Chondrocyclus cooperae, Cole, 2019

Cole, Mary L., 2019, Revision of Chondrocyclus s. l. (Mollusca: Cyclophoridae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 569, pp. 1-92: 49-53

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.569

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:79BE13FC-B840-4C39-8D25-3328BDCC44D2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/101687E3-D560-FFFC-FDAA-AC5FFAD4D1A1

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chondrocyclus cooperae
status

sp. nov.

Chondrocyclus cooperae   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:16788

Figs 10 View Fig M–N, 16 B, 24

Chondrocyclus putealis – Herbert & Kilburn 2004: 91   .

Diagnosis

Shell small, depressed, lenticular; periostracum with dense axial costae expanded into seven spiral rows of flanges on last whorl: one at periphery, and three each between periphery and suture and between periphery and umbilicus; costae and flanges bear numerous tiny vertical ridges; operculum duplex, exterior concave portion shaped like a wide cup or bowl, multispiral lamella with horizontal shelf of interwoven bristles spiralling up on inside of bowl, fused to a very long, loose fringe reflexed over peristome; radula with three large cusps on second lateral tooth; penis flattened dorsoventrally with prominent lateral expansion on left of shaft towards distal end, and with a characteristic long intromittent organ.

Etymology

Named for Janna Cooper, who helped collect specimens of this species and in recognition of her intimate knowledge of the Transkei coast.

Type material examined

Holotype

SOUTH AFRICA – Eastern Cape • Umtiza Nature Reserve, east side of Buffalo Pass , indigenous scarp forest; 33.0144° S: 27.8081° E; 21 Apr. 2006; M. Bursey leg.; in leaf litter; NMSA W View Materials 9271/ T 3074. ( Fig. 10 View Fig M–N) GoogleMaps  

Paratypes

SOUTH AFRICA – Eastern Cape • 2 specimens; same collection data as for holotype; ELM D14918 View Materials / T 122 GoogleMaps   15 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; M. Cole leg., 18 Mar. 2011; ELM D16936 View Materials / T 120 GoogleMaps   5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W View Materials 3623/ T 121 GoogleMaps   4 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NHMUK 20120280 View Materials GoogleMaps   2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NMSA W View Materials 9275/ T 3076 GoogleMaps   1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; NMW. Z.2012.065.00009 GoogleMaps   3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; RMNH MOL.330502 GoogleMaps   3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 20 May 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17008 View Materials / T 123 GoogleMaps   4 specimens; Hickmans River , dune forest west of lagoon; 33.0700° S, 27.8364° E; 15 Mar. 2003; M. Bursey; ELM D16934 View Materials / T 124 GoogleMaps   15 specimens; East London, Nahoon estuary east bank, 1 km upstream of mouth; 32.9804° S, 27.9433° E; 2 Jun. 2003; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15533 View Materials / T 126 GoogleMaps   1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W View Materials 3681/ T 125 GoogleMaps   3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 8 Dec. 2009; M. Cole leg., ELM D16931 View Materials / T 127 GoogleMaps   11 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W View Materials 03621/ T 128 GoogleMaps   7 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 30 Mar. 2011; M. Cole and D.- J. Hodgkinson leg., ELM W View Materials 03622/ T 129 GoogleMaps   5 specimens; Gqunube Green, east bank of Gonubie River , 1 km upstream of mouth, forest on steep slope; 32.9329° S, 28.0235° E; 9 Apr. 2003; M. Bursey leg.; ELM W View Materials 03028/ T 130 GoogleMaps   5 specimens; Gqunube Green, Wilderness Valley, tributary of Gonubie River on east bank 2.5 km upstream of mouth; 32.9303° S, 28.0128° E; 11 Apr. 2002; M. Cole leg., ELM D17009 View Materials / T 131 GoogleMaps   4 specimens; Kwelera, Monrepos, Schultz Farm ; 32.8883° S, 28.0417° E; 13 Nov. 2007; M. Cole leg., ELM D15603 View Materials / T 132 GoogleMaps   11 specimens; Viskop, east bank of Cefane River ; 32.8047° S, 28.1319° E; 20 Nov. 2006; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15121 View Materials / T 133 GoogleMaps   5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W View Materials 03112/ T 134 GoogleMaps   12 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 30 Dec. 2009; M. Cole leg., ELM D16929 View Materials / T 135 GoogleMaps   1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W View Materials 03620/ T 136 GoogleMaps   3 specimens; Mazeppa Bay, east bank of Sihlontlweni estuary near mouth; 32.4783° S; 28.6460° E; 28 m a.s.l.; 23 Apr. 2015; M. Cole leg., ELM D17931 View Materials / T 137 GoogleMaps   3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W View Materials 03867/ T 138 GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Colleywobbles , south facing slope above vulture colony, sparse thicket invaded with Lantana   ; 31.9833° S, 28.5833° E; 20 Feb. 2006; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D14968 View Materials / T 139 GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Dwesa Nature Reserve , forest along roadside east of camp; 32.1528° S, 28.8417° E; 7 Mar. 2000; M. Bursey leg.; ELM W View Materials 03212/ T 140; 5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 20 Feb. 2011; R. Daniels leg.; ELM D16935 View Materials / T 141 GoogleMaps   3 specimens; Xora, Nxeni Forest, east bank of Ntlonyane River ; 32.1933° S, 28.9574° E; 8 Nov. 2012; M. and K. Cole leg., ELM D17499 View Materials / T 142 GoogleMaps   13 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W View Materials 03813/ T 143 GoogleMaps   2 specimens; Mpame forest ; 32.0856° S, 29.0306° E; 20 Feb. 2009; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16937 View Materials / T 144 GoogleMaps   2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W View Materials 03624/ T 145 GoogleMaps   2 specimens; Hluleka Nature Reserve , forest on north bank of river, steeply sloping, after second bridge along forest road; 31.8196° S, 29.3155° E; 20 Apr. 2005; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15529 View Materials / T 146 GoogleMaps   4 specimens; Port St. Johns, east bank of Umzimvubu River , 3 km upstream; 31.5972° S, 29.5350° E; 6 Jul. 2006; M. Bursey and V. Ndibo leg.; alive in leaflitter; ELM D15227 View Materials / T 147 GoogleMaps   3 specimens; Port St. Johns, travertine deposit area, 26 km upstream on Umzimvubu River ; 31.5211° S, 29.4569° E; 22 Apr. 2005; M. Bursey and V. Ndibo leg.; ELM D15311 View Materials / T 148 GoogleMaps   7 specimens; Mbotyi, forest near Mkozi River, south-facing forest on steep slope on east bank of Mkozi River ; 31.4459° S, 29.7549° E; 2 Mar. 2003; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D14394 View Materials / T 149 GoogleMaps   1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W View Materials 2836/ T 150 GoogleMaps   .

Other material examined

SOUTH AFRICA – Eastern Cape • 1 specimen; Umtiza Nature Reserve, east side of Buffalo Pass , indigenous scarp forest; 33.0144° S, 27.8081° E; Nov. 1993; C. J. Vernon leg.; ELM D13141 View Materials GoogleMaps   32 spcimens; East London, Nahoon estuary east bank, 1 km upstream of mouth; 32.9804° S, 27.9433° E; 30 Mar. 2011; M. Cole and D.- J. Hodgkinson leg.; ELM D16932 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; East London, forest below casino, west bank of Nahoon River near Abbotsford causeway, 4.5 km upstream of mouth; 32.9692° S, 27.906000° E; 28 Jan. 2008; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16959 View Materials GoogleMaps   4 specimens; Gqunube Green, east bank of Gonubie River , 1 km upstream of mouth, forest on steep slope; 32.9329° S, 28.0235° E; 9 Apr. 2003; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D13644 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Inkwenkwezi Private Game Reserve, inland of Cintsa ; 32.8333° S, 28.0667° E; 22 Nov. 2006; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15186 View Materials GoogleMaps   4 specimens; Viskop, east bank of Cefane River ; 32.8047° S, 28.1319° E; 8 Apr. 2000; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D16930 View Materials GoogleMaps   2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 15 Jun. 2000; ELM D15536 View Materials GoogleMaps   3 specimens; Morgan’s Bay, Yellowood Park , 2 km upstream of mouth, riverine forest on south-west facing slope, predominantly Strelitzia nicolai   ; 32.6967° S, 28.3347° E; 14 Mar. 2005; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15338 View Materials GoogleMaps   5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 6 Mar. 2011; R. Daniels leg.; ELM D16968 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Dwesa Nature Reserve , forest along roadside east of camp; 32.1528° S, 28.8417° E; 5 Mar. 2000; M. Bursey leg.; ELM W View Materials 03261 GoogleMaps   28 specimens; Xora, Nxeni Forest, east bank of Ntlonyane River ; 32.1933° S, 28.9574° E; 11 Aug. 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16938 View Materials GoogleMaps   7 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W View Materials 03625 GoogleMaps   2 specimens; Sinangwana, Sigxeni Forest, east bank of Sinangwana River ; 31.7474° S, 29.3708° E; 21 Apr. 2005; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D15427 View Materials GoogleMaps   3 specimens; Port St. Johns, east side of Umzimvubu River in valley north of Mount Sullivan ; 31.5899° S, 29.5451° E; M. Bursey and V. Ndibo leg.; 6 Jul. 2006; alive in leaf-litter; ELM D15235 View Materials GoogleMaps   .

