Simulium (Trichodagmia) townsendi Malloch,

Hernández, L. M. & Shelley, A. J., 2005, New specific synonymies and taxonomic notes on Neotropical blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae), Zootaxa 853, pp. 1-46: 12-15

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Simulium (Trichodagmia) townsendi Malloch


Simulium (Trichodagmia) townsendi Malloch 

(Figs. 19–30, 35, 43–48, 57 – 62, 71–76, 85 – 90)

Simulium townsendi Malloch, 1912: 651  –652. HOLOTYPE Ψ, PERU: Rio Charape; 13.vii. 1911, (C.H.T.Townsend) ( USNM, no. 15306) [Examined.]

Simulium chalcocoma Knab, 1914: 85  . HOLOTYPE Ψ, PERU: Tincochchoca, 7000 ft; 10.viii. 1911, (Yale Peruvian Expedition) ( USNM, type no. 18350) [Examined.] New synonymy.

Simulium chalcocomense  [Incorrect subsequent spelling by Vargas, 1945 b: 125, cited by Vulcano (1967: 16.9) and Crosskey & Howard, 1997: 79.]

Trichodagmia ecuadoriensis Enderlein, 1934 b: 193  –194. LECTOTYPE Ψ, ECUADOR: Tambillo; 1895, (S.Otto) ( NMHU) [Synonymy by Coscarón, 1987: 38.] [Examined.] New synonymy. New type designation.

Simulium equadoriensis  [Incorrect subsequent spelling by León & Wygodzinsky, 1953: 28, cited by Crosskey & Howard (1997: 79).]

Simulium aequatoriense  [Incorrect subsequent spelling by Vargas, 1945 b: 109, cited by Crosskey & Howard (1997: 79).]

Trichodagmia latitarsis Enderlein, 1934 a: 289  . LECTOTYPE Ψ, BOLIVIA: Mapiri, Lorenzopato; 28.iv. 1903, [Without collector’s name.] ( NMHU) [Synonymy by Vargas & Díaz Nájera, 1953: 140.] [Examined.] New synonymy. New type designation.

Simulium latitarsus  [Incorrect subsequent spelling by Vargas, 1945 a: 154, cited by Crosskey & Howard (1997: 79).]

Trichodagmia strigata Enderlein, 1934 a: 290  . LECTOTYPE Ψ, PERU: Mamara; 3.1911, ( O. Garlepp) ( NMHU) [Lectotype designation by Werner, 1996 a: 251.] [Examined.] New synonymy.

Simulium (Hemicnetha) muiscorum Bueno, Moncada & Muñoz de Hoyos, 1979: 581  –591. HOLO­ TYPE ɗ, COLOMBIA: Municipio de La Calera, Departamento de Cundinamarca, Cordillera Oriental, Río Teusacá; [Without date or collector’s name.] ( ICNUC) New synonymy.

Malloch (1912) described S. townsendi  based on 10 females collected from the Rio Charape, Peru, and since then no further description has been made. We have examined the holotype and 6 female paratypes deposited in the USNM, and one female paratype in the BMNH and all are conspecific. The holotype has been dissected, as well as the paratype in the BMNH and two paratypes in the USNM, and the head, wings, legs, abdomen, and genitalia of these specimens are now mounted on four slides (Figs. 19, 20, 43, 57, 71, 85).

Two years later, Knab (1914) described S. chalcocoma  based on females collected in Tincochchoca, Peru, by the Yale Peruvian Expedition in 1911. It is not clear from the original description how many specimens of S. chalcocoma  were collected, but we have studied the holotype and one paratype deposited in the USNM. The thorax of the holotype is pinned and the head, wings, legs, and abdomen have been dissected and are now mounted on a slide (Figs. 21, 22, 44, 58, 72, 86). Since the morphology of S. chalcocoma  and S. townsendi  are the same, the two species are conspecific and the latter name becomes a junior synonym. Three species names have been treated as synonymous with S. chalcocoma  . Enderlein (1934 a) described T. ecuadoriensis  based on three syntype females collected in Ecuador, Tambillo by Otto in 1895, which are deposited in the NMHU and NM. Coscarón (1987) synonymised T. ecuadoriensis  with S. chalcocoma  without explanation. We have examined the Enderlein types and designated the female housed in the NMHU as the lectotype and the two females in the NM as paralectotypes, and labelled them accordingly. The head, wings, genitalia, and legs of the lectotype have been slide mounted, and the abdomen and hind leg of one paralectotype have been dissected and mounted on a slide. The thoracic pattern (Figs. 23, 24), structure of the cibarium (Fig. 45), and genitalia (Figs. 59, 73, 87) fall within the variation found in S. chalcocoma  , thus confirming Coscarón’s synonymy (1987), and hence S. ecuadoriense  is now a synonym of S. townsendi  . We also confirm the conspecificity of T. latitarsis  with S. chalcocoma  , recorded by Vargas & Díaz Nájera (1953), following our examination of the syntypes. Enderlein described T. latitarsis  based on various females collected from Peru (Hoch Peru = Alto Peru, Callanga, Mamara, Arequipa and Chanchamayo) and Bolivia (Mapiri, Lorenzopato and Sarampioni), which are deposited in the NMHU and SMT. We have examined 10 females in the NMHU and nine females in the SMT, which agree with the description and locality information given in Enderlein (1934 a). We have designated and labelled one of the specimens housed in the NMHU from Lorenzopato in Bolivia as the lectotype. The remaining nine females have been labelled as paralectotypes. The head, abdomen, genitalia, legs, and wing of the lectotype and two paralectotypes have been dissected and are mounted on three slides. The thoracic pattern of this species (Figs. 25, 26), the morphology of the cibarium (Fig. 46), and the structure of the genitalia (Figs. 60, 74, 88) are the same as in S. townsendi  , with which S. latitarsis  is now synonymised. The nine specimens in the SMT are conspecific and have also been labelled as paralectotypes.

Another poorly known simuliid species is T. strigata  described by Enderlein (1934 a) from five syntype females collected in Mamara (4 females) and Rosalina, Rio Urubamba (one female), Peru, which were deposited in the NMHU and SMT collections, respectively. Enderlein did not indicate the number of specimens deposited in each museum. Werner (1996 a) examined specimens of this species in the collections of both museums. She examined two syntypes in the NMHU and designated one from Mamara as the lectotype and the other from the same locality as a paralectotype. Werner (1996 b) then recorded two paralectotypes of this species in SMT, one from Rosalina and the other from Mamara. One of the original syntypes from Mamara has apparently been lost. We have examined the lectotype and three paralectotypes recorded by Werner (1996 a, b) in the two museums. We dissected the head, abdomen, wings, legs, and genitalia of the lectotype and paralectotype from NMHU and these have been mounted on two slides. The female scutal pattern of T. strigata  (Figs. 27, 28) and the morphology of the cibarium (Fig. 47) and the genitalia (Figs. 61, 75, 89) correspond to those of S. townsendi  and hence we accept both species as conspecific.

In 1979, Bueno et al. described S. muiscorum  based on several females, males, pupae, and larvae collected in Municipio de La Calera, Departmento de Cundinamarca, Cordillera Oriental, Río Teusacá, Colombia. Coscarón (1987) illustrated several structures of the female and male genitalia and the pupal gill filaments of S. muiscorum  . His drawing of the pupal gill filaments (see page 101, fig. 25 D) might be of a different species, as it shows much longer filaments than the type material we have examined (Fig. 35) and the figure given in the original description ( Bueno et al., 1979). We were unable to obtain the holotype of this species, but we studied the original description of S. muiscorum  , a paratype female pupa and topotypes identified by Dr. Munoz de Hoyos deposited in the BMNH, and one reared male and female in the AMNH collected in Cundinamarca and determined by Dr. S. Coscarón. Dissections were made of some of the specimens (See “ Material Examined ”). The female scutal pattern (Figs. 29, 30), the morphology of the cibarium (Fig. 48), leg coloration, and the structure of the genitalia (Fig. 62, 76, 90) of S. muiscorum  agree with the variation found in S. townsendi  . Consequently, we place S. muiscorum  as a junior synonym of S. townsendi  .

Variation in the size of a posterior protuberance and in setation of the more distal membranous part of the paraprocts of S. townsendi  and its synonyms may be seen in Figs. 71–76, which we are regarding as intraspecific. The apparently smaller distal membranous part of the paraprocts of S. muiscorum  is artefactual. The three specimens used were poorly preserved and partially shrunken, with only one in good enough condition to provide an image.

The above synonyms have all been based on female types. It was not possible to corroborate them with other life stages such as males, pupae, and larvae because these were only described for S. muiscorum  .

Simulium townsendi  and its synonyms have received different supraspecific treatments by various authors. Coscarón (1987) regarded S. townsendi  as a species inquirendae in the subgenus Hemicnetha  , and Crosskey & Howard (1997, 2004) placed it in the mexicanum  species group of this subgenus. Coscarón (1987) placed S. chalcocoma  in the lahillei  species group of the subgenus Grenieriella Enderlein. Coscarón (1987, 1991) and Miranda­ Esquivel & Coscarón (2001) regarded Grenieriella, Thyrsopelma  , and Trichodagmia  as valid subgenera, whereas other authorities ( Py­Daniel & Moreira Sampaio, 1995) considered them as genera. We follow Crosskey & Howard’s (1997, 2004) classification system in which Grenieriella and Thyrsopelma  are treated as junior synonyms of Trichodagmia  . Coscarón (1987) regarded S. strigatum  as species inquirendae within the subgenus Hemicnetha  , but Crosskey & Howard (1997, 2004) included it in the mexicanum  species group of this subgenus. Bueno et al. (1979) placed S. muiscorum  in the subgenus Hemicnetha  and compared it with S. mexicanum  and S. lahillei  . This placement was not followed by Coscarón (1987), who created the muiscorum  species group for S. muiscorum  in the subgenus Grenieriella. The female scutal pattern, morphology of the cibarium and genitalia fall within the variation found in species of the subgenus Trichodagmia  and we now include S. townsendi  in this subgenus.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


American Museum of Natural History














Simulium (Trichodagmia) townsendi Malloch

Hernández, L. M. & Shelley, A. J. 2005

Simulium (Hemicnetha) muiscorum Bueno, Moncada & Muñoz de Hoyos, 1979 : 581

Hoyos 1979: 581

Simulium equadoriensis

Crosskey 1997: 79
Leon 1953: 28

Simulium chalcocomense

Crosskey 1997: 79
Vulcano 1967: 16.9
Vargas 1945: 125

Simulium aequatoriense

Crosskey 1997: 79
Vargas 1945: 109

Simulium latitarsus

Crosskey 1997: 79
Vargas 1945: 154

Trichodagmia ecuadoriensis

Coscaron 1987: 38
Enderlein 1934: 193

Trichodagmia latitarsis

Vargas 1953: 140
Enderlein 1934: 289

Trichodagmia strigata

Werner 1996: 251
Enderlein 1934: 290

Simulium chalcocoma

Knab 1914: 85

Simulium townsendi

Malloch 1912: 651