Corethrella xokleng, Amaral & Mariano & Pinho, 2019

Amaral, André P., Mariano, Rodolfo & Pinho, Luiz Carlos, 2019, Four new species and some new records of Brazilian frog-biting midges (Diptera Corethrellidae), Zootaxa 4706 (1), pp. 103-120: 110-112

publication ID

publication LSID


persistent identifier

taxon LSID

treatment provided by


scientific name

Corethrella xokleng

sp. n.

Corethrella xokleng   sp. n.

( Figures 3–5 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 )

Type material. Holotype, male adult, slide mounted: “HOLÓTIPO Corethrella xokleng Amaral, Mariano & Pinho   ♂, Grão Pará, SC, BR, Rio Três Barras #11, S28º12’44” W49º27’28”, 15.XI.2012, light trap, LC Pinho, LS Gomes & AL Schlindwein”, ( MZUSP) GoogleMaps   . Allotype, adult female, slide mounted, as holotype, except: “ALÓTIPO Corethrella xokleng Amaral, Mariano & Pinho   ♀, Rio Braço Esquerdo #17, S28º09’01” W49º21’21”, 16.XI.2012 ” ( MZUSP) GoogleMaps   . Paratype: 1 adult female, slide mounted, as allotype ( UFSC)   .

Etymology. The specific epithet honors the Xokleng people, the original inhabitants of the type location, who have been brutally decimated since the beginning of colonization by those of European extraction in southern Santa Catarina state. The name is to be regarded as a noun in apposition.

Diagnostic characters. This species differs from other extant Corethrella   by the following combination of characters: Adult male: trochanter and base of hind femur paler than apex of femur, 3rd palpal segment clavate (apically expanded), 4 thick setae on frons, empodia thick, with 10 bifid branches. Adult female: Wings and legs uniformly pigmented, head rounded in dorsal view, 3rd palpal segment clavate (apically expanded), four thick setae on frons, empodia thick, with 10 bifid branches.

Description. Adult male (n=1). ( Tables 1 View TABLE 1 , 2 View TABLE 2 , Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 , 4 View FIGURE 4 A–D)

Head ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ). Rounded in anterior view. Coronal suture long, reaching ventral margin of eye bridge. Four parallel thick setae on frons. Palpus ( Fig. 4A View FIGURE 4 ) medium brown, with 3rd segment somewhat expanded apically, 5 th segment with about double the length of 4th. Clypeus ( Fig. 4B View FIGURE 4 ) square with three setae on dorsal surface. Antenna (as in Fig. 4H View FIGURE 4 ) brown with flagellomere 13 apically bifurcated. Sensilla coeloconica distributed according to table 1.

Thorax ( Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 ). Light to medium brown, with mesonotum darker, anepimeron with one seta, pale with central portion more darkly pigmented. Posterior anepisternum with incomplete diagonal suture at ventral margin. Anterior anepisternum divided in half by transversal suture. Prescutal suture long, almost reaching dorsocentral row of setae. Group of five setae on posterior portion of dorsocentral row. Katepisternum pale around ventral margin.

Wings (as in Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 ). Plain brown, with setae instead of scales on non-marginal veins. Vein R 1 somewhat bolder. Apex of R 2 basal to the one of M 1. Halter slightly lighter or same color than scutellum.

Legs ( Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 ). Uniformly medium brown, except midleg trochanter, lighter than femur and trochanter, base of hind femur lighter than apex of femur. Legs without scales. Tarsal claws equal, inserted apically. Empodia (as in Fig. 4C View FIGURE 4 ) thicker than apical setae of last tarsomeres, longer than average diameter of last tarsomeres, with 9–10 bifid branches.

Abdomen. Uniformly medium to dark brown.

Genitalia ( Figs. 3C View FIGURE 3 , 4C, D View FIGURE 4 ). Gonocoxite ( Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 ) medium to dark brown, elongate, slender; dorsal row with five setae, the first slightly thinner than the rest. 5th seta medially dislocated; one dorsomedial thicker seta, tapering from midlength. Gonostylus with constant width subtly bent subapically, with apical seta very short and thick. subbasal seta located posteroventrally at 0.2 of gonostylus, length about 0.3 of gonostylus. Aedeagus ( Fig. 4C View FIGURE 4 ) long, strongly tapering from base; margins fused near apex.

Adult female: (n=2) ( Tables 1 View TABLE 1 , 2 View TABLE 2 , Figs. 4 View FIGURE 4 E–H, 5) as for male, except:

Head ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ). Coronal suture short, ending close to dorsal margin of eye bridge. Palpus ( Fig. 4F View FIGURE 4 ) with 3rd segment clavate. Clypeus ( Fig. 4G View FIGURE 4 ) with 6–8 setae on dorsal surface. Sensilla coeloconica distributed according to table 1.

Abdomen ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 ). Medium to dark brown. Cercus equally pigmented.

Immatures. Unknown.

Distribution and biology. This species is known from three individuals (two females and one male) collected in light traps from type locality, Serra Furada State Park, in Grão Pará, SC, at elevations of 355– 354 m. Serra Furada is a region of Atlantic Forest, interspersed with large areas of Eucalyptus cultivation, near the transition to Araucaria Forest   at higher altitudes. The rivers where traps were set are gravel-bed streams, 4–6m wide and about 1m deep.

Taxonomic discussion. This species shares the synapomorphies which define the rotunda group (as designated by Borkent, 2008): wings without a pattern of pigmentation and posterior anepisternum with contiguous ventral and dorsal portions. Male flagellomere 8 shorter than both 7 and 9, wing with apex of R 2 basal to apex of M 1 and the presence of setae instead of scales on wing veins place Corethrella xokleng   sp. n. among the clade formed by C. kerrvilensis (Stone), C. remiantenalis Borkent, C. blandafemur Borkent   , C. brevivena Borkent   , and C. globosa Borkent.   Corethrella xokleng   sp. n. does not share the synapomorphies that group C. remiantenalis with C. blandafemur   or C. brevivena   with C. globosa   , respectively, suggesting it may be the sister to a clade comprised of all four of these species. Females and males of C. xokleng   sp. n. were associated by their shared pigmentation patterns on wings and legs, the collecting location, the pattern of empodia and by the 4 setae on the frons, the latter being a unique character among rotunda group.


Salem College


Embrapa Agrobiology Diazothrophic Microbial Culture Collection


Linnean Society of London


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo