Iteaphila polygyna (Melander)

Sinclair, Bradley J. & Shamshev, Igor V., 2021, World revision of Iteaphila with unbranched radial vein (Diptera: Empidoidea: Iteaphilidae), Zootaxa 4968 (1), pp. 1-89: 69-70

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Iteaphila polygyna (Melander)

comb. nov.

Iteaphila polygyna (Melander)   comb. nov.

( Figs 68 View FIGURES 66–70 , 74 View FIGURES 71–74 )

Anthepiscopus polygynus Melander, 1928: 105   . Type locality: Deer Park , Washington, USA.

Anthepiscopus flavicoxa Melander, 1928: 107   . Type locality: Kettle Falls , Washington, USA. syn. nov.

Type material examined. Anthepiscopus flavicoxa   : HOLOTYPE ♀, labelled: “ Kettle Falls [48°36′21″N 118°3′35″W],/ 8 May’ [19]12 Wash ”; “ TYPE / Anthepiscopus   / flavicoxa/ Mel. [red label]”; “ALMelander/ Collection / 1961” ( USNM). GoogleMaps  

Anthepiscopus polygynus   : LECTOTYPE (here designated in order to fix identity of the species), ♂ labelled: “Deer Park [47°57′25″N 117°28′13″W],/ 5.v.[19]12Wash”, “ TYPE ♂ / Anthepiscopus   / polygynus/ Mel. [red label]”; “ALMelander/ Collection/ 1961”; Anthepiscopus   / polygynus/ ♂ Mel.”; “ LECTOTYPE / Anthepiscopus   / polygynus Melander   / des. B.J. Sinclair 2020 [red label]” ( USNM) GoogleMaps   . PARALECTOTYPES: Same data as holotype (6 ♀, USNM) GoogleMaps   .

Notes on synonymy. Melander (1928) distinguished A. flavicoxa   and A. polygynus   on the basis of female leg colouration. The coxae and femora are yellowish in the former species and females in the type series of polygynus   are all dark legged. A short series from Salmon Arm ( Canada, BC), which included males matching polygynus   and yellow-legged females similar to flavicoxa   , clustered together in the barcode analysis ( Fig. 82 View FIGURE 82 ). Given this additional evidence, these two species are considered conspecific and it can be assumed that female leg colouration in this species is variable.

Additional material examined. CANADA. Alberta: Banff NP, Mt. Eisenhower [51°17′59″N 115°55′21″W], 28.v.1968, Mosquin & Seaborn (1 ♂, CNC); GoogleMaps   Kananaskis, For. Exp. Stn. , Seebe [51°01′40″N 115°02′08″W],, H.J. Teskey (1 ♂, CNC) GoogleMaps   . British Columbia: Clinton [51°05′25″N 121°35′28″W],, G.S. Walley (1 ♀, CNC); GoogleMaps   Cowichan Lk. [48°49′N 124°02′W],, J.A. Chapman (1 ♂, CNC); GoogleMaps   Cranbrook [49°30′35″N 115°46′00″W], 5–17.v.1922, C.B.D. Garrett (1 ♂, 4 ♀, CNC; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, USNM); GoogleMaps   same data except, 14.iv, 14.v. (1 ♂, 2 ♀, RBCM); GoogleMaps   Glacier NP, Rogers Pass [51°16′35″N 117°30′25″W],, W.W. Wirth (4 ♂, 2 ♀, USNM); GoogleMaps   Keremeos [49°12′9″N 119°49′46″W],, C.B. Garrett (1 ♀, CNC); GoogleMaps   Kitsumkalum Lk. [54°43′22″N 128°46′34″W], 20 mi N Terrace , 30.v.1960, JGC (1 ♂, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Queen Charlotte Islands, Laskeek Bay, South Low Island , 17.v.2011, 52°52′39″N 131°31′07″W, S. Allambert (1 ♂, 1 ♀, RBCM); GoogleMaps   Massett [54°00′36″N 132°08′17″W], 26.iv.1952, M.E. Clark (2 ♂, CNC); GoogleMaps   Mt. Revelstoke NP [51°02′48″N 118°08′33″W], 3–25.vii.1952, GJS (6 ♀, CNC); GoogleMaps   Mt. Revelstoke NP, Eva Lk. [51°04′52″N 118°06′35″W] trail, 6000 ft, 25.vii.1952, 7.viii.1952, GJS (1 ♀, CNC); GoogleMaps   Salmon Arm [50°42′8″N 119°16′20″W], 2.v.1991, AB (2 ♂, 2 ♀, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; same data except, CNC161449 View Materials , CNC161450 View Materials (2 ♀, barcoded, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; same data except, 31.iii.1992 (1 ♀, CNC); same data except, 4.v.1992 (4 ♀, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; 3 km E Salmon Arm , 4.v.1992, AB, CNC161447 View Materials , CNC161448 View Materials (2 ♂, barcoded, CNC)   ; 6 km E Salmon Arm , 30.iv.1992, AB (1 ♀, CNC)   ; same data except, CNC161451 View Materials (1 ♂, barcoded, CNC)   ; 8 km E Sicamous [50°53′N 118°54′W],, AB (6 ♀, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; 24 km NE Sicamous , 19.v.1991, AB (1 ♂, 1 ♀, CNC)   ; Vernon [50°16′00″N 119°16′18″W], Lasheen Estates,, R GoogleMaps   . A. Cannings (1 ♀, RBCM)   . Yukon: Morley R   Terr. Cpgd, Alaska Hwy DC-777 [60.00703°N 132.13727°W], 1.vii.1978, P.H. Arnaud (1 ♀, UNSM) GoogleMaps   . USA. Alaska: mi 244 Richardson Hwy [63°42′26″N 145°51′10″W], 2000 ft,, W. R GoogleMaps   . M. Mason (1 ♂, USNM)   . Colorado: Clear Ck Co., Grizzly Gulch Rd, Clear Ck , 10300 ft, 39°40′36″N 105°48′22″W, MT GoogleMaps   ,, JMC & SEB (2 ♀, CNC)   ; Gunnison Co., Spring Ck Cpgd [38°44′56″N 106°46′00″W] GoogleMaps   , 5 mi N Almont,, JFM (20 ♂, 16 ♀, CNC); Mineral Co., Park Ck , 8747 ft, 37°33′55″N 106°43′23″W,, SEB (4 ♂, 6 ♀, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Rio Grande Co., 10000 ft, Beaver Ck [37.60526° -106.67622°],, MT   , W.W. Wirth (1 ♀, USNM); Saguache Co., Marshall Ck   , 7 mi E Sargents , 9075 ft, 38°21′36″N 106°19′29″W,, JMC (1 ♂, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; S Fk Rio Grande [37°40′25″N 106°38′06″W], 18–, 9250 ft (1 ♀, AMNH) GoogleMaps   . Idaho: Latah Co., Harvard [46.917°N 116.73°W], ex. Salix   , 14.v.1962, W.F. Barr (1 ♀, WFBM); Latah Co GoogleMaps   ., 3 mi S Helmer [46°48′02″N 116°28′12″W], Meadow Ck, 2800 ft, ex. Lomatium orogenioides   , 20.v.1975, N.E. Woodley (1 ♂, 1 ♀, USNM); same data except, 17.v.1975, WJT (2 ♂, OUMNH) GoogleMaps   . Montana: Gallatin Co., Bear Canyon [45°37′10″N 110°55′47″W], 6 mi SE Bozeman,, J.B. Runyon & R GoogleMaps   . L. Hurley (1 ♂, MTEC); Glacier Pk, Avalanche Lk. [48°39′19″N 113°47′13″W], 14.vii.1935, ALM (1 ♀, USNM) GoogleMaps   . North Carolina: Swain Co., Great Smoky Mtns NP, ATBI Plot: Andrews Bald , MT 12, 35°32′20″N 83°29′39″S, 10–24.v.2001, I. Stocks, M. McCord, G. Middleton (1 ♂, 2 ♀, CNC)   . Oregon: Crook Co., Ochoco NF, along Kyle Ck , 44°21′56″N 120°22′5″W, 19.iv.–12.vii.2017, MT065 GoogleMaps   , S. Fitzgerald (1 ♂, CNC); Mt. Hood [45°19′21″N 121°54′24″W],, 5000 ft, ALM (1 ♂, USNM) GoogleMaps   . Washington: Mt Rainier NP   , Reflection Lk. , 46°46.173′N 121°44.740′W, 1480 m, 3.vii.2013, BJS GoogleMaps   (3 ♀, CNC)   .

Recognition. This species is distinguished by biserial acrostichals, distinctively curved phallus, elongate and broad cerci ( Fig. 68 View FIGURES 66–70 ) and apically truncate cell dm.

Redescription. Wing length 2.6–2.9 mm. Male. Head black in ground-colour, black setation, occiput finely brownish pollinose. Eyes holoptic, with upper ommatidia enlarged. Frons represented by small triangular space just above antennae, bare, brownish grey pollinose. Ocellar triangle prominent, with 2 moderately long thin proclinate setae. Postvertical and postocular setae rather long, thin; additionally, occiput covered with numerous similar setae in lower part. Antenna black; scape short, subequal to globular pedicel, both with short setae; postpedicel rather broad at base, nearly 4 times longer than wide, smoothly tapered; stylus very short, sensillum-tipped; segment 9 tubular, about as long as wide, apical sensillum nearly as long as segment 9. Proboscis long, projected oblique; labium longer than head height; palpus narrow, projected parallel to labrum, two-thirds length of labrum.

