Phanacis Foerster , 1860

Noort, Simon van, Buffington, Matthew L. & Forshage, Mattias, 2015, Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera), ZooKeys 493, pp. 1-176 : 14

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scientific name

Phanacis Foerster , 1860


Taxon classification Animalia Hymenoptera Cynipidae

Phanacis Foerster, 1860 View in CoL View at ENA


Phanacis Förster is closely related to Timaspis Mayr, which is considered to be a junior synonym by some authors ( Eady and Quinlan 1963, Melika 2006, Melika and Prinsloo 2007), but not others ( Nieves-Aldrey 1994, 2001).


Phanacis is immediately distinguishable from the other cynipid genera present in the Afrotropical region by the open marginal cell, which may be semi-closed (completely closed in both Qwaqwaia and Rhoophilus ). The areolet, if defined, is triangular, but may be inconspicuous or absent in some species. It is large and distinct in both other genera, triangular in Rhoophilus , elongate rhomboidal in Qwaqwaia . Phanacis lacks an occipital carina as in Rhoophilus , but has free metasomal tergites, whereas Rhoophilus has tergites 2 and 3 fused.


Afrotropical: South Africa: Western Cape Province and Eastern Cape Province. Also Palearctic including North Africa; Nearctic: USA and Canada (introduced); Neotropical: Argentina (introduced); Australasia: Australia (introduced).


Phytophagous: Phanacis neserorum oviposit in young, soft stems of Chrysanthemoides monolifera (L.) Norl. ( Asteraceae ), larvae developing in cells in the pith without any visible gall formation. Adults emerge in July and August. Gall formation shows no swelling or external deformation of the stem with surface emergence holes the only indication of infestation ( Melika and Prinsloo 2007).

The introduced Phanacis hypochoeridis is a gall former in stalks of Hypochaeris radicata L. ( Asteraceae ) ( Melika and Prinsloo 2007).

Species richness.

Phanacis hypochoeridis (Kieffer, 1887) ( Aulax ) (introduced to South Africa from Europe)

Phanacis neserorum Melika & Prinsloo, 2007 (South Africa)

A number of undescribed species are known from South Africa.