Description

SHELL ( Fig. 24 View Fig A–C). Small, depressed, lenticular, adult diameter 4.51–6.51 mm, height 2.25–4.01 mm, diameter:height 1.44–2.32 (n = 66, measured in several populations throughout the range). Spire not much raised, apex almost flat ( Fig. 24 A View Fig ). Embryonic shell ( Fig. 23D View Fig ) just under 1.75 whorls, microscopically malleate, roughest in centre, junction between embryonic shell and teleoconch evident with appearance of a few weak costae, but not sharply demarcated. Teleoconch comprising 2.75 whorls, moderately convex, rapidly increasing, suture deeply impressed. Aperture circular, last whorl descending strongly near aperture, peristome simple, continuous and free. Umbilicus wide and deep, exposing all the whorls ( Fig. 24 C View Fig ). Periostracum glossy, honey-brown and lacquer-like with dense lamellate axial costae at regular intervals, density varying between populations, 105–179 (n = 27, counted in three separate populations), expanded into tall quadrangularly-shaped flanges at periphery, and six additional spiral rows of lowerstanding flanges on body whorl, three between suture and periphery and three rows between periphery and umbilicus, the row closest to umbilicus weaker than other rows ( Fig. 24 View Fig A–C); flanges and portion of costae near umbilicus bear axial ridges visible at very high magnification ( Fig. 24 E View Fig ); intervals between costae with microscopic axial threads. Shell translucent, glossy, honey-brown when fresh.

LIVING ANIMAL. Head, tentacles and snout dark grey, underside of foot creamy white.

OPERCULUM ( Fig. 24 View Fig G–H).Duplex, outer multispiral portion with5.5 whorls forming a widely cupolaeform cup or bowl, upper edge of lamellar blade thickened, forming a horizontal shelf of interwoven bristles in a lattice-like pattern; in the outermost whorl the latter is continuous with a very long fringe reflexed over peristome and preventing operculum being withdrawn into shell; in earlier whorls this fringe is not visible and appears fused with the lamella; growing edge of lamella arrow shaped. Surface of lamella of last whorl tuberculate at high magnification.

RADULA ( Fig. 24 F View Fig ). Rachidian with five cusps, central one approx. twice length of outer two on each side; first and second lateral teeth similar but second is larger, each with four cusps and a vestigial fifth; first three cusps gradually increasing in size from centre outwards and fourth very small.

PENIS ( Fig. 24 View Fig I–J). Shaft dorsoventrally flattened, with large lateral expansion on left side, with numerous annular rugae, distal end smooth and not bulbous, intromittent organ very long.

Distribution and habitat

Endemic to Eastern Cape from East London to Mbotyi, primarily near the coast. The range of C. cooperae   sp. nov. overlaps with that of C. bathrolophodes   in the west, and C. pondoensis   sp. nov. in the east ( Fig. 16 B View Fig ).

Indigenous Scarp Forest ( Mucina & Geldenhuys 2006) and Eastern Cape Dune Forest ( von Maltitz et al. 2003), in leaf litter.

Remarks

Chondrocyclus cooperae   sp. nov. resembles C. bathrolophodes   and C. putealis   in general shape, operculum and radula, but differs consistently in the larger number of spiral rows of periostracal flanges. The very long intromittent organ of the penis is unmistakable and immediately distinguishes the species.

B

Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet

A

Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

E

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

M

Botanische Staatssammlung M�nchen

NMSA

KwaZulu-Natal Museum

W

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

ELM

East London Museum

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

Z

Universit�t Z�rich

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

W

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

J

University of the Witwatersrand

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

K

Royal Botanic Gardens

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

C

University of Copenhagen

F

Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Mollusca

Class

Gastropoda

Order

Architaenioglossa

Family

Cyclophoridae

Genus

Chondrocyclus

Loc

Chondrocyclus cooperae

Cole, Mary L. 2019
2019
Loc

Chondrocyclus putealis – Herbert & Kilburn 2004: 91

Herbert D. & Kilburn D. 2004: 91
2004