Thorax dark brown in ground-colour with posterior part of postpronotal lobe and postalar tubercle paler, with brown to black setation; scutum viewed dorsally subshiny, finely brown pruinose, without vittae; viewed anteriorly densely brown pruinose, without vittae; mesopleuron uniformly greyish brown pollinose. Proepisternum with a few hair-like setae. Postpronotal lobe with 1 long and several short setae. Mesonotal setae distinct, thin; acr moderately long, biserial, arranged in 2 closely spaced irregular rows, lacking on prescutellar depression, distance between rows subequal to length of acr; dc uniserial (with some additional setulae in anterior part), offset from row anteriorly, slightly longer than acr, 2–3 distinct prescutellar dc; 1 ph, 1–2 presut spal (sometimes with additional setulae), 3–4 npl (with several additional shorter setae), several psut spal setulae, 1 pal and several short setulae, 6–7 pairs of sctl.

Legs, including coxae, mostly brownish; knees of fore and mid legs brownish yellow, tarsi somewhat darker. Coxae and trochanters with unmodified hair-like setae. Fore femur with row of short anteroventral hair-like setae and somewhat longer setae on posteroventral, dorsal and posterior faces. Mid femur with moderately long posteroventral bristly setae along entire length, bearing some moderately long setae on dorsal and posterior faces. Hind femur with long anteroventral and dorsal setae along whole length. Tibiae with prominent posterodorsal setae. Tarsomere 1 of mid and hind legs with pair of rows of stiff ventral setae; tarsomere 5 not flattened on all legs; pulvilli broad, shorter than tarsal claw.

Wing uniformly, finely infuscate; basal costal seta absent; pterostigma distinct brownish, elliptical, overlapping apex of R 1; anal lobe very prominent, acute. Sc complete; R 2+3 often slightly bowed posterior to pterostigma; R 4+5 unbranched or branched; cell dm broad, longer than basal cells, truncate apically; base of M 2 (crossvein) nearly onefourth length of dm-m, M branches widely separated; dm-m crossvein slightly concave. Apex of cell cua recurved, CuA+CuP long, faint, ending short of wing margin. Halter brown.

Abdomen brown, subshiny to finely brownish grey pollinose, covered with long brownish setae. Terminalia ( Fig. 68 View FIGURES 66–70 ) concolorous with abdomen, small. Hypandrium with numerous long setae, rounded, upcurved apically, apex narrow and truncate; gonocoxal apodeme broad and short; inner apodeme narrow and flattened, one-third length of gonocoxal apodeme; postgonite long, arched posteriorly, produced into pair of short lobes enclosing mid-length lobe of phallus. Phallic guide not extended beyond epandrium, apex round, expanded, with sculptured surface. Epandrium not inflated laterally; dorsal bridge narrow; weakly produced distally into horizontally projecting surstylus; apex of surstylus with hook-like projection posteriorly; bacilliform sclerite with spine-like medially directed process at midlength. Phallus slender, arched beyond epandrium, with short, mid-length anterior lobe, apically strongly recurved to left with sharp tip; ejaculatory apodeme plate-like, rounded, much shorter than gonocoxal apodeme. Cercus long, broad, two-thirds length of epandrium; apex broadly rounded, extended free from epandrium; hypoproct produced into pair of long, slender processes, projecting beyond cercus.

Female. Similar to male, except as follows: Eyes dichoptic, ommatidia equally small. Frons very broad, somewhat widened toward ocellar triangle, subshiny with fine greyish pruinescence, with quite long marginal setulae. Scutellum with 8 pairs of setae. Legs (including coxae) usually varying from yellow to dusky yellow to darkened leaving only knees distinctly yellow; fore and mid femora with some short, hardly prominent posteroventral subapical setae. Halter varying from yellow to brown. Posterior margin of thorax and base of abdomen and basal sternite yellow to dark; abdominal setation shorter. Cercus brownish, long, slender.

Distribution. Nearctic: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon), USA (Alaska, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, North Carolina, Oregon, Washington). This species is rather rare in eastern North America, known from a single locality in the southern Appalachians and is more widespread in western North America ( Fig. 74 View FIGURES 71–74 ).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Institut Botànic de Barcelona


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Royal British Columbia Museum


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


University of Nebraska State Museum


Mus. Tinro, Vladyvostok


American Museum of Natural History


W.F. Barr Entomological Collection


Montana State Entomology Collection


Museum National Historie Naturelle














Iteaphila polygyna (Melander)

Sinclair, Bradley J. & Shamshev, Igor V. 2021

Anthepiscopus polygynus

Melander, A. L. 1928: 105

Anthepiscopus flavicoxa

Melander, A. L. 1928: 107