentina: Carvalho, 1984: 51   [new combination].

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the black dorsal coloration with claval suture pale or whitish, and a pale spot on the anterior portion of cuneus (fig. 1); male genitalia with a single, simple spicule ( Carvalho and Wallerstein, 1978: fig. 2).

Hadronemella argentina   can be recognized among the species included in Hadronemella   by the coloration and the simple structure of the male genitalia. Other species of Hadronemella   from Argentina are dark, but not as dark as H. argentina   (personal obs.). The vesica, with a simple spicule ( Carvalho and Wallerstein, 1978: fig. 2), is shared with just a few species of Hadronemella   (see Carvalho, 1984; Carvalho and Carpintero, 1991; Carvalho and Costa, 1992b).

DESCRIPTION: FEMALE: STRUCTURE: Genitalia (fig. 10): Subgenital plate longer than wide, apex rounded; base of ovipositor located anteriorly to longitudinal midpoint of abdomen; posterior wall with interramal sclerite triangular, well sclerotized, apex strongly curved medially; dorsal margin of posterior wall with scattered microtrichia; dorsal lobe of interramal sclerite elongate, gently curved medially, narrowing apically, covered with very small microtrichia, arranged in a scalelike pattern; medial sclerite indistinct; prolongation of medial margins of second gonapophyses produced as a rounded anterior sclerotized process ventral to interramal sclerite (fig. 10, arrow); dorsal labiate plate not sclerotized; sclerotized rings elongate, subrectangular, anterior portion with microtrichia, lateral recurved portion well sclerotized; ventral labiate plate not sclerotized, without conspicuous tubercles or processes; anterior wall with inner margins of first gonapophyses symmetrical, not sclerotized.

DISTRIBUTION: Hadronemella argentina   was originally described from San Luis Province ( Carvalho and Wallerstein, 1978). Carpintero and Carvalho (1993) listed this species additionally from Buenos Aires Province without specific localities. The distribution is extended in this paper to Catamarca.

HOSTS: No host plants have been documented yet for this species.

DISCUSSION: Schuh (1995) listed this taxon under Hadronemisca Carvalho, 1973   , although Carvalho (1984) had transferred it to Hadronemella   . I propose to include Hadronemella   in the Orthotylus species   group of Schuh (1974).

Hadronemella Carvalho, 1984   , is an illdefined genus. All of the species included ( Schuh, 1995, 2006a) are morphologically diverse (see Carvalho, 1984; Carvalho and Carpintero, 1991; Carvalho and Costa, 1992b), in particular regarding male genitalic structure. Hadronemella   is probably not monophyletic, an issue that a revision of the genus should address. Nonetheless, species of Hadronemella   are not common in collections, and series of males and associated females are rare. Because of this paucity of material and because females have not been illustrated to date, I decided to illustrate the female of H. argentina   given the abundance of specimens associated with males from a single locality.

The female of H. argentina   has symmetrical medial margins on the first gonapophyses. Such condition is also found in Mecomma ambulans ( Fallen, 1807) ( Pluot-Sigwalt and Matocq, 2006)   , some species of Araucanocoris Carvalho   (personal obs.), and in members of the Hadronema   group ( Forero, 2008). In other members of the Orthotylus species   group, like some species of Orthotylus   (e.g., O. chilensis   , O. chullan   , O. kakan   , O. kikin   , fig. 16) and species of Lopidea   ( Davis, 1955; personal obs.), the medial margins of the first gonapophyses are highly asymmetrical. It is not known if the symmetrical condition is a symplesiomorphic character in Orthotylini   , which extent in the nominotypical tribe has been poorly documented.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: ARGENTINA: Catamarca: Punta Balasto , 26.96666 ° S 66.13333 ° W, 2155 m, 10 Feb 1983, L. E. Peña, 33 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190577 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190578 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190583 View Materials ), 4♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190641 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190644 View Materials ) ( AMNH) GoogleMaps   ; 173 ( AMNH _ PBI 00190564 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190576 View Materials , AMNH _ PBI 00190579 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190582 View Materials ), 57♀ ( AMNH _ PBI 00190584 View Materials – AMNH _ PBI 00190640 View Materials ) ( USNM)   .

MLP

Museo de La Plata

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Miridae

Genus

Chileria

Loc

Chileria pamparum (Berg)

Forero, Dimitri 2009
2009
Loc

Saileria chilena

Carvalho, J. C. M. & D. L. Carpintero 1991: 778
1991
Loc

Hadronemella argentina: Carvalho, 1984: 51

Carvalho, J. C. M. 1984: 51
1984
Loc

Hadronemisca argentina

Schuh, R. T. 1995: 117
Carvalho, J. C. M. & P. Wallerstein 1978: 523
1978
Loc

Orthotylus pamparum: Carvalho and Drake, 1943: 523

Schuh, R. T. 1995: 166
Carvalho, J. C. M. & A. V. Fontes 1973: 499
Carvalho, J. C. M. 1958: 106
Carvalho, J. C. M. & C. J. Drake 1943: 523
1943
Loc

Lygus (Lygus) aeruginosus

Carvalho, J. C. M. & D. L. Carpintero 1992: 88
Berg, C. 1892: 92
1892
Loc

Conostethus

Berg, C. 1883: 76
1883