Zoosphaerium bartolozzii Anilkumar & Wesener

Wesener, Thomas & Anilkumar, Pooja Avinipully, 2020, The millipedes collected by the Museum " La Specola " on Madagascar 1989 / 1991, with the description of three new species of giant pill-millipedes (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae), ZooKeys 930, pp. 3-35: 3

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Zoosphaerium bartolozzii Anilkumar & Wesener

sp. nov.

Zoosphaerium bartolozzii Anilkumar & Wesener   sp. nov. Figures 4 View Figure 4 , 5B View Figure 5 , 6 View Figure 6 , 7 View Figure 7


Adjective, the species is named after the Italian beetle expert Dr. Luca Bartolozzi who collected this species.

Material examined.

1 ♂ Holotype ( MZUF), Madagascar: 5 km S di Ambalamanakana, (strada Ambositra - Fianarantsoa) in forests, 20°46'49.2"S, 47°10'48.5"E, n. Mag. 1107. Legit: Bartolozzi, S. Taiti, C. Raharimina, 10 May 1991.


Zoosphaerium bartolozzii   sp. nov. is most similar to Z. tigrioculatum   due to the presence of three sclerotized crenulated teeth on the podomere three of the anterior telopod, and also in the visibility of the process of the 2nd podomere in anterior view (Figs 6D View Figure 6 , 7G View Figure 7 ). Zoosphaerium bartolozzii   sp. nov. differs from Z. tigrioculatum   in the presence of a single row cuticular impression on the endotergum (two rows in the latter), the absence of sensilla basiconica on antennomeres one and two, and the presence of a well-rounded anal shield which is slightly bell-shaped in Z. tigrioculatum   .


(all measurements in mm):

Body length: holotype male: length 24.2, width 11 (2nd = widest), height 6.2 (2nd = highest).

Coloration: Faded due to 27 years of preservation in alcohol. Legs and antennae dark green. Head and collum dark olive-green. Tergites and anal shield faded dark green-brown.

Head: Eyes with 90-100 ommatidia. Antennae long and protruding up to leg pair six. Size of antennomeres 1>2<3=4<5<6 (Fig. 4A View Figure 4 ). Antennomere 1 broad, antennomeres 1-3 with large rounded protuberant sclerotized teeth (Fig. 4B View Figure 4 ). Antennomeres 3-6 covered with large setae. Antennomere 6 with a single row of sensilla basiconica surrounding the apical disc, with four apical sensory cones (Fig. 4C View Figure 4 ).

Gnathochilarium: Lateral stipites and central mentum with long setae, setae absent at center of lamellae linguales. Inner palpi protruding to medial side of gnathochilarium bearing single field of sensory cones. Rudimentary lateral palpi sharing a well-developed base bearing four sensory cones. Hypopharynx with single row of marginal teeth. Central pads apically protruding from lamellae linguales, with a median triangular incision on each pad. Posterior half of underside with single field of large sensory cones interspersed with longer, slimmer structures.

Mandible not dissected.

Stigmatic plates: First stigmatic plate triangular, with marginal setae and some extra setae at elliptical apex, three spines near tracheal opening (Fig. 6A View Figure 6 ). Second stigmatic plate triangular, with a slightly curved apex. Marginal setae dense at base, 19 spines near tracheal opening (Fig. 6B View Figure 6 ).

Pleurite: First pleurite with a rounded tip protruding backwards.

Collum: Surface glabrous, anterior margin with two rows of setae. Posterior margin laterally with few isolated setae.

Thoracic shield: Lateral grooves shallow, setae only present in lateral grooves.

Tergites: Surface glabrous and slightly chagrined. Tips of paratergites slightly extending posteriorly.

Endotergum: Inner area with conical spines, broad at base with few setae and numerous small sharp spines in between. Single row of elliptical cuticular impressions. Smooth marginal ridge. Two rows of marginal bristles, majority protruding 1/4-1/2, a few to 3/4 of distance to margin (Fig. 5B View Figure 5 ).

Anal shield: Large and well rounded, completely covered with tiny setae, underside carrying two locking carinae, second 3.5 times longer than first.

Legs: Leg 1 with three or four, leg 2 with six or seven, leg 3 with seven ventral spines. Legs 1 and 2 without an apical spine. Legs 4-21 with eleven ventral spines and one apical spine (Fig. 6C View Figure 6 ). In leg 9 femur 1.7, tarsus 5.4 times longer than wide. Coxa with few spines. Femur ridge present. All podomeres covered with setae.

Female unknown.

Male sexual characters: Gonopore rounded, slightly divided near to apex, covered by 1/4 membranous plate apically and 3/4 sclerotized plate basally with few setae. Gonopore covering 1/4 height and 1/2 width of coxa (Fig. 6C View Figure 6 ).

Anterior telopod: Harp carrying one stridulation rib. Podomere 1 with few marginal and apical setae (Fig. 6D View Figure 6 ), and a shallow mesal cavity laterally (Fig. 6E View Figure 6 ). Podomere 2, process visible in anterior view, reaching 2/3rd of length of podomere 3 (Fig. 6D View Figure 6 ). Podomere 2 process slightly slender apically, with sclerotized nubs along apical-mesal margin and a basal spine present below field of spots (Fig. 7F, G View Figure 7 ). Podomere 3 apically wide, visible as small triangular lobe in anterior aspect (Fig. 6D View Figure 6 ), with one dark sclerotized spot near apical margin (Figs 6E View Figure 6 , 7F View Figure 7 ) and a broad mesal cavity with sclerotized spots running along apical-basal margin, with four spines and three sclerotized crenulated teeth at meso-apical margin of cavity (Fig. 7F, G View Figure 7 ). Two spines merged at apical margin above field of spots, one at center of cavity with tip protruding to sclerotized spots, one basal spine below field of spots. Podomeres 2 and 3 covered with setae (Fig. 7F, G View Figure 7 ).

Posterior telopod: Movable finger thicker (2.5 times longer than wide) and slightly longer than immovable finger, carrying one spine just below dark sclerotized spot along apical margin (Fig. 7H View Figure 7 ). Hollowed-out margin with two membranous lobes, each with one marginal spine centrally (Fig. 7I View Figure 7 ). 12 sclerotized crenulated teeth present marginally. Six teeth apically positioned together, three at center of margin (between two membranous lobes), and last three separated by a short distance, two directly at base and one near base of posterior membranous lobe (Fig. 7H View Figure 7 ). Movable finger with few basal marginal setae. Tips of podomeres 2 and 3 slightly curved towards one another. Immovable finger slender (3.2 times longer than wide) with sclerotized spots running from apical to mid margin. Immovable finger covered with setae in posterior aspect, one membranous lobe present between podomeres 2 and 3. Podomere 1 large, rectangular with no setae in anterior or posterior aspect (Fig. 7H, I View Figure 7 ).