Alotanypus vittigera ( Edwards, 1931 ), Edwards, 1931

Siri, Augusto, Donato, Mariano, Orpella, Germán & Massaferro, Julieta, 2011, Alotanypus vittigera (Edwards) comb. nov.: adult redescription, immature description and a phylogenetic analysis of the genus (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae), Zootaxa 2795, pp. 46-64: 54-61

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.204609

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0C5D125B-A347-8E6B-0FA6-897E1DD66801

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Alotanypus vittigera ( Edwards, 1931 )
status

comb. nov.

Alotanypus vittigera ( Edwards, 1931)   , comb. nov.

Anatopynia vittigera Edwards 1931: 242   –243, fig. 36 b; Spies & Reiss 1996: 82 (listed as unplaced valid species).

Type material (all in NHM). HOLOTYPE male (NHM) L. Nahuel Huapi, Eastern end, Río Negro province, Argentina, 28–31.x. 1926, F.W. Edwards. Paratypes. 3 males and 2 females same date as holotype; 1 male and 2 females, L. Correntoso, Río Negro province, Argentina, 18–25.xi. 1926, F.W. Edwards; 1 male, Bariloche, Río Negro province, Argentina, 25–28.xi. 1926, F.W. Edwards; 1 male, Puerto Montt, Llanquihue province, S. Chile, 24.xii. 1926, F.W. Edwards.

Recently collected material. 1 male and 2 females from 41 º00´ 56 ´´S, 71 º 49 ´ 54 ´´W, 856 m, Mallín La Heladera, Puerto Blest, PNNH, Río Negro province, Argentina, 07.i –04.ii. 2007, Garré & Montes de Oca, Malaise trap, and 3 fourth instar larvae from same site, 04.ii. 2007, Garré & Montes de Oca, Kick sample; 4 males with their pupal exuviae and 2 females with their pupal exuviae (all adults emerged same day of collection) from 41 º 36 ´06´´S, 71 º 36 ´ 25 ´´W, temporary pool beside Vertiente stream, Manso Inferior, PNNH, Río Negro province, Argentina, 10.i. 2008, G. Orpella; 1 male with its pupal exuviae (adult emerged on 12.ii. 2009), 2 females with their pupal exuviae (both adults emerged on 11.ii. 2009), 1 prepupa and 2 fourth instar larvae, 41 º00´05´´S, 71 º 50 ´ 53 ´´W, 855 m, Mallín La Heladera, Puerto Blest, PNNH, Río Negro province, Argentina, 11.ii. 2009, A. Siri, kick sample.

Emended diagnosis. The diagnosis of Alotanypus vittigera (Edwards)   comb. nov. should be emended as follows:

Male: vittae strongly or not indicated; AR lesser or slightly higher than 2.0; anepisternals, preepisternals and postnotals present or absent; LR I = 0.60–0.75.

Pupa: Thoracic seta DC 1 shorter or longer than DC 3.

Descriptions. Male (n = 5–12, except when otherwise stated) ( Figs. 1–8 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURES 2 – 11 )

Total length 5.15–6.23 mm. Total length / wing length 1.61–1.89.

Coloration: Thorax yellowish brown to dark brown, with or without evident vittae. Anepisternum, preepisternum and postnotum dark brown; abdomen as Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 .

Wing with several dark spots on membrane; macrotrichia above dark spots thick and densely grouped; central section of Cu, cross-veins RM and MCu, FCu and basal section of M 3 + 4 darkened ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 2 – 11 ).

Head: Antenna; AR 1.9–2.1 [1.95]. Temporals multiserial 42–76 [71]; postorbitals bi to multiserial, 21–26 [21]. Clypeus with 7–20 [11] setae. Tentorium 257–274 [270] long (4). Palpomere lengths (1–5) 59–84 [70]; 101– 148 [145]; 153–195 [150]; 227–282 [250]; 315–415.

Thorax. Antepronotum with 12–19 [17] lateral setae; humerals 14 (1); acrostichals biserials between vittae, diverging as uni to multiserial, merging with the dorsocentrals in the prescutelar area; dorsocentrals 44 (1); prealars 26–38 [35]; supraalar 1; anepisternals 0–3 [3]; scutellars 35–86 [76]; postnotum with 0–10 [0]; preepisternals absent.

