Afrocyclus isipingoensis ( Sturany, 1898 ), Cole, 2019

Cole, Mary L., 2019, Revision of Chondrocyclus s. l. (Mollusca: Cyclophoridae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 569, pp. 1-92: 61-67

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.569

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:79BE13FC-B840-4C39-8D25-3328BDCC44D2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/101687E3-D56C-FF8A-FE40-A8BCFC3ED2A0

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Afrocyclus isipingoensis ( Sturany, 1898 )
status

gen. et comb. nov.

Afrocyclus isipingoensis ( Sturany, 1898)   gen. et comb. nov.

Figs 27 View Fig , 28A View Fig , 29 View Fig

Cyclotus isipingoensis Sturany, 1898: 161   (type loc.: Isipingo [Penther]).

Cyclophorus minimus Melvill & Ponsonby, 1898: 129   , pl. vii, fig. 9 (type loc.: Pietermaritzburg [Burnup]).

Cyclophorus (Maizania) isipingoensis – Kobelt 1902: 149   .

Chondrocyclus isipingoensis – Connolly 1939: 540   . — Herbert & Kilburn 2004: 91.

Cyclophorus minimus – Melville & Ponsonby 1899   : pl. iii, fig. 15 (operculum).

Diagnosis

Shell very small, very depressed, discoidal; periostracum with axial costae producing spiral rows of simple hairs; operculum very fragile and duplex, exterior portion very shallowly concave, with low multispiral lamella terminating in a solid fringe; rachidian tooth of radula with serrated upper edge, two large cusps on second lateral tooth.

Etymology

Named after the type locality, Isipingo, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Type material examined

Holotype

SOUTH AFRICA – KwaZulu-Natal • holotype of Cyclotus isipingoensis Sturany, 1898   ; in Vienna Museum, not examined; NHMW.

Syntype

SOUTH AFRICA – KwaZulu-Natal • syntype of Cyclophorus minimus Melvill & Ponsonby, 1898   ; Pietermaritzburg; Burnup leg.; NHMUK 1902.10 View Materials .1.7   .

Other material examined

SOUTH AFRICA – Limpopo • 99 specimens; Soutpansberg, Dundee Forest ; 23.017° S, 29.515°E; 24 Jul. 1999; C. Symons leg.; sorted from leaf litter; NMSA V7513 View Materials GoogleMaps   77 specimens; Soutpansberg, Entabeni, Goedehoop , indigenous forest; 23.0833° S, 30.1117°E; ± 950 m a.s.l.; 20 Nov. 1997; D. Herbert leg.; in leaf-litter; NMSA V5658 View Materials GoogleMaps   . – Mpumalanga • 119 specimens; Buffelskloof Nat. Res. , indigenous forest; 25.3169° S, 30.4990°E; 1300 m a.s.l.; 15 Mar. 2006; J. Horn leg.; in leaf-litter; NMSA W4486 View Materials GoogleMaps   . – KwaZulu-Natal • 28 specimens; Ngoye Forest , lower section, coastal scarp forest; 28.8330° S, 31.7170° E; ± 250 m a.s.l.; 6 Sep. 1997; D. Herbert leg.; in leaf litter; NMSA V5861 View Materials GoogleMaps   6 specimens; Nkandla Forest Reserve, Mdonini area , mist-belt forest; 28.7453° S, 31.1357° E; ± 1050 m a.s.l.; 21 Oct. 2003; Herbert, Bursey and Nangammbi leg.; under logs and in leaf-litter; NMSA W 1103 View Materials GoogleMaps   58 specimens; Vernon Crookes Nat. Res. , small patch of scarp forest; 30.2750°S, 30.5830° E; 1 Jan. 2004; D. Herbert leg.; in thin layer of leaf-litter on flat-topped boulder; NMSA W1441 View Materials GoogleMaps   28 specimens; Loteni, Yellow-Wood Cave area montane Podocarpus   forest; 29.4150°S, 29.4800°E; 1800 m a.s.l.; in leaf-litter; 25 Oct. 1997; D. Herbert leg.; NMSA V5752 View Materials GoogleMaps   30 specimens; Karkloof Falls, near top of gorge, Southern Mistbelt Forest ; 29.4088° S, 30.2840°E; 22 Jan. 2010; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16902 View Materials GoogleMaps   3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03650 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Karkloof Nature Reserve ; 29.3150° S, 30.2500° E; 1350 m a.s.l.; 23 Jan. 2010; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16903 View Materials GoogleMaps   17 specimens; Kenneth Stainbank N.R, Yellowwood Park ; 29.9122° S, 30.9390°E; 12 Jan. 2010; M. Cole and K. Cole leg.; ELM D16897 View Materials GoogleMaps   34 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 12 Apr. 2011; M. Cole, R. Daniels, L. Davis and D. Herbert leg.; ELM D16898 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03648 View Materials GoogleMaps   3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NHMUK 20120268 View Materials GoogleMaps   2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NMW.Z.2012.065.00001 GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Kranskop area, Ntumjambili , indigenous forest; 28.9380°S, 30.9550°E; ± 900 m a.s.l.; 9Aug. 1997; D. Herbert leg.; in leaf-litter; NMSA V5105 View Materials GoogleMaps   3 specimens; Kelso , dune forest behind railway station; 30.3622°S, 30.71316° E; 24 m a.s.l.; 31 Oct. 2010; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17635 View Materials GoogleMaps   . – Eastern Cape • 2 specimens; Mtentu , north bank, inlet 1.5 km upstream to first waterfall from mouth, east side of inlet; 31.2389°S, 30.0340° E; 30 m a.s.l.; 13 Jan. 2012; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17086 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03604 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Mtentu , north bank, inlet 3 km upstream of mouth, west side of inlet; 31.2295°S, 30.0182° E; 43 m a.s.l.; 12 Jan. 2012; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17006 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03605 View Materials GoogleMaps   7 specimens; Mkambati Nature Reserve, between Mkambati and Strandloper Falls , forest on east bank of Mkambati River ; 31.2738° S, 30.0236°E; 15 Feb. 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16913 View Materials GoogleMaps   5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03653 View Materials GoogleMaps   3 specimens; Mkambati, east bank Msikaba mouth; 31.3183° S, 29.9683° E; 16 Feb. 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16914 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Mkambati, Gwe Gwe forest, forest above Gwe Gwe cottages; 31.2904°S, 29.9897°E; 5 Mar. 2001; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17004 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Mkambati Nature Reserve, Daza forest ; 31.3025° S, 29.9767°E; 16 Feb. 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM W03688 View Materials GoogleMaps   2 specimens; Mbotyi, Ntsubane Forest, inland of coast, accessed along KwaNyambalala River ; 31.4615° S, 29.7129°E; 3 Mar. 2003; M. Bursey leg.; ELM D17363 View Materials GoogleMaps   2 specimens; Xora, Kumqolo Forest, west bank of Xora river opposite Mangrove swamp; 32.1589° S, 28.9848° E; 13 Aug. 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17584 View Materials GoogleMaps   5 specimens; Qora, East Bank of Qora River , riverine forest; 32.4333° S, 28.6667° E; 7 Nov. 2009; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16904 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03651 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; 9 Oct. 2011; M Cole leg.; ELM D17000 View Materials GoogleMaps   17 specimens; Phumalanga Farm, 7 km inland of Cintsa, riverine forest on Bulura River ; 32.8067° S, 28.0306°E; 25 Apr. 2006; Bursey, Wigley and Ndibo leg.; ELM D15030 View Materials GoogleMaps   12 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 12 Dec. 2008; M. Wigley; ELM D15870 View Materials GoogleMaps   23 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 16 Nov. 2009; M. Cole and M. Wigley leg.; ELM D16899 View Materials GoogleMaps   19 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 1 Dec. 2009; M. Wigley; ELM D16900 View Materials GoogleMaps   11 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03686 View Materials GoogleMaps   51 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 31 Dec. 2010; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16901 View Materials GoogleMaps   9 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03649 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Umtiza Nature Reserve, Tree Dassie trail on east side of Buffalo Pass ; 33.0169° S, 27.8092°E; 21 Apr. 2006; M. Bursey leg.; ELM W03008 View Materials GoogleMaps   3 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 8 Jun. 2010; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16905 View Materials GoogleMaps   8 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 13 Jan. 2011; V. Ndibo, J. Glatz and R. Daniels leg.; ELM D16906 View Materials GoogleMaps   5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W03652 View Materials GoogleMaps   5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 20 May 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16907 View Materials GoogleMaps   7 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 18 Mar. 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16908 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; 1 Dec. 2011; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16909 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Hogsback, downstream of Madonna and Child Waterfall ; 32.6068°S, 26.9622° E; 1060 m a.s.l.; 25 Jan. 2002; M. Bursey leg.; ELM W02835 View Materials GoogleMaps   1 specimen; Hogsback, Amathole Mountains, Kettlespout , forest above Hobbiton ; 32.5667° S, 26.9167° E; 31 Dec. 2008; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17007 View Materials GoogleMaps   10 specimens; Amathole Mountains, Stutterheim, Kologha Forest , near picnic site, Southern Mistbelt forest ; 32.5339° S, 27.4308° E; 22 Dec. 2009; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16910 View Materials GoogleMaps   2 specimens; Stutterheim, Kologha Forest, forest drive near Protea Hill ; 32.5339° S, 27.4308°E; 26 Jan. 2010; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16911 View Materials GoogleMaps   3 specimens; Stutterheim, Contour path; 32.5366°S, 27.3668°E; 16 Jan. 2015; M. Cole leg.; ELM D17873 View Materials GoogleMaps   2 specimens; Maden Dam, 18 km N.W. of King Williams Town ; 32.7333° S, 27.2833°E; 26 Mar. 2011; D.-J. Hodgkinson leg.; ELM D16912 View Materials GoogleMaps   9 specimens; Fort Fordyce , kloof with watercourse and sheer krantz; 32.6893°S, 26.5121° E; 915 m a.s.l.; 29 Dec. 2008; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16916 View Materials GoogleMaps   2 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 6 Oct. 2009; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16961 View Materials GoogleMaps   .

