Simulium (Psilopelmia) quadrivittatum Loew,

Hernández, L. M. & Shelley, A. J., 2005, New specific synonymies and taxonomic notes on Neotropical blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae), Zootaxa 853, pp. 1-46: 10-11

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Simulium (Psilopelmia) quadrivittatum Loew


Simulium (Psilopelmia) quadrivittatum Loew 

(Figs. 17, 18)

Simulium quadrivittatum Loew, 1862: 186  . LECTOTYPE Ψ, CUBA; [Collection date unknown.], (Gundlach) ( MCZH, cat. No. 12533). [Lectotype designation by Shelley et al., 1989: 106 – 107.] [Examined.]

Wilhelmia mallochi Enderlein 1925: 208  . LECTOTYPE Ψ, COSTA RICA: La Palma, 6.v. [Collection year unknown.], (Biolley) ( USNM, cat. No. 8998, type no. 41595) [Lectotype designation by Shelley et al., 1989: 106 –107.] [Examined.] [Synonymy by Vargas, 1945 b: 189.] Simulium fairchildi  Vargas, 1942: 458. LECTOTYPE Ψ, PANAMA: Juan Mina Station, Rio Chagres, 8.xi. 1939, (G.B. Fairchild) ( MCZH) [Lectotype designation by Shelley et al., 1989: 106 –107.] [Examined.] [Replacement name for S. haematopotum Malloch sensu Fairchild, 

1940: 714 – 715.] [Synonymised with S. quadrivittatum by Fairchild, 1943: 574.]

Simulium quadrivittatum  was described by Loew (1862) from females collected from Cuba, with no details of the number of specimens examined or depository. Smart (1940) stated that the type must be deposited in the NMHU in Berlin. In a subsequent paper Smart (1942) cited a letter from Mr. C.T. Parsons informing him “like all Loew’s New World types, the type of quadrivittatum  is in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. There are two cotypes on one pin, labelled “ Cuba, Gundlach.” Shelley et al. (1989) dealt with this taxonomic problem and designated a lectotype and paralectotype based on these two syntype females in the MCZ.

We have examined two females deposited in the NMHU and their data labels largely agree with the information on the type specimens given in Shelley et al. (1989) for S. quadrivittatum  (see “ Material Examined ”), except that the collector’s name “Gundlach” does not appear. Both specimens have an orange “ typus ” label indicating that they were regarded as primary types by an unknown reviser (see also S. latidigitus  under S. tarsatum  ). One of the specimens bears a label in Enderlein’s hand “ Friesia quadrivittata  Ψ Type ( Loew 1862)” and printed at the bottom of the label “Dr. Enderlein det. 1924 ”. This specimen was obviously regarded as a type specimen by Enderlein (1929) when he treated some species of the genus Friesia  , now a synonym of Simulium Latreille  s.str. ( Crosskey & Howard, 1997, 2004). Therefore, we accept these two specimens as part of the type series of S. quadrivittatum  and paralectotype labels have been attached to them.

The thoracic pattern of the female S. quadrivittaum  is unique in that the sub­median pruinose bands show a constriction at the posterior border of the cunae (irrespective of light direction) (Figs. 17, 18), which readily distinguishes it from S. haematopotum Malloch  and similarly ornamented species of the amazonicum  group ( Shelley et al., 2002). A full description of all life stages of S. quadrivittatum  is given by Shelley et al. (1989, 2002).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Museum of Comparative Zoology














Simulium (Psilopelmia) quadrivittatum Loew

Hernández, L. M. & Shelley, A. J. 2005

Wilhelmia mallochi

Shelley 1989: 106
Shelley 1989: 106
Vargas 1945: 189
Vargas 1942: 458
Enderlein 1925: 208

Simulium quadrivittatum

Shelley 1989: 106
Loew 1862: 186