Wing with macrotrichia in all cells except to r 1 and r 2 + 3; length 3.10–3.80 [3.30] mm; width 0.90–1.06 [0.93] mm. L / W = 3.26–4.12 [3.55]. VR 0.88–0.97 [0.94]. C extended beyond R 4 + 5. Brachiolum with 4–8 distal setae, plus 4–5 proximal setae. Squama fringed with up to 65 setae.

Legs. Tibial spur on p 1 with slightly curved apex, 102–116 [113] long; comb on p 1 with 9–13 [10] short spines ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 2 – 11 ). Tibial spurs on p 2 95–120 [115] and 63–83 [75] long ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 2 – 11 ). Tibial spurs on p 3 91–120 [113] and 69–81 [75] long ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 2 – 11 ); spur ratio 0.65–0.74 [0.66]; comb on p 3 with 10–12 [12] spines, the outer slightly "S" curved ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 2 – 11 ). Two pseudospurs on ta 1–2 of p 2 and ta 1 of p 3. Lengths and proportions of legs in Table 3.

fe ti ta 1 ta 2 ta 3 p 1 1307–1563 [1540] 1652–1880 [1750] 1224–1351 [1200] 625–717 [625] 415–497 [463] p 2 1452–1629 [1588] 1593–1805 [1750] 1017–1152 [1063] 525–612 [525] 350–418 [350] p 3 1245–1468 [1325] 1780–2095 [2000] 1328–1544 [1413] 665–795 [725] 428–530 [475]

continued.

ta 4 ta 5 LR BV SV p 1 259–327 [275] 172–226 [200] 0.68–0.76 [0.69] 2.65–2.93 [2.87] 2.38–2.74 [2.74] p 2 208–249 [225] 165–200 [200] 0.60–0.66 [0.61] 3.13–3.39 [3.39] 2.91–3.17 [3.14] p 3 268–324 [288] 180–207 [200] 0.68–0.76 [0.71] 2.59–2.96 [2.81] 2.27–2.52 [2.35] Hypopygium ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 2 – 11 ). Setae on tergite IX, 17–24. Gonocoxite 249–291 [280] long. Gonostylus 135–161 [145] long. Aberrant specimens (3) with a very thick megaseta-like lateral to the megaseta; 1 aberrant specimen with the very thick megaseta-like, plus 1 additional strong spine ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 2 – 11 ). HR 1.65–2.04 [1.93]; HV 1.97–2.41.

Female (n = 5–7, except when otherwise stated) ( Figs. 9–11 View FIGURES 2 – 11 )

Total length 4.50–5.15 (4). Total length / wing length 1.27–1.44 (4).

Coloration: Thorax and wing spots as in male; cercus yelowish.

Head. Antenna with 14 flagellomeres, AR 0.21–0.23 (4). Temporal setae multiserial, 74 (1), postorbitals bi to multiserial, 45 (1). Clypeus with 16–21 setae. Palpomere lengths (I –V) 70–90; 102–150; 150–200; 220–303; 210 (1) long.

Thorax. Antepronotum with 15–26 lateral setae and 0–4 dorsal setae. Acrostichals as in male; prealars 33–55; supraalar 1; anepisternals 1–6 (4), scutelars 86–118. Preepisternals and postnotals absent.

Wing with macrotrichia in all cells except to r 1 and r 2 + 3; length 3.40–3.70 mm; width 1.16–1.50 mm; L / W = 2.39–2.90. VR 0.92–0.97. C extended beyond R 4 + 5. Squama fringed with 60–87 setae. Macrotrichia above dark spots thick and densely grouped

Legs. Tibial spur on p 1 95–120 long; on p 2 93–128 and 66–88 long; on p 3 93–120 and 73–83 long. Spur ratio on p 3 0.65–0.78. Comb on p 3 with 9–12 spines; no tibial comb on p 1. Two pseudospurs on ta 1–3 of p 2 and ta 1 of p 3. Lengths and proportions of legs in Table 4.

Genitalia ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 2 – 11 ). Cercus 81–125 long. Seminal capsule 91–125 long ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 2 – 11 ); notum 216–300 long (2); tergite IX with 0–5 setae (3) ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 2 – 11 ); segment X with 6–13 setae (4).

Pupa (n = 4–9, except when otherwise stated) (Figs. 12–17)

Total length 6.25–8.30 mm.

Cephalothorax (Fig. 12). Frontal apotome as in Fig. 13. Thoracic horn (Fig. 14) arising from a distinct tubercle; external membrane with spines; respiratory atrium almost straight. Length 524–596; width 106–135; L / W 4.41– 4.95; plastron plate 58–85 long; 97–132 wide; plastron plate length / thoracic horn length 0.11–0.15. Thoracic setation (Fig. 15): DC 1 41–54; DC 3 95–140; Sa 203 long (1); MAps 175–188 long (2).

Abdomen. Scar on segment I, 216–249 long. Shagreen with single spines. Chaetotaxy (Figs. 16, 17): D 1 more or less straight, arising from a distinct tubercle on segments I –VII. D 1 is situated in the same line or slightly posteriorly to D 2 in segments VI and VII. D 2 and D 4 longer than D 1, arising from a distinct tubercle in segments II –VII. D 3 and D 5 short and thin, arising from a very short tubercle or tubercle absent. Segments I –VI with two pairs of FIGURES 12–26. Alotanypus vittigera (Edwards)   comb. nov. immatures. Pupa: 12, cephalothorax; 13, frontal apotome; 14, thoracic horn; 15, thoracic setae: Dc 1, Dc 2 and Sa from left to right; 16, complete abdominal setation; 17, tergite and sternite of abdominal IV segment. Fourth-instar larva: 18, ventral cephalic setation; 19, dorsal cephalic setation; 20, antennite I; 21, apex of antenna; 22, mandible; 23, ligula; 24, dorsomental teeth; 25, procercus; 26, simple claws of posterior parapod. Scale bars = 20 μm for Fig. 21; 50 μm for Figs. 13, 24, 26; 100 μm for Figs. 12, 15, 20, 22, 23, 25; 200 μm for Figs. 14, 17; 500 μm for Fig. 16.

short lateral setae. Segments VII and VIII with 5; anal lobe with 2 pairs of long and teniated lateral setae. Position of LS 1 / segment length = 0.45–0.51 on segment VII; 0.22–0.27 on segment VIII. Anal lobe 803–996 long; 400– 450 wide; L / W 1.93–2.05. Position of LS / anal lobe length 0.16–0.18 for LS 1 and 0.27–0.28 for LS 2.

Male genital sac 355–387 long; length of male genital sac / length of anal lobe 0.42–0.44.

Fourth-instar larva (n = 5–6, except when otherwise stated) (Figs. 18–26)

Total length 0.77–0.91 mm (2). Head: capsule 620–800; 820–1000 wide. CI 0.76–0.85.

Cephalic setation: Ventral (Fig. 18): SSm between S 9 and S 10;SSm close to S 10 and VP posterior to S 10. Dorsal (Fig. 19): S 7, S 8 and DP arranged in a line; S 6 anterolateraly to S 7.

Antenna (Figs. 20, 21). AR 4.9–5.6; A 1 233–266 long, ring organ situated at 0.70–0.76 from base; BL 1 35–42 long; NB 33–37 long; NB / BL 1 0.83–0.90; BL 1 / A 2–4 0.80–0.88; A 2 28–35 long, length A 2 / width A 2 4.3–6.6 (3); BL 2 10–11; A 3 7–11 long; length A 3 / width A 3 3.6–4.4; A 4 5 long.

Maxillary palp: basal segment 60–73 long, length / basal width 0.59–0.67; relative distance of CS 0.59–0.67. A 1 / PMx 3.64–4.08. Mandible (Fig. 22) 191–213 long. A 1 / Mn 1.17–1.26. Hypopharingeal complex: Ligula 108– 145 long (Fig. 23), the outermost inner teeth slightly outcurved; paraligula bifid, 60–95 long; pecten hypopharyngis with 14–18 teeth; dorsomental teeth 5–7 (Fig. 24).

Abdomen. Procercus 250–350 long (Fig. 25); L / W 3.00– 3.50; with 13 setae 855–1050 long. Preanal seta 780– 830 long. Posterior parapods: smallest claws simple curved (Fig. 26).