Description

Specimens from Kenneth Stainbank Nature Reserve, Durban, approx. 9 km from the type locality Isipingo, are considered to represent the type in the following description.

SHELL ( Fig. 27 View Fig A–C). Very small, very depressed, discoidal, adult diameter 2.24–3.67 mm, height 1.09– 1.67 mm, diameter:height 1.9–2.31 (n = 16) Spire almost flat, sometimes concave, usually with only the weakly mammillate, slightly tilted protoconch projecting ( Fig. 27A View Fig ). Embryonic shell ( Fig. 28A View Fig ) approx. 2.25 whorls, microscopically malleate for approx. two whorls, axial costae begin to develop at about 2.25 whorls. Teleoconch comprising just over two whorls, very rapidly increasing, convex, suture impressed. Aperture circular, last whorl descending steeply nearing aperture, peristome simple, continuous and free. Umbilicus very wide, exposing all the whorls ( Fig. 27C View Fig ). Periostracum glossy and lacquer-like with lamellate well-spaced axial costae at regular intervals, the average number on last whorl varying between 55 and 92 ( Table 5), which produce 10–12 spiral rows of simple hairs, longest at periphery (four rows) with approx. five–seven rows between periphery and umbilicus, the latter becoming progressively shorter nearer the umbilicus, and one very short row immediately below the suture; intervals between costae usually with six to nine microscopic axial threads ( Fig. 27D View Fig ). Shell translucent when fresh.

OPERCULUM ( Fig. 27 View Fig E–F). Very fragile and duplex, outer portion consists of multispiral lamella with five–six whorls, height of lamellar blade very low thus operculum is very shallowly concave to almost flat, thickened horizontal ridge on lamellar blade just above disc surface; long fringe of fused bristles emanates from this ridge, fused to blade and then curving outwards, leaving no furrow between fringe and vertical portion of blade, fringe of each whorl fused to lamella of following whorl, fringe of outer whorl fairly long and overlaps disc slightly; inner portion of operculum is a thin disc, in some populations side of disc facing body has a prominent tubercle or swelling in centre ( Fig. 27F View Fig ).

RADULA ( Fig. 27G View Fig ). Rachidian with five cusps, central one very long, outermost two very small to almost vestigial, cusps set a little distance below ‘top’ of tooth, top edge serrated; first lateral tooth with four cusps and a vestigial fifth, third cusp (from centre) largest; second lateral tooth with two large cusps, second cusp (from centre) largest, a third small cusp and a vestigial fourth.

PENIS ( Fig. 27H View Fig ). Shaft more or less cylindrical and laterally expanded on left side about midway down the shaft.

Distribution and habitat

This species complex is widely distributed throughout the eastern region of South Africa, from Soutpansberg mountains in Limpopo Province to the Amathole mountains in the Eastern Cape; from the coast to the Drakensberg foothills (1800 m) ( Fig. 29 View Fig ).

Indigenous forest of several classification types ( Mucina & Geldenhuys 2006): Southern and Northern Coastal Forest, Scarp Forest, Southern and Northern Mistbelt Forest, Northern Afrotemperate Forest, and Albany Thicket (Kowie Thicket) ( Hoare et al. 2006); in leaf-litter.

Remarks

Selected populations from across the range of this lineage were sampled for the molecular study and morphological examination and there is compelling evidence that A. isipingoensis   gen. et comb. nov. is a species complex rather than one widespread species. Until further study is undertaken the name A. isipingoensis   gen. et comb. nov. is applied to all populations with the exception of the three new species described below. Differences in the density of axial lamellae, the number and position of spiral rows of hairs, the length of the hairs, the density of microscopic axial threads between the lamellae and the strength of protoconch sculpture will need to be evaluated in conjunction with molecular evidence from more comprehensive coverage of the range of the complex.

The phylogeny inferred suggests that populations from the western end of the range (Somerset East and Bedford) belong to a distinct lineage ( A. oxygala   gen. et sp. nov.). There was also a well-supported lineage in montane areas between the coast and Great Escarpment in the central Transkei ( A. potteri   gen. et sp. nov.) and another lineage occurring in relatively close proximity in the north-eastern Transkei ( A. bhaca   gen. et sp. nov.). The population from near the type locality had one row of extremely short hairs on lamellate costae immediately below the suture, and a gap with no hairs between this and the four rows of very long hairs near the periphery ( Fig. 27D View Fig ). Afrocyclus oxygala   gen. et sp. nov. ( Fig. 30D View Fig ), A. potteri   gen. et sp. nov. ( Fig. 31 View Fig D–E) and A. bhaca   gen. et sp. nov. ( Fig. 32D View Fig ) lacked the extremely short row just below the suture.

The rachidian tooth of the radula is unusual in having a serrated upper edge and the cusps are set a little distance below the ‘top’of tooth. Afrocyclus isipingoensis   gen. et comb. nov. ( Fig. 27G View Fig ), A. exsertus   gen. et comb. nov. ( Fig. 33G View Fig ), A. potteri   gen. et sp. nov. ( Fig. 31G View Fig ) and A. bhaca   gen. et sp. nov. ( Fig. 32E View Fig ) showed this feature while the upper edge of the rachidian tooth of A. oxygala   gen. et sp. nov. ( Fig. 30G View Fig ) was not serrated as in species of Chondrocyclus   s.s.

NMSA

KwaZulu-Natal Museum

ELM

East London Museum

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Mollusca

Class

Gastropoda

Order

Architaenioglossa

Family

Cyclophoridae

Genus

Afrocyclus

Loc

Afrocyclus isipingoensis ( Sturany, 1898 )

Cole, Mary L. 2019
2019
Loc

Chondrocyclus isipingoensis – Connolly 1939: 540

Herbert D. & Kilburn D. 2004: 91
Connolly M. 1939: 540
1939
Loc

Cyclophorus (Maizania) isipingoensis –

Kobelt W. 1902: 149
1902
Loc

Cyclotus isipingoensis

Sturany R. 1898: 161
1898
Loc

Cyclophorus minimus

Melvill J. C. & Ponsonby J. H. 1898: 129
1898