Biology. The species A. vittigera   was found in a wide range of standing water environments such as lakes, temporary pools and “mallines” (singular “mallín”). A “mallin” can be characterized as a humid meadow with a dense cover mainly dominated by Juncaceae   , Cyperaceae   and Gramineae   . The mallín soil contains a high percentage of organic matter and always associated with either surface water or ground water discharge. This kind of wetland in the Andes mountains is characterized by harsh environmental conditions, as the plant growth season is relatively short (abouth 4 months) and snow cover remains for about 6 months during the year ( Raffaele 1996).

Cladistic analysis. The data set analyzed under K = 5 to 16 yielded the same tree topology ( Fig. 27 View FIGURE 27 ) in each of the concavities (CI = 0.47, RI = 0.42). The tree derived from K = 5 (score = 30.37) showed the best character measure support calculated as absolute frequencies, frequency differences and absolute Bremer support. The best relative Bremer support measures were those of K = 7 (score = 29.7).

The genus Alotanypus   is a monophyletic group supported by the synapomorphies male AR of 1.8, male LR III of 0.68–0.76, female wing length of 3.30–4.20 mm, L / W of thoracic horn 3.00– 4.60, relative position of LS 1 on segment VII of 0.51, relative position of LS 1 on segment VIII of 0.23–0.31, CI of 0.83–0.84, postnotal setae absent, tibial comb I present, claws spatulate (at least on pII). Alotanypus venustus   is the basal species of the genus followed by A. dalyupensis   and A. aris   . The species A. vittigera   is closely related with A. kuroberobustus   and shares the characters male AR of 1.90–2.10, male wing length of 3.10–3.80, male LR II of 0.60–0.66, female LR II of 0.53–0.61, L / W of thoracic horn of 4.30–5.50, relative position of LS 1 on segment VII of 0.45–0.51, NB / BL 1 of 0.77 and curved apex of spur I on male.

The clade [ A. aris   - A. vittigera   - A. kuroberobustus   ] shares the characters female LR III of 0.63–0.71, DC 1 of 54– 58 um long, thoracic horn of 524–680 um long, larval AR of 5.30–6.40, BL 1 / A 2–4 of 0.80–0.88, A 1 / Ring 0 of 0.70–0.76 and L / W PMx of 2.75–3.30.

The clade [ A. dalyupensis   - A. aris   - A. vittigera   - A. kuroberobustus   ] shares the characters DC 1 of 78 um long, plastron plate / thoracic horn of 0.15–0.33, L / W of anal lobe of 1.82, L / W of A 2 of 4.50, relative position of CS on PMx of 0.50, mandible of 191–220 um long, A 1 / mandible of 1.19–1.29 and procercus of 296 um long.

Guassutanypus oliveirai   is the sister group of Alotanypus   . This clade shares the presence of preepisternals, RM, FCu and MCu darkened veins on male and female, assymetrical neck position on seminal capsules, relative position of LS 1 on abdominal segment VII, horn sac of the thoracic horn not filling the entire horn lumen, number of teniated setae on segment VIII on pupa. This last clade is the sister group of the clade [P. d y a r i -D. alaskensis] by sharing characters: LR I on male; FCu vein darkened in male and female; length of DC 3 on pupa, A 1 / PMx, pecten hypopharnix and number of setae on procercus.

The tribe Macropelopiini   is monophyletic and it is supported by the synapomorphies male wing length of 3.00, male spur ratio of 0.28–0.42, female anal lobe length of 695–864, genital sac / anal lobe of 0.36–0.42, relative position of 0.16–0.17 for LS 1 and 0.25–0.26 for LS 2 on anal lobe, larval AR of 6.05 –7.00, L / W PMx of 2.70, procercus length of 163–222, postorbitals multiserials, male spur thorn like. Spur teeth bigger than 15, outer fringed on anal lobe present and teniata setae on abdominal segment VII bigger than 5.

TABLE 4. Lengths (μm) and proportions of legs of Alotanypus vittigera comb. nov., female (n = 5 – 7).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Chironomidae

Genus

Alotanypus

Loc

Alotanypus vittigera ( Edwards, 1931 )

Siri, Augusto, Donato, Mariano, Orpella, Germán & Massaferro, Julieta 2011
2011
Loc

Anatopynia vittigera

Spies 1996: 82
Edwards 1931: 242
1931